that the rapid and efficient switching of attention between the forward environment and the inside display of a car was crucial for safety. The characteristic of shifts of attention in depth for moving and stationary observers was examined by the using an improved tunnel simulator. In their experiment, subjects moved at apparent speeds of 40 km/h or 80 km/h or were stationary, digital LEDs cue and stimuli were used at fixation point and targets location, the subjects’ task was to judge the relative distance of targets (farther, nearer, or the same), in comparison with a fixed point. Results demonstrated that reaction times for nearer targets were shorter than those for farther targets in all conditions. Andersen & Ni (2005) examined the limits of spatial attention during driving using a dual-task performance paradigm. Drivers were asked to follow a lead vehicle that varied in speed while also detecting a light change in an array located above the roadway. Their results showed reaction time increased and accuracy decreased as a function of the horizontal location of the light change and the distance, from the driver, of the light change. In addition, reaction time error in the car following increased immediately following the light change. These results demonstrate that when drivers attend to a centrally located task, their ability to respond to other events varies as a function of horizontal visual angle and distance in the scene, and was a result consistent with previous useful field of view studies as well as studies examining the spatial limitations of visual attention (e.g., Eriksen & Yeh, 1985; Laberge, 1983), however, they found lower accuracy and a long reaction time for detecting light changes positioned at greater distances. As distance increased, the spatial separation between the centrally located lead vehicle and the changing light was decreased.
as well as carrier transport property. 139, 140 Especially, oligothiophene frameworks are considered as a substructure of polythiophenes, which are typical -conjugated polymers. Based on the idea that organization of the oligothiophene cores in LC phases should enhance the electronic properties, LC oligothiophene have been studied for the alternative materials. 118a, 147 The thiophene rings prefer all-trans (transoid) conformation to all-cis (cisoid) or twisted conformations generally. As the expanding the -conjugated planes with increasing the number of thiophene rings, the planarity of the aromatics are maintained. The extended -conjugated system is preferable for the efficient charge carrier transport, leading to the bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima. However, the melting points of the compounds are remarkably raised and their solubilities are reduced due to the enhanced self-association of the extended -conjugated plane.
The study on coupled systems is very important as models of information processing in the brain, animal locomotion, genetic networks[3–5], generating nonlinear phenomena such as chaotic itineracy, on-off intermittency[7, 8] and unstable attractors[9, 10], and so on. Moreover, recently we have to treat high-dimensional complex network systems such as small-world and scale-free. In a high-dimensional system, it is very difficult to determine observed complicated phenomenon is transient or steady, because transient length becomes large exponentially as a number of cells is increased. Moreover, to clarify its generation mechanism is also very tough, because trajectories, stable and unstable manifolds are not visible in a state space. Thus the analysis of such systems is not enough as far as we know.