いた。鎖の両端をそれぞれ A と B ，また A から x 離れた点を P とする。 B を力 F で水平に引っ張ると全体が加速度 a で動いた。
19-1. 運動の様子を図示せよ。点 P における鎖の張力を S とする。 【解答】右図の通り。図の S は， A ∼ P 部分を右に引く張力である。もちろ ん実際には P で鎖はくっついているが， S が A ∼ P 部分に働くことを明らか にするため少し離して書いた。図の左向きの力は， S の反作用であり， P ∼ B 部分を左に引いている。
4 Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute, Yanagasaki 5-34, Otsu, Shiga 520-0022 Japan
While freshwater ecosystems provide ecosystem services essential to human well-being, such as provisioning of water and fishery resources, they are the most vulnerable to human disturbances and have been concerned about their biodiversity loss. We focus on the ancient Lake Biwa because it has been exposed to various severe anthropogenic environmental changes during the last half century though its high biodiversity and endemism. Various past environmental and biota data of the Lake Biwa are recorded during the period of progressing ecosystem deterioration. We can trace back changes in biodiversity and identify human drivers and environmental pressures for the biodiversity loss. This knowledge would provide many insights for conservation of biodiversity not only for the Lake Biwa but also for Asian lake ecosystems. In this study, we focus on a littoral benthic macro-invertebrate fauna because its habitats, located in the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, are the most vulnerable to human activities. The archival data revealed that there was a significant trend for the littoral zoobenthos diversity to steadily decrease as time elapsed, especially in shallower area and that the temporal pattern of abundance was quite different among taxa. We found that community structure of the littoral benthic macro-invertebrate was largely affected by environmental factors associated with problems occurred in the Lake Biwa: e.g. eutrophication, warming and massive submerged macrophyte stand. In this talk, we will also introduce other current outcomes and future perspectives for establishing plan of conservation for the biodiversity of lake ecosystems.
1-3. コイン 1 枚を 2 回投げ，表が出る回数を n ˆ 。ただし，表が出る確率を p ，裏が出る確率を q とする。
1-4. コイン 1 枚を 3 回投げ，表が出る回数を n ˆ 。ただし，表が出る確率を p ，裏が出る確率を q とする。
問題 1. 確率 p で表，確率 1 − p で裏が出るコイン N 枚を一斉に投げる。それぞれのコインの振る舞いは独立 とする。コインに i = 1, . . . , N と名前をつけ， i 番目のコインが表なら 1 ，裏なら 0 という値をとる物理量 χ ˆ i を定義する。以下では，全系の確率分布を p と書く。
The concept of the constraints for a single test path for a datapath MUT is visualized in Fig. 3 . The test path constraints are divided into three categories. These are the set of path
activation constraints C A , the transformation constraints C J and the propagation constraint c P , respectively. Path activa- tion constraints correspond to the conditions in the FSM state transitions that have to be satisfied in order to perform prop- agation and value justification through the circuit. Transfor- mation constraints, in turn, reflect the value changes along the paths from the inputs of the high-level MUT to the primary inputs of the whole circuit. These constraints are needed in order to derive the local test patterns for the module under test. The propagation constraints show how the value propagated from the output of the MUT to a primary output is depending on the values of the primary inputs. The main idea here is to check whether the fault effect will be masked when propagat- ed to a primary output. All the above categories of constraints are represented by common data structures and manipulated by common procedures for creation, update, modeling and simulation. In the following, the data structure and update operations of test path constraints are defined.
1935: un anno difficile per le relazioni nippo-italiane, ma fecondo per lo scambio letterario
Andremo a indagare quell’anno teso e intenso in cui, mentre i rapporti tra Italia e Giappone subivano una brusca involuzione per via della Guerra d’Etiopia, l’uscita di tre antologie poetiche ravvivava lo scambio intellettuale fra i due paesi: Poesie giapponesi d’oggi di Lionello Fiumi e Kuni Matsuo, Vento di Greco. Le poesie tradotte d’Itaia di Hayato Kumabe, Venti e ombre. Antologia della poesia moderna italiana di Eisai Akiyoshi (Akira Tsubouchi).