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²ÇÓÀËÜͲ ÅËÅÌÅÍÒÈ ÒÀ ¯Õ ÔÓÍÊÖ²ÎÍÀËÜÍÀ ÐÎËÜ Ó ÒÅÊÑÒÀÕ ÑÓ×ÀÑÍÈÕ ÀÍÃËÎÌÎÂÍÈÕ ÍÀÓÊÎÂÈÕ ÑÒÀÒÅÉ

ドキュメント内 772_a.p65 (ページ 87-94)

ßõîíòîâà Ò.Â., êàíä. ô³ëîë. íàóê (Ëüâ³â)

íîì, â ÿêîìó ñëîâåñíèé òà çîáðàæàëüíèé êîìïîíåíòè óòâîðþþòü “îäíå â³çóàëüíå, ñòðóêòóðíå, ñìèñëîâå ò³ ôóíêö³îíàëüíå ö³ëå, ùî çàáåçïå÷óº éîãî êîìïëåêñíèé ïðàãìàòè÷íèé âïëèâ íà àäðåñàòà” [5: 73].

Ïðîöåñ åêñïë³êàö³¿ â³çóàëüíèõ åëåìåíò³â ó òåêñò³ â³äáóâàºòüñÿ äâîìà ñïîñîáàìè – àáî áåçïîñåðåäíüî ó ïðèñâÿ÷åíèõ ¿ì ôðàçîâèõ ôðàãìåíòàõ, àáî øëÿõîì ïî-ñèëàííÿ íà çàñ³á óíàî÷íåííÿ ó äóæêàõ. Ïî ñóò³, âåðáàëü-íèé ñóïðîâ³ä â³çóàëüíîãî åëåìåíòó º éîãî ìåòàòåêñòî-âèì êîìåíòàðåì, ùî âèêîíóº ³íòåãðàòèâíó ôóíêö³þ, îá’ºäíóþ÷è äâ³ ñåì³îòè÷í³ ñèñòåìè â ºäèíèé ³íôîðìà-òèâíî-êîìóí³êàòèâíèé êîìïëåêñ. Öÿ ³íòåãðàö³ÿ çä³éñíþºòüñÿ øëÿõîì âñòàíîâëåííÿ ñåìàíòè÷íèõ çâ’ÿçê³â, ÿê³ íà ìîâíîìó ð³âí³ ðåàë³çóþòüñÿ êð³çü ìåòà-òåêñòîâ³ êë³øå, ïðîñòîðîâèé äåéêñèñ, ôðàçè-ëîã³÷í³ çâ’ÿçêè, ïåâí³ ñìèñëîâ³ òèïè 䳺ñë³â. Ñâîºð³äíèì ì³ñòêîì, ç’ºäíóâàëüíîþ ëàíêîþ ì³æ â³çóàëüíèì çàñî-áîì òà éîãî âåðáàëüíèì òåêñòîâèì “àêîìïàíåìåíòîì”

ñëóãóº ï³äïèñ ï³ä àáî íàä åëåìåíòîì óíàî÷íåííÿ, ÿêèé âñòàíîâëþº áåçïîñåðåäí³é çâ’ÿçîê ì³æ ð³çíîêîäîâèìè ñêëàäîâèìè òåêñòó, ñïðèÿº ³íòåðàêö³¿ ñåì³îòè÷íèõ ñèñ-òåì ó ìåãàòåêñò³ íàóêîâîãî òâîðó.

Ìåòà òà êîðïóñ äîñë³äæåííÿ. ßê æå â³çóàëüí³ çà-ñîáè ôóíêö³îíóþòü ó òåêñòàõ ð³çíèõ ãàëóçåé íàóêîâîãî çíàííÿ? Õî÷à ëîã³÷íî ïðèïóñòèòè, ùî âîíè º ÷àñòîòí³-øèìè ó òåêñòàõ ïðèðîäíè÷èõ äèñöèïë³í, óñå æ çàãàëü-íîâ³äîìî, ùî âîíè òðàïëÿþòüñÿ ³ ó ãóìàí³òàðíèõ ïðà-öÿõ. Îòæå, ìåòîþ ö³º¿ ñòàòò³ º ïîð³âíÿëüíèé àíàë³ç ôóíê-ö³îíóâàííÿ â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó äâîõ ð³çíèõ çà ñâîºþ çàãàëüíîþ ³äåîëî㳺þ òà ìåòîäîëî㳺þ äèñöèïë³íàõ – ïðèêëàäí³é ìàòåìàòèö³ òà ïðèêëàäí³é ë³íãâ³ñòèö³. Äî-ñë³äæåííÿ ïðîâåäåíî íà îñíîâ³ ï’ÿòäåñÿòè ñòàòåé ç ïðè-êëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè òà òàêî¿ æ ñàìî¿ ê³ëüêîñò³ òåêñò³â ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè, íàïèñàíèõ àíãë³éñüêîþ ìîâîþ òà îïóáë³êîâàíèõ ó âèñîêîðåéòèíãîâèõ ì³æíàðîäíèõ æóðíàëàõ â³äïîâ³äíîãî òåìàòè÷íîãî ïðîô³ëþ ó 1995-2004 ðîêàõ. Óñ³ ïðîàíàë³çîâàí³ òåêñòè íàëåæàòü äî æàí-ðó æóðíàëüíî¿ ñòàòò³-çâ³òó ïðî ïðîâåäåíå äîñë³äæåííÿ êîíêðåòíîãî õàðàêòåðó.

ʳëüê³ñí³ ðåçóëüòàòè. ßê ïîêàçàâ íàø àíàë³ç, â³çó-àëüí³ åëåìåíòè ï³êòîðàëüíîãî òà àáñòðàêòíî-ãðàô³÷íî-ãî õàðàêòåðó ïðèñóòí³ â îáîõ äèñöèïë³íàõ, õî÷à, ÿê ìîæ-íà áóëî î÷³êóâàòè, ³ â ð³çí³é ê³ëüêîñò³. Ó òåêñòàõ ç ïðè-êëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè ñóìàðíî çàô³êñîâàíî 370 â³çóàëü-íèõ çàñîá³â, ùî ñòàíîâèòü ó ñåðåäíüîìó 7.4 åëåìåíòè íà ñòàòòþ. Ðàçîì ç òèì ó ñóáêîðïóñ³ º íåçíà÷íà ê³ëüê³ñòü òåêñò³â (5), â ÿêèõ íåìຠæîäíîãî çàñîáó â³çóàë³çàö³¿.

Öå, î÷åâèäíî, ïîâ’ÿçàíî ç îñîáëèâîñòÿìè òåìàòèêè ñòà-òåé òà â³äïîâ³äíèì ïðîô³ëåì æóðíàë³â (ëèøå äâîõ), â Âñòóï. гçíîìàí³òí³ â³çóàëüí³ åëåìåíòè (ôîòîãðàô³¿,

ðèñóíêè, òàáëèö³, ãðàô³êè, ä³àãðàìè) º âàæëèâèìè êîí-ñòèòóåíòàìè òåêñò³â ñó÷àñíèõ íàóêîâèõ ñòàòåé. ¯õ çà-ãàëüíà ðîëü ïîëÿãຠó ïðåçåíòàö³¿ òà óçàãàëüíåíí³ íàó-êîâî¿ ³íôîðìàö³¿ ó ñêîíäåíñîâàíîìó âèãëÿä³. Ðàçîì ç òèì ôóíêö³ÿ â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â íå º ëèøå ³ëþñòðàòèâíîþ:

â³çóàëüí³ îáðàçè ââàæàþòüñÿ îäíîþ ç ôîðì íàóêîâîãî ìèñëåííÿ, à ïîíÿòòÿ íàóêè, íà äóìêó àìåðèêàíñüêîãî äîñë³äíèêà Äæ. Ëåìêå, º ñåì³îòè÷íèìè ã³áðèäàìè, ùî âêëþ÷àþòü ÿê âåðáàëüí³, òàê ³ â³çóàëüí³ êîìïîíåíòè.

³äïîâ³äíî íàóêà îá’ºäíóº ó ñîá³ ñëîâåñíèé äèñêóðñ, ãðàô³÷íî-â³çóàëüí³ ðåïðåçåíòàö³¿, à òàêîæ ìàòåìàòè÷íå âèðàæåííÿ [1: 87].

Òàêà îñîáëèâ³ñòü ôîðìóâàííÿ é ³ñíóâàííÿ íàóêîâî-ãî çíàííÿ ïîâ’ÿçàíà ÿê ç îñîáëèâîñòÿìè íàóêîâî-àáñò-ðàêòíîãî ìèñëåííÿ, òàê ³ ç³ ñïåöèô³êîþ ìîâè ÿê ñåì³î-òè÷íîãî ðåñóðñó. ßê íàãîëîøóº Ëåìêå, âîíà º íåïåðå-âåðøåíèì çàñîáîì äëÿ âèðàæåííÿ â³äì³ííîñòåé òà çâ’ÿçê³â, à òàêîæ äëÿ ôîðìóëþâàííÿ êàòåãîð³àëüíèõ äè-ñòèíêö³é, àëå íàáàãàòî ñëàáøèì ðåñóðñîì äëÿ ïðåçåí-òàö³¿ ê³ëüêîñò³, ñòóïåíÿ, ãðàäàö³¿, ïðîïîðö³éíîñò³, íå-ë³í³éíèõ ñòîñóíê³â, òîáòî òîïîëîã³÷íèõ âèì³ð³â ñìèñëó [1: 87]. ³çóàëüí³ æ åëåìåíòè çäàòí³ åôåêòèâíî àáñòðà-ãóâàòè çàâäÿêè ñâî¿é ³êîí³÷í³é ïðèðîä³ ñàì³ ð³çí³ ñóòòºâ³ ìîìåíòè îòðèìàíèõ íàóêîâèõ ðåçóëüòàò³â òà ïðåäñòàâ-ëÿòè ¿õ ó ñòèñëîìó âèãëÿä³, ùî íàäຠçìîãó ÷³òêî

ïîáà-÷èòè âèÿâëåí³ îñîáëèâîñò³, çàêîíîì³ðíîñò³ àáî òåí-äåíö³¿. Îòæå, â³çóàë³çàö³ÿº ³íãåðåíòíèì àñïåêòîì ïî-ðîäæåííÿ íàóêîâîãî çíàííÿ ³ îðãàí³÷íèì çàñîáîì éîãî ïîäàííÿ ó êîìá³íàö³¿ ç âåðáàëüíèì äèñêóðñîì. Âçàºìî-ä³ÿ â³çóàëüíîãî ³ âåðáàëüíîãî ó íàóêîâîìó òåêñò³ ñòâî-ðþº éîãî îñîáëèâèé ³íôîðìàòèâíèé òà êîìóí³êàòèâíèé ïîòåíö³àë, ÿêèé, íà äóìêó áàãàòüîõ äîñë³äíèê³â (äèâ., íàïðèêëàä, [2-4]) çíà÷íî ïåðåâèùóº ìîæëèâîñò³ ñëîâåñ-íîãî âèðàæåííÿ.

Âèçíàííÿ îñîáëèâî¿, êîíñòèòóòèâíî¿ ðîë³ â³çóàë³-çàö³¿ ó íàóêîâèõ òåêñòàõ ïðèìóøóº ï³ä³éòè ç øèðøèõ ïîçèö³é äî òðàêòóâàííÿ ¿õ ïðèðîäè. Òàê, Äæ. Ëåìêå ââà-æຠíàóêîâ³ æàíðè ìóëüòèìåä³éíèìè, òîìó ùî âîíè ïîºäíóþòü ó ñîá³ ð³çí³ ñåì³îòè÷í³ çàñîáè ïåðåäà÷³ íàó-êîâî¿ ³íôîðìàö³¿ [1: 87]. Îñòàíí³ì ÷àñîì â ë³òåðàòóð³ ìîæíà çóñòð³òè ³ òåðì³í “ìóëüòèìîäàëüíèé”

(multimodal), ùî àíàëîã³÷íî õàðàêòåðèçóº íàóêîâèé òâ³ð ÿê ³íòåðàêòèâíå ïîºäíàííÿ ð³çíèõ ñåì³îòè÷íèõ ñèñòåì.

Íàóêîâ³ òåêñòè íàçèâàþòü òàêîæ ïîë³êîäîâèìè, êîäîâî íåãîìîãåííèìè àáî êðåîë³çîâàíèìè ç îãëÿäó íà òå, ùî â ¿õ ñòðóêòóðóâàíí³ çàä³ÿí³ êîäè ð³çíèõ çíàêîâèõ ñèñ-òåì [3-5]. ßê ñëóøíî çàçíà÷ຠª. ª. Àí³ñ³ìîâà, êðåîë³-çîâàíèé òåêñò º îñîáëèâèì ë³íãâîâ³çóàëüíèì

ôåíîìå-ÿêèõ âîíè îïóáë³êîâàí³.  óñ³õ ñòàòòÿõ, ïðîòå, àê-òèâíî ôóíêö³îíóþòü ÷èñëåíí³ ìàòåìàòè÷í³ âèðàçè, ÿê³ ìè íå áóäåìî òóò ðîçãëÿäàòè â ñèëó ¿õ ñïåöèô³êè òà ïðè-òàìàííîñò³ ïåðåäóñ³ì ìàòåìàòè÷íèì òåêñòàì.

Ó ë³íãâ³ñòè÷íèõ òåêñòàõ çàãàëüíà ê³ëüê³ñòü â³çóàëü-íèõ åëåìåíò³â º ïîì³òíî ìåíøîþ: òóò çàô³êñîâàíî óñüî-ãî 154 çàñîáè óíàî÷íåííÿ. Òèì íå ìåíøå öå ñòàíîâèòü äîñòàòíþ ñåðåäíþ ê³ëüê³ñòü (3.1), ùî ïðèïàäຠíà îäíó ñòàòòþ. Ö³êàâî, ùî ê³ëüê³ñòü òåêñò³â áåç æîäíîãî â³çó-àëüíîãî çàñîáó º òóò, ÿê ³ â êîðïóñ³ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìà-òèêè, íåâåëèêîþ: óñüîãî 8 ñòàòåéº ñóòî “âåðáàëüíèìè”,

ïðè÷îìó òðàïëÿþòüñÿ âîíè ó ö³ëêîì ð³çíèõ æóðíàëàõ.

Ìîæíà ïðèïóñòèòè, ùî â³äñóòí³ñòü ó íèõ â³çóàëüíèõ åëå-ìåíò³â ïîâ’ÿçàíà ç ³íäèâ³äóàëüíèìè ïðåôåðåíö³ÿìè àâ-òîð³â, ðàäøå í³æ ç ïåâíèìè æóðíàëüíèìè êîíâåíö³ÿìè.

Çàãàëîì ïîì³òíà ÷àñòîòí³ñòü â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â â óñüî-ìó êîðïóñ³ êîðåëþº ç õàðàêòåðîì òåìàòèêè æàíðó ñòàòò³-çâ³òó, â ÿê³é öåíòðàëüíå ì³ñöå çàéìຠïðåçåíòàö³ÿ òà àíàë³ç îòðèìàíèõ ó ðåçóëüòàò³ äîñë³äæåííÿ äàíèõ

Ùîäî âèä³â â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â, òî ¿õ ê³ëüê³ñòü â îáîõ ñóáêîðïóñàõ âèÿâèëàñÿ äîñèòü îáìåæåíîþ, ÿê öå ìîæ-íà ïîáà÷èòè ó Òàáëèö³ 1.

Òàáëèöÿ 1 Âèäè â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â òà ¿õ ê³ëüê³ñíèé ðîçïîä³ë ó ñòàòòÿõ

Âèäè â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ʳëüê³ñòü ó ñòàòòÿõ ʳëüê³ñòü ó ñòàòòÿõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè

Ãðàô³êè 222 (60%) 7 (5%)

Ðèñóíêè 94 (25%) 40 (26%)

Òàáëèö³ 54 (15%) 107 (69%)

Ðàçîì 370 (100%) 154 (100%)

Ó ñòàòòÿõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè áåççàïåðå÷íè-ìè ë³äåðàáåççàïåðå÷íè-ìè çà êâàíòèòàòèâíèáåççàïåðå÷íè-ìè ïîêàçíèêàáåççàïåðå÷íè-ìè º ãðàô³-êè (222, àáî 60%), à “àóòñàéäåðàìè” – òàáëèö³ (54, àáî 15%). Äîì³íóâàííÿ ñàìå ãðàô³ê³â, î÷åâèäíî, ïîâ’ÿçàíî ç íåîáõ³äí³ñòþ åêîíîìíîãî ïîêàçó âåëèêèõ ìàñèâ³â âçàº-ìîçàëåæíèõ äàíèõ, ÿê³, íà äóìêó äîñë³äíèê³â (äèâ., íà-ïðèêëàä [6: 115]), ö³ åëåìåíòè àáñòðàãóþòü òà ïðåäñòàâ-ëÿþòü íàéåôåêòèâí³øå.

Ó ñòàòòÿõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè, íàâïàêè,

ïðå-âàëþþòü òàáëèö³ (107, àáî 69%) – íàéá³ëüø “âåðáàë³-çîâàí³” ³ íàéëåãø³ çà ïîáóäîâîþ â³çóàëüí³ çàñîáè, à ãðàô³ê³â âèêîðèñòàíî íàéìåíøå (7, àáî 5%). ʳëüê³ñí³ ïîêàçíèêè âæèâàííÿ ð³çíèõ â³çóàëüíèõ åëåìåíò³â â îáîõ äèñöèïë³íàõ ìîæíà òðàêòóâàòè ÿê ñâ³ä÷åííÿ ïðîÿâó äèñ-öèïë³íàðíî-çóìîâëåíèõ äèñêóðñèâíèõ òåíäåíö³é.

Íàäçâè÷àéíî ïîêàçîâîþ º ëîêàë³çàö³ÿ â³çóàëüíèõ åëåìåíò³â ó ñòðóêòóðíèõ ÷àñòèíàõ ñòàòåé, ÿêó ïîêàçàíî ó Òàáëèö³ 2.

Òàáëèöÿ 2 ʳëüê³ñíèé ðîçïîä³ë â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó ñòðóêòóðíèõ ÷àñòèíàõ ñòàòåé

Âèä ñòðóêòóðíî¿ ÷àñòèíè ʳëüê³ñòü ó ñòàòòÿõ ʳëüê³ñòü ó ñòàòòÿõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè

Âñòóï 17 (5%) 10 (7%)

Ôîðìóëþâàííÿ çàäà÷³ 52 (14%) —

Ìåòîäè äîñë³äæåííÿ 3 (á³ëÿ 1%) 8 (5%)

Ðåçóëüòàòè òà ¿õ îáãîâîðåííÿ 289 (78%) 133 (86%)

Âèñíîâêè 9 (2%) 3 (2%)

Ðàçîì 370 (100%) 154 (100%)

ßê ìîæíà ïðèïóñòèòè, â³çóàëüí³ çàñîáè ïîâèíí³

íàé-÷àñò³øå ç’ÿâëÿòèñÿ òàì, äå ïðåçåíòóþòüñÿ òà îáãîâîðþ-þòüñÿ îòðèìàí³ íàóêîâ³ ðåçóëüòàòè (òîáòî ó ñåêö³ÿõ “Ðå-çóëüòàòè”, “Îáãîâîðåííÿ” àáî ó äîäàòêàõ, äå ïðèéíÿòî íàâîäèòè äåòàëüí³øó ³íôîðìàö³þ ïðî îäåðæàí³ äàí³).

ijéñíî, ÿê ïîêàçóº Òàáëèöÿ 2, ïåðåâàæíà ÷àñòèíà â³çó-àëüíèõ çàñîá³â ôóíêö³îíóº ñàìå ó òàêèõ ÷àñòèíàõ, äî-ñÿãàþ÷è 78% â³ä óñ³º¿ ê³ëüêîñò³ çàô³êñîâàíèõ åëåìåíò³â óíàî÷íåííÿ ó òåêñòàõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè òà 86%

ó ë³íãâ³ñòè÷íèõ ñòàòòÿõ. Íàáàãàòî ö³êàâ³øå, îäíàê, òå, ùî çàñîáè â³çóàë³çàö³¿ òðàïëÿþòüñÿ ³ â ³íøèõ ñòðóêòóð-íèõ ÷àñòèíàõ ñòàòåé, íåõàé ³ íå ó çíà÷í³é ê³ëüêîñò³. ßêà

æ ¿õ ðîëü ó òàêèõ íåî÷³êóâàíèõ äëÿ äàíîãî âèïàäêó òåê-ñòîâèõ ïîçèö³ÿõ?

Ôóíêö³îíàëüí³ îñîáëèâîñò³ â³çóàëüíèõ åëå-ìåíò³â. ßê ïîêàçóº àíàë³ç, ôóíêö³ÿ â³çóàëüíèõ åëåìåíò³â ó âñòóïàõ ñòàòåé ïîëÿãຠâ óçàãàëüíåíí³ ïîïåðåäíüîãî çíàííÿ, íà ÿêå ïîñèëàºòüñÿ àâòîð, éîãî ïðåçåíòàö³¿ ó ñêîíäåíñîâàíîìó, çðó÷íîìó äëÿ ñïðèéíÿòòÿ âèãëÿä³. Öå â³äáóâàºòüñÿ íàé÷àñò³øå ó âèãëÿä³ ñõåìàòèçîâàíèõ ðè-ñóíê³â, õî÷à òóò ìîæíà çóñòð³òè é ³íø³ â³çóàëüí³ çàñî-áè: íàïðèêëàä, â îäíîìó ç ìàòåìàòè÷íèõ æóðíàë³â âñòóï äî ñòàòò³ ì³ñòèòü òàáëèöþ, â ÿê³é çâåäåí³ äàí³ ïî ë³òå-ðàòóð³, ïðèñâÿ÷åí³é âèâ÷åííþ ïåâíî¿ ïðîáëåìàòèêè.

Ïðèáëèçíî æ òàêó ðîëü âèêîíóþòü ³ íàî÷í³ åëåìåí-òè ó ñåêö³ÿõ, äå ôîðìóëþºòüñÿ çàäà÷à àáî îïèñóºòüñÿ ìåòîäèêà äîñë³äæåííÿ: òóò âæèâàþòüñÿ âèêëþ÷íî ðè-ñóíêè, ÿê³ óíàî÷íþþòü îïèñóâàíèé ïðîöåñ, äîçâîëÿþòü ïîáà÷èòè éîãî ó ö³ë³ñíîìó âèãëÿä³, òîáòî åôåêòèâíî âïëèâàþòü íà ïåðöåïòèâí³ ïðîöåñè ÷èòà÷³â. Ùîäî â³çó-àëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó âèñíîâêàõ, òî òóò ìåòîþ ¿õ âæèâàííÿ º äîäàòêîâå âèñâ³òëåííÿ íàéö³êàâ³øèõ ç òî÷êè çîðó àâòî-ðà ñòàòò³ ìîìåíò³â, íàãîëîøåííÿ íà íàéâàæëèâ³øèõ ðåçóëüòàòàõ, íàî÷íàïðåçåíòàö³ÿ ÿêèõ ï³äñèëþº êîìóí³-êàòèâí³ ³íòåíö³¿ òà íàóêîâ³ ïîçèö³¿ àâòîðà. Çàãàëîì ôóíê-ö³îíóâàííÿ â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó òàêèõ “íåñòàíäàðòíèõ”

äëÿ íèõ òåêñòîâèõ ÷àñòèíàõ, ÿê âñòóï àáî âèñíîâêè, ñâ³ä÷èòü ïðî âàæëèâ³ñòü ¿õ ðîë³ ó ôîðìóâàíí³ äèñêóðñó

³ æàíðîâî¿ ñïåöèô³êè òåêñò³â ç îáîõ äèñöèïë³í, çíà÷åí-íÿ â³çóàëüíî¿ ñåì³îòèêè äëÿ ôîðìóâàíçíà÷åí-íÿ ³ ïðåçåíòàö³¿

çíàííÿ ó öèõ íàóêîâèõ ãàëóçÿõ.

Âàæëèâîþ ðèñîþ ôóíêö³îíóâàííÿ â³çóàëüíèõ åëå-ìåíò³â ó íàóêîâèõ òåêñòàõ º ¿õíÿ âçàºìîä³ÿ ç âåðáàëü-íèì êîíòåêñòîì. ßê âæå çàçíà÷àëîñÿ âèùå, ñëîâåñíà åêñïë³êàö³ÿ åëåìåíò³â óíàî÷íåííÿ ñïðÿìîâàíà íà ïîëåã-øåííÿ ñïðèéíÿòòÿ â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â, ñïðèÿííÿ ³íòåã-ðàö³¿ öèõ åëåìåíò³â ó âåðáàëüíå îòî÷åííÿ, ñòâîðåííÿ óìîâ äëÿ óñï³øíî¿ âçàºìî䳿 äâîõ ñåì³îòè÷íèõ ñèñòåì òà çàáåçïå÷åííÿ ñèíåðãåòè÷íîãî åôåêòó ìóëüòèìîäàëü-íîñò³, ïðèòàìàííîãî íàóêîâèì òåêñòàì. Âåðáàëüíà

“ï³äòðèìêà” â³çóàëüíîãî çàñîáó º êîìåíòàðåì ìåòàêî-ìóí³êàòèâíîãî õàðàêòåðó äî ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ ó íàî÷íîìó âèãëÿä³ äàíèõ, ö³ëÿìè ÿêîãî (îêð³ì çàãàëüíî¿

“êåðóþ-÷ ðîë³), íà äóìêó àìåðèêàíñüêèõ àâòîð³â Äæ. Ñâåéë-çà òà Ê. Ô³ê, ìîæóòü áóòè: âèñâ³òëåííÿ ðåçóëüòàò³â;

îö³íêà ñòàíäàðòíèõ òåîð³é òà óÿâëåíü â ¿õ ñâ³òë³; ïî-ð³âíÿííÿ ³ ç³ñòàâëåííÿ îòðèìàíèõ äàíèõ; îö³íêà âàë³ä-íîñò³ ðåçóëüòàò³â ç îãëÿäó íà çàñòîñîâàíó ìåòîäèêó äî-ñë³äæåííÿ; îáãîâîðåííÿ ¿õïîòåíö³éíèõ íàñë³äê³â, à òà-êîæ ³íø³ ïîä³áí³ ôóíêö³¿ [7: 113]. ßê çàçíà÷àþòü ò³ æ àâòîðè, êîìåíòàð³ äàíèõ òÿæ³þòü äî â³äíîñíî ñòåðåî-òèïíî¿ ôóíêö³îíàëüíî-ñìèñëîâî¿ îðãàí³çàö³¿, ùî

âêëþ-÷ຠòàê³ åëåìåíòè, ÿê: 1) çàçíà÷åííÿ ëîêàë³çàö³¿ äàíèõ òà/àáî ¿õ êîðîòêèé ï³äñóìîê; 2) âèñâ³òëåííÿ íàéö³êàâ³-øèõ äàíèõ, ¿õ óçàãàëüíåííÿ; 3) îáãîâîðåííÿ íàñë³äê³â, ïîâ’ÿçàíèõ íèìè ïðîáëåì, âèíÿòê³â ³ ò.ä. [7: 116].

dzñòàâëåííÿ ðèòîðè÷íî¿ îðãàí³çàö³¿ êîìåíòàð³â â îáîõ ñóáêîðïóñàõ äèñöèïë³í ïîêàçóº çàãàëîì äîáðå óç-ãîäæåííÿ ç ìîäåëëþ, çàïðîïîíîâàíîþ àìåðèêàíñüêè-ìè àâòîðààìåðèêàíñüêè-ìè. Çàçíà÷èìî, îäíàê, ùî öå ñòîñóºòüñÿ ïåðå-äóñ³ì êîìåíòóâàííÿ ãðàô³ê³â òà òàáëèöü, ùî ïðåäñòàâ-ëÿþòü äàí³, îòðèìàí³ àâòîðàìè ñòàòåé ó ñâî¿õ äîñë³ä-æåííÿõ. Äåùî ³íøå âèãëÿäຠñìèñëîâà îðãàí³çàö³ÿ îïèñ³â ðèñóíê³â: âîíà ìຠá³ëüø äåñêðèïòèâíèé õàðàê-òåð ³ âêëþ÷àº, ÿê ïðàâèëî, òðàäèö³éíèé ìåòàòåêñòîâèé åëåìåíò, ùî ëîêàë³çóº ðèñóíîê ó òåêñò³, çà ÿêèì ñë³äóº ñòèñëèé îïèñ öüîãî â³çóàëüíîãî çàñîáó. Õî÷à ðèñóíêè º âàæëèâèìè êîìïîíåíòàìè ñòàòåé, ùî âèðàçíî óíàî÷-íþþòü ð³çí³ îᒺêòè äîñë³äæåííÿ àáî çàñòîñîâàí³ ó

íüî-ìó ìîäåë³, óñå æ êîìåíòóâàííÿ ñàìå íîâèõ ðåçóëüòàò³â, ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ â àáñòðàêòíî-ãðàô³÷í³é ôîðì³, ñòàíîâèòü íàéá³ëüøèé ³íòåðåñ. Îòæå, çîñåðåäèìîñü äàë³ íà àíàë³ç³ ñàìå òàêèõ êîìåíòàð³â.

Óñ³ âîíè, ÿê ïîêàçóþòü íàø³ ñïîñòåðåæåííÿ, ì³ñòÿòü

“ëîêàë³çàö³éíèé” êîìïîíåíò, ùî ó ïåðåâàæí³é ê³ëüêîñò³ âèïàäê³â ÿâëÿº ñîáîþ êë³øîâàíó ìåòàòåêñòîâó ôðàçó, ÿêîþ íàé÷àñò³øå ³ ðîçïî÷èíàºòüñÿ êîìåíòàð. ßê

çàçíà-÷àþòü Äæ. Ñâåéëç òà Ê. Ô³ê, òàê³ ôðàçè ìîæóòü áóòè

³íôîðìàòèâíèìè àáî ³íäèêàòèâíèìè, çàëåæíî â³ä òîãî, íàçèâàþòü âîíè ãîëîâí³ ðåçóëüòàòè ÷è ëèøå âêàçóþòü íà íèõ [7: 116]. Ó òåêñòàõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè òà ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè âèêîðèñòîâóþòüñÿ ëîêàë³çàö³éí³ ôðàçè îáîõ âèä³â, áåç ÿâíèõ ïðåôåðåíö³é, íàïðèêëàä:

(1) Figure 4 shows the maximum pointwise errors versus ε for the composite approximations [1: 75];

(2) The results presented in Table 1 indicate that a total of 100 instances of direct academic conflict as opposed to nine cases of indirect academic conflict were recorded in Block A … [2: 378].

Ïðèêëàä (1) º ³íäèêàòèâíèì ëîêàë³çàö³éíèì åëåìåí-òîì, ùî ëèøå îêðåñëþº õàðàêòåð äàíèõ, ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ ó â³çóàëüíîìó çàñîá³, â òîé ÷àñ ÿê ó íàñòóïíîìó ìåòà-òåêñòîâîìó ôðàãìåíò³ ïîäàºòüñÿ äåòàëüí³øà ³íôîðìà-ö³ÿ ïðî àíàë³çîâàí³ ðåçóëüòàòè. Õàðàêòåðíèì ìîâíèì ìàðêåðîì òàêèõ ³íôîðìàòèâíèõ âñòóïíèõ ôðàç äî êî-ìåíòàð³â º íàÿâí³ñòü ñïîëó÷íèêà that, ùî óâîäèòü ï³äðÿäíå ðå÷åííÿ, ÿêå åêñïë³êóº ãîëîâí³ ðåçóëüòàòè. Ñë³ä çàçíà÷èòè, îäíàê, ùî ³íôîðìàòèâí³ ëîêàë³çàö³éí³ åëå-ìåíòè íå äóæå õàðàêòåðí³ äëÿ òåêñò³â àíàë³çîâàíèõ ñòà-òåé, äå ïðåâàëþþòü ³íäèêàòèâí³ âñòóïè äî òåêñòîâî îᒺìíèõ êîìåíòàð³â â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â. Ìîæíà ïðè-ïóñòèòè, ùî ³íôîðìàòèâí³ ëîêàë³çàö³éí³ åëåìåíòè ïî-âèíí³ ÷àñò³øå òðàïëÿòèñÿ ñàìå ó êîðîòêèõ îïèñàõ â³çó-àëüíî ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ ðåçóëüòàò³â.

Ðîçãëÿäàþ÷è ìîâíî-ôóíêö³îíàëüí³ îñîáëèâîñò³ âñòóïíèõ åëåìåíò³â, ùî ëîêàë³çóþòü òàáëèö³ àáî ãðàô³-êè ó òåêñòàõ ñòàòåé, ñë³ä îñîáëèâî â³äçíà÷èòè ¿õ íàä-çâè÷àéíî ñòåðåîòèïíèé, êë³øîâàíèé õàðàêòåð. ³í ïðî-ÿâëÿº ñåáå, ïî-ïåðøå, â îáìåæåíîñò³ íàáîðó ñèíòàêñè÷-íèõ êîíñòðóêö³é, ùî âêëþ÷ຠòðè äîì³íàíòí³ ìîäåë³:

1) ðå÷åííÿ ç íàçâîþ â³çóàëüíîãî çàñîáó â ÿêîñò³ ï³äìå-òà ï³äìå-òà 䳺ñëîâîì-ïðèñóäêîì â àêòèâíîìó ñï³äìå-òàí³ (íàïðèê-ëàä, “Table 1 shows …“); 2) áåçîñîáîâ³ ôðàçè-çâ’ÿçêè ç 䳺ñëîâîì ó ïàñèâíîìó ñòàí³ (“As can be seen from Table 1 …“); 3) ôðàçè-äèðåêòèâè ó íàêàçîâîìó ñïîñîá³, ùî íàé÷àñò³øå ïîäàþòüñÿ ó äóæêàõ (“See Table 1”). Äðó-ãèì ðåïðåçåíòàíòîì ñòåðåîòèïíîãî õàðàêòåðó ëîêàë³-çàö³éíèõ åëåìåíò³â º âèêîðèñòàííÿ ó íèõ ïåâíèõ 䳺ñë³â, íàá³ð ÿêèõ, ÿê ïîêàçàëî ñòàòèñòè÷íå äîñë³äæåííÿ Äæ. Ñâåéëçà òà Ê. Ô³ê [7: 121], ïðîâåäåíå íà ìàòåð³àë³ êîðïóñó Ê. Õàéëåíäà [8], º âåëüìè îáìåæåíèì äëÿ øè-ðîêî¿ ê³ëüêîñò³ ïðèðîäíè÷èõ ³ ãóìàí³òàðíèõ äèñöèïë³í.

Òàê, â àêòèâíîìó ñòàí³ íàé÷àñò³øå âæèâàþòüñÿ òàê³ ä³ºñëîâà, ÿê show, present, illustrate, summarize,

demonstrate, contain, provide, depict, list, report, à â ïà-ñèâíîìó – òàê ñàìî show, à òàêîæ illustrate, present, give, list, see, see from, provide, summarize.  àíàë³çîâàíîìó êîðïóñ³ òåêñò³â íàâ³òü “íåîçáðîºíèì îêîì”, áåç ñïåö³àëü-íèõ ï³äðàõóíê³â, ìîæíà ëåãêî ïîáà÷èòè äîì³íóâàííÿ öèõ ëåêñåì, ïðè÷îìó àáñîëþòíèìè ë³äåðîì âèãëÿäຠshow, ÿêå âæèòî ó êîæí³é ñòàòò³, ùî ì³ñòèòü â³çóàëüí³ çàñîáè.

Îòæå, â îáîõ äèñöèïë³íàõ ïåðøèé åëåìåíò êîìåíòàðþ â³çóàëüíèõ äàíèõ ìຠ÷³òêî ñòåðåîòèïíèé õàðàêòåð, ñòâî-ðþâàíèé âèêîðèñòàííÿì òèïîâèõ ñèíòàêñè÷íèõ ìîäåëåé ç ðåêóðåíòíèì ëåêñè÷íèì íàïîâíåííÿì.

Ùîäî äâîõ íàñòóïíèõ ñòðóêòóðíî-ñìèñëîâèõ îäè-íèöü êîìåíòàð³â – óçàãàëüíåííÿ äàíèõ òà ¿õ îáãîâîðåí-íÿ, òî òóò ìîæíà ñïîñòåð³ãàòè á³ëüøó âàð³àòèâí³ñòü.

Ïåðåäóñ³ì ñë³ä çàçíà÷èòè, ùî â òåêñòàõ ç îáîõ äèñöèïë³í êîìåíòàð³ äî â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ìîæóòü áóòè àáî êî-ðîòêèìè, ÷àñòî ïîâòîðþâàíèìè ó òåêñò³, àáî äîâãèìè, íàäçâè÷àéíî äåòàë³çîâàíèìè, ç öèêë³÷íèì ïîâòîðåííÿì óçàãàëüíåííÿ òà îáãîâîðåííÿ äàíèõ. Òèì íå ìåíøå çà ñâîºþ ðèòîðèêî-ñòèë³ñòè÷íîþ òîíàëüí³ñòþ òàê³ êîìåí-òàð³ º ïîä³áíèìè, òîìó ùî âîíè ïîä³ëÿþòü ñï³ëüí³ ðè-òîðè÷í³ òåíäåíö³¿ – ç îäíîãî áîêó, äî ïðîìîö³éíîñò³, íàãîëîøåííÿ íà “ö³êàâîñò³” ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ â³çóàëüíèì åëåìåíòîì ðåçóëüòàò³â, à ç äðóãîãî – äî ïîêàçó ¿õ îáìå-æåíü, çíàéäåíèõ ó íèõ ïîìèëîê àáî ïîõèáîê, ùî äîçâî-ëÿº àâòîðàì ñòàòåé íàëåæíî ïîçèö³îíóâàòè ñåáå ÿê ñåðéîçíèõ íàóêîâö³â, çäàòíèõ àäåêâàòíî îö³íèòè ñâîº äîñë³äæåííÿ. Ðîçãëÿíåìî òàê³ êîìåíòàð³ òà çâåðíåìî óâàãó íà äðóãèé òà òðåò³é ñìèñëîâ³ åëåìåíòè:

(3)Ëîêàë³çàö³ÿ A plot of predicted values versus true values of the output is shown in Figure 1. Âèñâ³òëåííÿ Although most points have a deviation from the ideal line y=x and the smallest predicted value is 0.1, the points appear to be clustered around the ideal line Îáãîâîðåííÿ and this model seems to capture the trends in the data. The model was also tested for its performance based on yearly aggregated data. Ëîêàë³çàö³ÿ The results of this analysis are shown in Table 1. Îáãîâîðåííÿ These results appear to be quite good, except for 2002, which has a larger error [3: 120];

(4)Ëîêàë³çàö³ÿ For each of the three questions above, Table 1 gives the average scores for each of the eleven countries.

Âèñâ³òëåííÿ The students responses to the three questions indicate clearly that the stereotype of Asian students as

‘obedient listeners’ – whether or not it is a reflection of their actual behaviour in class – does not reflect the roles they would like to adopt in class. … Îáãîâîðåííÿ The results suggest that, if Asian students do indeed adopt the passive classroom attitudes that are often claimed, this is more likely to be a consequence of the educational contexts that have been or are now provided for them, than of any inherent dispositions of the students themselves [4: 33].

ßê ìîæíà ïîáà÷èòè, íàâåäåí³ óðèâêè ìàþòü îäíà-êîâó ñìèñëîâó ñòðóêòóðó, ùî âêëþ÷ຠëîêàë³çàö³éí³

ìåíòè, âèñâ³òëåííÿ íàéâàæëèâ³øèõ ðåçóëüòàò³â òà åëå-ìåíòè ¿õ îáãîâîðåííÿ.  îáîõ ôðàãìåíòàõ çàñòîñîâàí³ ñòðàòå㳿 ïðîñóâàííÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíèõ â³çóàëüíèìè çàñî-áàìè äàíèõ øëÿõîì¿õ ïîçèòèâíî¿ îö³íêè, ÿê³ åêñïë³-öèòíî ðåàë³çóþòü ïðèêìåòíèê good, ï³äñèëåíèé ³íòåí-ñèô³êàòîðîì quite, òà ïðèñë³âíèê clearly. Ðàçîì ç òèì â îáãîâîðåíí³ äàíèõ ðèòîðè÷íèé åôåêò ¿õ çàãàëîì àñåð-òèâíî¿ ïðåçåíòàö³¿ äåùî ìîäóëþºòüñÿ, ïîì’ÿêøóºòüñÿ îáåðåæíîþ ìàíåðîþ âèñëîâëþâàííÿ ïðè îáãîâîðåíí³, ÿêó ñòâîðþþòü 䳺ñëîâà seem òà suggest, à òàêîæ âè-çíàííÿ íàÿâíîñò³ ïîìèëêè ó ïðèêëàä³ (3). ²íòåãðàö³ÿ â³çóàëüíîãî òà âåðáàëüíîãî êîíòåêñò³â çä³éñíþºòüñÿ òóò çà äîïîìîãîþ ëîêàë³çàö³éíèõ ôóíêö³îíàëüíî-ñìèñëî-âèõ áëîê³â, à òàêîæ, ó âèïàäêó êîìåíòàðþ ç ìàòåìàòè÷-íîãî òåêñòó, øëÿõîì âèêîðèñòàííÿ íàçâ êîìåíòîâàíèõ â³çóàëüíèõ åëåìåíò³â òà íàâåäåíèõ äàíèõ (plot, points, ideal line y=x, 2002). Òóò, ÿê ³ â ³íøèõ âèïàäêàõ, êîìåí-òàð ó ñòàòòÿõ ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè ìຠÿñêðàâ³øå âèðàæåíèé ìåòàòåêñòîâèé õàðàêòåð, ùî ö³ëêîì ëîã³÷íî ïîÿñíþºòüñÿ ñêëàäí³ñòþ äëÿ ñïðèéíÿòòÿ àáñòðàêòíî-ãðàô³÷íèõ çàñîá³â óíàî÷íåííÿ ³, â³äïîâ³äíî, ïîòðåáîþ

¿õ äåòàëüíîãî ïîÿñíåííÿ.

²íòåðàêö³ÿ âåðáàëüíîãî äèñêóðñó ç çàñîáàìè â³çó-àë³çàö³¿ áóëà á, ïðîòå, íåïîâíîþ áåç ñêåðîâóþ÷î¿ ðîë³ ï³äïèñ³â ï³ä (àáî íàä – çàëåæíî â³ä êîíâåíö³é òîãî àáî

³íøîãî æóðíàëó) òàáëèöÿìè, ãðàô³êàìè òà ðèñóíêàìè.

ßê ñïðàâåäëèâî çàçíà÷ຠ². Áóø-Ëàóåð, ï³äïèñè äîïî-ìàãàþòü ³äåíòèô³êóâàòè òà îïèñàòè â³çóàë³çîâàí³ äàí³

³, îòæå, ôóíêö³îíóþòü ïîä³áíî äî çàãîëîâê³â [6: 126].

Íàø àíàë³ç ïîêàçàâ, ùî ³ñíóþòü ÿê ñï³ëüí³ ðèñè, òàê ³ â³äì³ííîñò³ ó ñìèñëîâ³é òà ñèíòàêñè÷í³é ïîáóäîâ³ ï³äïèñ³â ï³ä â³çóàëüíèìè åëåìåíòàìè ó òåêñòàõ ç ïðè-êëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè òà ïðèïðè-êëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè.  îáîõ ñóáêîðïóñàõ ìîæíà ñïîñòåð³ãàòè â³äíîñíî êîðîòê³ ï³äïèñè ó âèãëÿä³ òðàäèö³éíèõ íîì³íàòèâíèõ êîíñò-ðóêö³é, ùî ìàþòü îïèñîâèé õàðàêòåð, íàïðèêëàä:

(5) Two solitary wave interaction at time t = 7 for the PP equation [5: 333];

(6) Ratings of summaries written in English [6: 97].

Ðàçîì ç òèì ó ìàòåìàòè÷íèõ ñòàòòÿõ â ÿêîñò³ îïîð-íèõ åëåìåíò³â ï³äïèñ³â íàáàãàòî ÷àñò³øå òðàïëÿþòüñÿ

³ìåííèêè, ñåìàíòèêà ÿêèõ âèðàæຠïðîöåñóàëüí³ñòü ðàä-øå í³æ äåñêðèïòèâí³ñòü, íàïðèêëàä, comparison, distribution, effect, evolution, history, influence, interaction (ÿê ó ïðèêëàä³ (5)), projection. Âèêîðèñòàííÿ òàêèõ ñë³â ðîáèòü ï³äïèñè ³íòåðïðåòàòèâíèìè, äîçâîëÿº çàäàòè âèã³äíèé äëÿ àâòîðà ñòàòò³ íàïðÿìîê òëóìà÷åííÿ â³çó-àëüíîãî çàñîáó òà ñòâîðèòè ïåâíèé ïåðñóàçèâíèé åôåêò.

Ç äðóãîãî áîêó, âæèâàííÿ ö³º¿ ëåêñèêè ãëèáøå ïîêàçóº ñìèñëîâ³ çâ’ÿçêè â³çóàëüíîãî åëåìåíòó ç ð³çíèìè âàæ-ëèâèìè àñïåêòàìè äîñë³äæåííÿ, òîáòî ñïðèÿº ò³ñí³ø³é

³íòåãðàö³¿ çîðîâîãî òà ñëîâåñíîãî ó ºäèíèé, åôåêòèâ-íèé ç òî÷êè çîðó ïðàãìàòè÷íîãî âïëèâó íà àäðåñàò³â, ë³íãâîâ³çóàëüíèé êîíòåêñò.

Ùå îäíîþ îñîáëèâ³ñòþ ï³äïèñ³â ó ñóáêîðïóñ³ ñòà

òåé ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ìàòåìàòèêè º ïîì³òíà íàÿâí³ñòü ñåðåä íèõ êîìá³íàö³é ð³çíèõ ñèíòàêñè÷íèõ êîíñòðóêö³é, ùî ðàçîì óòâîðþþòü â³äíîñíî äîâãèé ïîÿñíþâàëüíèé òåêñò, íàïðèêëàä:

(7) The variation of stiffness and natural frequency of sample and system natural frequency as a function of crack extension. The effect of sample plastic deformation in the contact zone is neglected in the calculation of system natural frequency [7: 156].

Öåé ï³äïèñ ðîçïî÷èíàºòüñÿ ç íîì³íàòèâíîãî ðå÷åí-íÿ ç³ ñïîëó÷íèêîì as, ùî ââîäèòü ïðèêëàäêó äî ãîëîâ-íîãî ÷ëåíà. Âîíî âèêîíóº ³íòðîäóêòèâíó ðîëü, äàþ÷è ö³ë³ñíå óÿâëåííÿ ïðî ³íôîðìàö³þ, ïîäàíó ó â³çóàëüíî-ìó çàñîá³. Íàñòóïíèé êîìïîíåíò ï³äïèñó ó âèãëÿä³ ïî-âíîö³ííîãî ðå÷åííÿ êîíêðåòèçóº öþ çàãàëüíó õàðàêòå-ðèñòèêó, çàãîñòðþº óâàãó ÷èòà÷à íà âàæëèâîìó äëÿ

³íòåðïðåòàö³¿ íàî÷íîãî çàñîáó ìîìåíò³. Ïîºäíàííÿ öèõ äâîõ ñèíòàêñè÷íî ð³çíèõ ñòðóêòóð óòâîðþº â³äíîñíî äå-òàë³çîâàíèé òåêñò, ùî ôîðìóº ðàçîì ³ç â³çóàëüíèì çà-ñîáîì ó ìóëüòèìîäàëüíèé ³íôîðìàö³éíî-ïðàãìàòè÷íèé êîìïëåêñ, ÿêèé âïëèâຠíà ðåöèﳺíò³â åôåêòèâí³øå, í³æ êîëè â³çóàëüí³ òà âåðáàëüí³ åëåìåíòè ôóíêö³îíóþòü îêðåìî [2: 22]. ϳäòðèìêà æ ö³º¿ ºäèíî¿ ñëîâåñíî-çîðî-âî¿ ñèñòåìè âåðáàëüíèì êîìåíòàðåì ó òåêñò³ ñòàòò³ ùå ãëèáøå ³íòåãðóº ð³çí³ ñåì³îòè÷í³ êîäè, íàäàþ÷è òåêñòó åêñïë³öèòíîãî ìóëüòèìîäàëüíîãî õàðàêòåðó. Òåêñòàì æå ç ïðèêëàäíî¿ ë³íãâ³ñòèêè òàê³ îᒺìí³ ïîÿñíåííÿ çàãà-ëîì íå ïðèòàìàíí³, õî÷à ï³äïèñè äî â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó íèõ òàê ñàìî ìîæóòü ìàòè â³äò³íîê ³íòåðïðåòàòèâíîñò³ çàâäÿêè âèêîðèñòàííþ âèùåíàçâàíèõ îïîðíèõ åëå-ìåíò³â (distribution, effect ³ ò.ä.).

Âèñíîâêè. Îòæå, â³çóàëüí³ åëåìåíòè â³ä³ãðàþòü âàæëèâó ðîëü ó ïîáóäîâ³ ³ ôóíêö³îíóâàíí³ æàíðó ñó÷àñ-íî¿ íàóêîâî¿ ñòàòò³ – ïîë³êîäîâîãî ôåíîìåíó, ùî îðãà-í³÷íî òà ³íòåðàêòèâíî ïîºäíóº ð³çí³ ñåì³îòè÷í³ ñèñòå-ìè. ßê áóëî ïîêàçàíî, ³ñíóþòü ïåâí³ ê³ëüê³ñí³ òà íåçíà÷í³ ÿê³ñí³ â³äì³ííîñò³ ó âæèâàíí³ åëåìåíò³â óíàî÷íåííÿ,

çó-ìîâëåí³ åï³ñòåì³÷íèì êîíòåêñòîì òà â³äïîâ³äíîþ ³äåî-ëî㳺þ ð³çíèõ ãàëóçåé íàóêîâîãî çíàííÿ. Ïîäàëüø³ ïî-ð³âíÿëüí³ äîñë³äæåííÿ âèêîðèñòàííÿ â³çóàëüíèõ çàñîá³â ó ð³çíèõ íàóêàõ ìîãëè á çíà÷íî ïîãëèáèòè íàø³ óÿâëåí-íÿ ïðî õàðàêòåð òà ïðîÿâè äèñöèïë³íàðíèõ îñîáëèâîñ-òåé ñó÷àñíîãî àíãëîìîâíîãî íàóêîâîãî äèñêóðñó.

˲ÒÅÐÀÒÓÐÀ

1. Lemke J. Multiplying meaning: Visual and verbal semiotics in scientific text // Reading Science / Ed. by J. R. Martin, R. Veel. – New York: Routledge, 1998. – P. 87-114. 2. Áîëüøèÿíîâà Ë.Ì.

Ëèíãâîâèçóàëüíûé êîíòåêñò êàê ñåìàíòè÷åñêèé ðåïðåçåíòàíò ãàçåòíîé ñòàòüè // Âîïðîñû àíãëèéñêîé êîíòåêñòîëîãèè. – Âûï. 2. – Ë.: Èçä-âî Ëåí. óí-òà, 1985. – Ñ. 20-26. 3. Êîëåãàåâà È. Ì. Òåêñò êàê åäèíèöà íàó÷íîé è õóäîæåñòâåííîé êîììó-íèêàöèè. – Îäåññà: Ðåäàêöèîííî-èçäàòåëüñêèé îòäåë îáëàñ-òíîãî óïðàâëåíèÿ ïî ïå÷àòè, 1991. – 124 ñ. 4. Ñòåïàíþê Í.Â.

Çàñîáè ³íòåãðàö³¿ ³íøîêîäîâèõ ïîâ³äîìëåíü ó òåêñò (íà ìà-òåð³àë³ íàóêîâî¿ òà õóäîæíüî¿ àíãëîìîâíî¿ ïðîçè): Àâòîðåô.

äèñ. … êàíä. ô³ëîë. íàóê: 10.02.04 / Îäåñüêèé íàö. óí-ò. – Îäåñà, 2002. – 16 ñ. 5. Àíèñèìîâà Å. Å. Ïàðàëèíãâèñòèêà è òåêñò (ê ïðîáëåìå êðåîëèçîâàííûõ è ãèáðèäíûõ òåêñòîâ) //

Âîïð. ÿçûêîçíàíèÿ. – Ì., 1992. – ¹ 1. – Ñ. 71-78. 6. Busch-Lauer I.-A. Non-verbal elements and data commentary in English medical texts // Genre Studies in English for Academic Purposes / Ed. by G. Fortanet et al. – Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, 1998. – P. 109-132. 7. Swales J. M., Feak C. B. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills. – Second Edition. – Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2004. – 332 p. 8. Hyland K. Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing. – Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2004. – 216 p.

ÄÆÅÐÅËÀ ²ËÞÑÒÐÀÒÈÂÍÎÃÎ ÌÀÒÅвÀËÓ

1. European Journal of Applied Mathematics. – 2006. – Vol. 16. – Part 1. 2. Text. – 1999. – Vol. 19. – ¹ 3. 3. Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences. – 2006. – Vol. 20. –

¹ 1. 4. ELT Journal. – 2000. – Vol. 54. – ¹ 1. 5. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. – 1999. –Vol. 35. – ¹ 3. 6. System. – 1997. – Vol. 25. – ¹ 1. 7. International Journal of Fracture. – 2004. – Vol. 126. – ¹ 2.

ÑÅÌÀÍÒÈ×ÅÑÊÀß ÑÂßÇÍÎÑÒÜ ÀÂÒÎÐÑÊÎÃÎ ÎÒÑÒÓÏËÅÍÈß Ñ ÒÅÊÑÒÎÌ

Àðõèïîâà È.Ì. (Ãîðëîâêà) Ñðåäè ìíîæåñòâà îáúåêòîâ, ïðèâëåêàþùèõ

âíèìà-íèå èññëåäîâàòåëåé, îñîáîå ìåñòî çàíèìàåò òåêñò. Òåêñò õóäîæåñòâåííîãî ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé îðãà-íèçîâàííóþ îïðåäåëåííûì ñïîñîáîì ñèñòåìó, õàðàêòåðè-çóþùóþñÿ íàëè÷èåì ýëåìåíòîâ êîììóíèêàöèè, ñïåöèôè÷-íîñòüþ íàáîðà ýòèõ ýëåìåíòîâ è îñîáîé ñòðóêòóðîé îò-íîøåíèé ìåæäó íèìè.

Îáúåêòîì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ àâòîðñêèå îò-ñòóïëåíèÿ. Àâòîðñêîå îòñòóïëåíèå ðàçëè÷íî ïî ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðå è õàðàêòåðíî â îñíîâíîì äëÿ

õóäîæåñòâåí-íîãî ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ. Àâòîðñêèå îòñòóïëåíèÿ – âíóòðè-òåêñòîâîå ÿâëåíèå, çíàêîâî-çàôèêñèðîâàííàÿ ðåàêöèÿ íà ñèòóàöèþ íîñèòåëÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ìèðå è åãî ôåíîìåíàõ; îòñòóïëåíèÿ íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ íûì ñòðóêòóðíûì êîìïîíåíòîì òåêñòà, íî èãðàþò âàæ-íóþ ðîëü â ïîíèìàíèè è áîëåå ãëóáîêîì îñìûñëåíèè òåêñòà.

Ïðåäì å ò àíàëèçà – èçó÷åíèå ñåìàíòè÷åñêèõ îñî-áåííîñòåé àâòîðñêîãî îòñòóïëåíèÿ.

Ö å ë ü äàííîé ñòàòüè – äåòàëüíîå ðàññìîòðåíèå ñå

ìàíòè÷åñêîé ñâÿçè àâòîðñêîãî îòñòóïëåíèÿ ñ òåêñòîì.

Ìàò å ð è à ëîì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîñëóæèëè òåêñòû õóäîæåñòâåííîé ëèòåðàòóðû XX âåêà.

À êò ó à ë ü í î ñ ò ü òåìû îáóñëîâëåíà ñàìèì âûáî-ðîì îáúåêòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî ðÿä ëèí-ãâèñòîâ, íåîäíîêðàòíî, îáðàùàëñÿ ê àíàëèçó ñâÿçíîñòè òåêñòà (Ì.À.Êðîíãàóç Â.Äðåññëåð, Ð.Áîãðàíä, Ì.Õýë-ëèäåé, Ý.Êîñåðèó, À.Ãðåéìàñ, Â.Ñêàëè÷êà, Å.À.Ñåëèâà-íîâà), ñâÿçü àâòîðñêîãî îòñòóïëåíèÿ ñ òåêñòîì îñòàåòñÿ íå èçó÷åííîé.

Ìåæäó àâòîðñêèì îòñòóïëåíèåì è òåêñòîì âûÿâëå-íû ñëåäóþùèå òèïû ñâÿçíîñòè: ãðàììàòè÷åñêàÿ, ñåìàí-òè÷åñêàÿ, êîìïîçèöèîííî-ñòðóêòóðíàÿ, àññîöèàòèâíàÿ.

Ê êîìïîçèöèîííî-ñòðóêòóðíûì ôîðìàì êîãåçèè îòíî-ñÿòñÿ â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü òàêèå, êîòîðûå íàðóøàþò ïîñ-ëåäîâàòåëüíîñòü è ëîãè÷åñêóþ îðãàíèçàöèþ ñîîáùåíèÿ âñÿêîãî ðîäà îòñòóïëåíèÿìè, âñòàâêàìè, âðåìåííûìè èëè ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûìè îïèñàíèÿìè ÿâëåíèé, ñîáûòèé, äåéñòâèé, íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íå ñâÿçàííûõ ñ îñíîâíîé òåìîé (ñþæåòîì) ïîâåñòâîâàíèÿ [1: 82]. Àññîöèàòèâíàÿ êîãåçèÿ õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî îòäàëåííûå, íå ñâÿ-çàííûå ëîãè÷åñêèìè ñêðåïàìè ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ ïðèîáðå-òàþò âïîëíå ïîíÿòíûå ñâÿçè ìåæäó îïèñûâàåìûìè ÿâ-ëåíèÿìè [1: 79].

Ïîä ñåìàíòè÷åñêîé ñâÿçíîñòüþ îòñòóïëåíèÿ ñ òåêñòîì ìû ïîíèìàåì ñìûñëîâóþ, ëîãè÷åñêóþ ñâÿçü ñîñòàâëÿþ-ùèõ ýëåìåíòîâ òåêñòà íà îñíîâå îáùíîñòè ñîäåðæàíèÿ.

Ñåìàíòè÷åñêèå îòíîøåíèÿ óñòàíàâëèâàþòñÿ íå òîëü-êî â ñèñòåìå ëåêñèêè (â ÿçûêå), íî è òåêñòå (òî÷íåå â òåêñòîâîé ñèòóàöèè). Ñèòóàòèâíàÿ ñâÿçíîñòü ÿâëÿåòñÿ âèäîì ñåìàíòè÷åñêîé ñâÿçíîñòè, êðèòåðèåì âûÿâëåíèÿ êîòîðîé ñëóæèò ïðèíöèï “åäèíñòâà ñèòóàöèè”. Ñèòóà-òèâíàÿ ñâÿçíîñòü ìîæåò áûòü îáíàðóæåíà êîñâåííûì ïóòåì êàê ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíàÿ òåìàòè÷åñêàÿ áëèçîñòü ìåæäó ôðàãìåíòàìè òåêñòà, ñàì ôàêò âêëþ÷åíèÿ êîòî-ðûõ â îäèí òåêñò ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò îá èõ ñåìàíòè÷åñêîé áëèçîñòè [3: 102].

Îòäåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ðàçâèâàþò òåìó èëè òåìû, îáðàçóþò òåêñò, è êîãäà àâòîð èñïîëüçóåò îòñòóïëåíèå äëÿ âîâëå÷åíèÿ àäðåñàòà â ñåðüåçíûé ðàçãîâîð îá èñ-òèííûõ ïðè÷èíàõ è ñìûñëå ïðîèñõîäÿùåãî, òî ñåìàí-òèêà è ëîãè÷åñêîå ïðèñóòñòâèå ýòîãî îòñòóïëåíèÿ âûòå-êàåò èìåííî èç êîíòåêñòà. Ñåìàíòè÷åñêîå åäèíñòâî òåê-ñòà è îòñòóïëåíèÿ ìîæíî íàáëþäàòü â ëåêñè÷åñêèõ è ñèíîíèìè÷åñêèõ ïîâòîðàõ. “×òîáû ðå÷ü áûëà ÿñíîé, ëîãè÷åñêè ñòðîéíîé, ìû íå ìîæåì îáîéòèñü áåç ïîâòî-ðåíèÿ ñëîâ, èõ ôîðì è ïðîèçâîäíûõ îò ýòèõ ñëîâ, òàê êàê èñïîëüçîâàíèå èõ ñâÿçàíî ñî ñòðóêòóðíîé îðãàíèçà-öèåé ðå÷è. Âàæíîñòü ëåêñè÷åñêîãî ïîâòîðà çàêëþ÷àåò-ñÿ â òîì, ÷òî îí ÿâëÿåòçàêëþ÷àåò-ñÿ âûðàçèòåëåì àêòóàëüíîãî, èëè ñìûñëîâîãî, ÷ëåíåíèÿ ðå÷è” [2: 42].

Ðàññìîòðèìïðèìåðû:

At least they won’t hate us like they hate the French.

Sometimes we have a kind of love for our enemies and sometimes we feel hate for our friends [1: 16].

 ýòîì ïðèìåðå ìîæíî ïðîíàáëþäàòü ïîâòîðåíèå ñëîâà hate êàê â îòñòóïëåíèè, òàê è â ïðåïîçèöèè.  ïðåä-ëîæåíèè ñîäåðæèòñÿ òà èíôîðìàöèÿ, ðàäè êîòîðîé è óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ äàííîå îòñòóïëåíèå.

Torpenhow came into the studio at dusk, and looked at Dick with his eyes full of the austere love that springs up between men who have tugged at the same oar together and are yoked by custom and use and the intimacies of toil. This is a good, and since it allows, and even encourages, strife, recrimination, and the most brutal sincerity, does not die, but increases, and is proof against any absence and evil conduct [2: 80].

 äàííîì îòñòóïëåíèè òåìà “ìóæñêîé äðóæáû” –

“austere love” ðàçâèâàåòñÿ â äâóõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ, âòî-ðîå èç êîòîðûõ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé àâòîðñêîå îòñòóï-ëåíèå.  ïåðâîì ïðåäëîæåíèè àâòîð îïèñûâàåò è õà-ðàêòåðèçóåò äðóæáó Äèêà è Òîðïåíõàó, “êîòîðàÿ ðîæäà-åòñÿ ìåæäó ìóæ÷èíàìè, êîòîðûõ ñïëîòèëè íåëåãêàÿ ñîâìåñòíàÿ ðàáîòà, îáùèå ïðèâû÷êè è çàâåòíûå, íî òðóäíîäîñòèæèìûå öåëè” (love that springs up between men who have tugged at the same oar together and are yoked by custom and use and the intimacies of toil). Âî âòîðîì ïðåäëîæåíèè, ò.å. â îòñòóïëåíèè àâòîð êîììåí-òèðóåò òàêóþ ëþáîâü, (this is a good love, and since it allows, and even encourages, strife, recrimination, and the most brutal sincerity), âûñêàçûâàåò ñâîþ ëè÷íóþ òî÷êó çðåíèÿ “òàêàÿ ëþáîâü íå óìèðàåò, à òîëüêî êðåïíåò” (does not die, but increases). Ñåìàíòè÷åñêîå åäèíñòâî îòñòóïëåíèÿ è ïðåïîçèöèè îáåñïå÷èâàåòñÿ åäèíñòâîì åãî òåìû “love”, ñëîâî love ïîâòîðÿåòñÿ â ïåðâîì è âî âòîðîì ïðåäëîæåíèè, èñïîëüçóåòñÿ è ýìîöèîíàëüíàÿ ëåêñèêà (encourages, strife, recrimination, the most brutal sincerity, evil conduct the same oar the intimacies of toil).

Àâòîðñêîå îòñòóïëåíèå ñâÿçàíî ñ ïðåäøåñòâóþùèì ïðåäëîæåíèåì óêàçàòåëüíûì ìåñòîèìåíèåì this. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïîâòîðÿåòñÿ ñëîâî-òåìà love, ñîçäàåòñÿ ëåê-ñè÷åñêàÿ ñâÿçü è îáåñïå÷èâàåò ñåìàíòè÷åñêîå åäèíñòâî îòñòóïëåíèÿ ñ òåêñòîì.

Èíîãäà âìåñòî ëåêñè÷åñêîãî ïîâòîðà, â êà÷åñòâå ñâÿ-çè îòñòóïëåíèÿ ñ òåêñòîì èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ñèíîíèìè÷åñ-êèå ïîâòîðû èëè âûðàæåíèÿ.

Quite a few guys came from these very wealthy families, but it was full of crooks anyway. The more expensive a school is, the more crooks it has [5: 6].

Ñèíîíèìè÷åñêîå ñî÷åòàíèå ñëîâ wealthy è expensive ñîåäèíÿåò òåêñò è îòñòóïëåíèå.

 ñëåäóþùåì ïðèìåðå àâòîð èñïîëüçóåò ñëîâà îä-íîãî ñåìàíòè÷åñêîãî ïîëÿ.

Oh, Dick! Have I killed you?

Revolvers are tricky things for young hands to deal with [2: 27].

Ñëîâà revolvers, to kill îòíîñÿòñÿ ê îäíîìó

ñåìàíòè-÷åñêîìó ïîëþ, ÷òî è îáåñïå÷èâàåò ñâÿçíîñòü ýòèõ äâóõ ïðåäëîæåíèé.

Ñðåäè àâòîðñêèõ îòñòóïëåíèé âñòðå÷àþòñÿ è òàêèå,

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