3) EMA is a useful tool to quantify the degrees of jaw dis- placement (see e.g. Erickson et al. 2012). In some cases, it is necessary to factor out the effect of vowel height to di- rectly see the prosodic effects, because vowel height also affects jaw displacement in addition to prosodic strength (see e.g. Kawahara et al. 2014, Menezes and Erickson 2013, Williams et al. 2013). The C/D model’s approach to prosody has focused on jaw displacement; F0 control of prosody is an aspect of the C/D model which is still “under construction.” (p.c. Osamu Fujimura, 2015).
Figure 3 The normalized intonation contours of Speaker 1.
2. 6 Statistical Analyses and Predictions
R (R Development Core Team 1993–2016) was used to conduct statistical analyses as well as to create fig- ures of the results. Two statistical tests were deployed to compare the three hypotheses illustrated in Figure 1. First, a general linear model (glm) was fit to L-tone and H-tone targets, respectively, to examine whether and how the three different speech styles affect these tones. Second, a Brown–Forsythe test, which com- pares variability across conditions, was run to compare L-tones and H-tones. Figure 1(a) predicts no variabil- ity differences between L-tones and H-tones across dif- ferent speech styles; Figure 1(b-1) predicts H-tones to show more variability across different speech styles; Figure 1(b-2) predicts L-tones to show more variabil- ity across different speech styles.
(c) Compute the social welfare (total surplus) in (a) and (b). When does the single price regulation (in (a)) generate higher welfare than without it (in (b))? 2. Question 2 (6 points)
Two drivers are deciding how fast to drive their cars. Driver i chooses speed x i and
called the first fundamental theorem of welfare economics ( 厚生経済学の第
1 基本定理 ), or first welfare theorem.
Thm If utility function ui is increasing for all i ∈ I and (x, p) is a
competitive equilibrium, then x is in the core.