恒星天文学の源流 恒星分光の開幕期 その3 「天文教育」(2009年5月号)

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(1)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ᜏᫍኳᩥᏛࡢ※ὶ࠙ࠚ

ᜏᫍศගࡢ㛤ᖥᮇ ࡑࡢ㸱

ᑠᬽᬛ୍㸦ඖி㒔኱Ꮫ㸧

:LOOLDP+XJJLQV̽ 㸦๓ྕ࠿ࡽࡢ⥆ࡁ㸧

ኳయศගࡢⓎᒎ

1863ᖺ࠿ࡽጞࡲࡗࡓศගほ ࡣኳᩥྎෆࡢ

ศගᐇ㦂࡜ඹ࡟ࠊࡑࡢᚋࡢHugginsࡢ⏕ᾭࡢ ௙஦࡜࡞ࡿࠋࡇࡇ࡛ࡣ୺࡜ࡋ࡚ 1864 ᖺ௨㝆 ࡢศගほ ࡢヰ㢟ࢆ࡜ࡾ࠶ࡆࡼ࠺ࠋ

1870 ᖺ࡟ࡣ⋤❧ኳᩥ༠఍࠿ࡽ 15 ࢖ࣥࢳ (38cm) ᒅᢡ㙾࡜18࢖ࣥࢳ (46cm) ཯ᑕ㙾ࡀ ࢱࣝࢫࣄࣝኳᩥྎ࡟㈚୚ࡉࢀࠊࢻ࣮࣒ࡶ 3.6 m

࠿ࡽ 5.5 m ࡟ᣑᙇࡉࢀࡓࠋ㸰ࡘࡢᮃ㐲㙾ࡣ

୍ࡘࡢ㉥㐨൤࡟஺᥮⿦ഛ࡛ࡁࡿࠋඹ࡟ศගჾ ࢆ⿦╔ࡋ࡚ࠊࢱࣝࢫࣄࣝኳᩥྎࡣศගほ ࡟ ᑓᛕࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋ࡜ࡃ࡟ 18 ࢖ࣥࢳ㙾 ࡟ྲྀࡾ௜ࡅࡽࢀࡓ⣸እ⏝ศගჾࡣගᏛ⣔࡟ࢡ ࢜ ࣮ ࢶ ࡞ ࡝ ⣸ እ ㏱ 㐣 ᮦ ࢆ ࡶ ࡕ ࠸ ࠊ Ἴ 㛗 ᇦ ࢆ

3200 ύࡲ࡛ᗈࡆࡓ⏬ᮇⓗ࡞ࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ

ࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᙜ᫬௚࡟౛ࡢ࡞࠸⣸እศගࢆྍ ⬟࡟ࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ෗┿ᢏ⾡ࡢᨵⰋࠊ ࡜ࡃ࡟ Margaret࡜⤖፧ࡋ࡚࠿ࡽࡣMargaret ࡜ࡢ༠ຊ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚෗┿ほ ࡢែໃࡀᩚ࠺ࠋࡇ ࠺ࡋࡓศගᢏ⾡ࠊ෗┿ᢏ⾡࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᨭ࠼ࡽࢀ

ࡓ Huggins ࡢኳయศගࡢ௙஦ࡢ࡞࠿࡟ࡣ᪂

ᫍࡢほ ࠊࢻࢵࣉ࣮ࣛຠᯝ᳨ฟࡢヨࡳࠊWR ᫍࡢศග࡞࡝ࡀྵࡲࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

(a) ᪂ᫍࡢศගほ 

1866 ᖺࠊHuggins ࡣྐୖึࡢ᪂ᫍศගほ  ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡴࠋࡇࡢᖺࡢ 5 ᭶ 16 ᪥ࠊ࢔࢖ࣝ ࣛࣥࢻす㒊ࡢTuam ࡟ఫࡴ J. Birmingham Ặ࠿ࡽ 1 ㏻ࡢ㏿ሗࡀᒆ࠸ࡓࠋ5 ᭶ 12 ᪥࡟࠿ ࢇࡴࡾᗙȠCrB ᫍࡢ㏆ࡃ࡟2➼⣭࡛㍤ࡃ᪂ࡋ ࠸ᫍࡀฟ⌧ࡋࡓ࡜࠸࠺ሗࡏ࡛࠶ࡿࠋྠࡌ᪥࡟ Mr. Baxendell ࡜࠸࠺ே࠿ࡽࡶ 15 ᪥࡟ࡣ᪂

ᫍࡣșSer (3.7 ➼) ࡜࡯ࡰྠࡌ᫂ࡿࡉ࡛࠶ࡿ ࡜ࡢ㐃⤡ࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࠋHugginsࡣ᪩㏿ࠊ16 – 19 ᪥ࡢ 4 ᬌࠊ⥆ࡅ࡚ࡇࡢᫍ࡟ᮃ㐲㙾ࢆྥࡅࡓࠋ ࡍ࡛࡟ 4. 3 – 4.5➼࡟ῶගࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊึ᪥ ࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆMiller࡜୍⥴࡟᳨ウࡋࡓ࡜ࡁࠊ ࡇࡢᫍࡢ␗ᖖࡉ࡟Ẽ࡙ࡁ⩣᪥࡟ࡣ⋤❧༠఍࡟ ሗ࿌ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[43]ࠋᙼࡽࡀὀ┠ࡋࡓࡢࡣࡑࡢ 」ྜᛶ࡛ࠊprincipal spectrum࡜ࡼࡪ྾཰⥺ ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜bright lines࡜ࡼࡪ㍤⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡ ࢺࣝ࡜ࡢྜᡂ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ๓⪅ࡣኴ㝧࡟ఝࡓග⌫ ࡜኱ẼࡢᏑᅾࢆ♧ࡋࠊᚋ⪅ࡣᕼⷧ࡞㧗 ᗘ࢞ ࢫయࢆ㉳※࡜ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ㍤⥺ࡣ5ᮏ࡛ࡑࡢ࠺ ࡕ3ᮏࡣ HȘ HșHȚ⥺࡜ぢࡽࢀࡓࡢ࡛ࠊ ࡑࢀࢆ☜࠿ࡵࡿࡓࡵ࡟ 17 ᪥ࡢኪࠊㄏᑟࢫࣃ ࣮ࢡ࡛⏕ᡂࡋࡓỈ⣲㍤⥺ࢆᫍ࡜ྠ᫬࡟ ᐃࡋ ࡚☜ㄆࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ㍤⥺ࡢᙉᗘࡀ྾཰⥺ ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡟ẚ㍑ࡋ࡚ࡁࢃࡵ࡚ᙉ࠸ࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࠊ ㍤⥺ࢆᨺᑕࡍࡿ࢞ࢫࡢ ᗘࡀᫍᮏయࡼࡾ㧗࠸ ࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࡜᥎ ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋᐇ㝿ࠊࡇࡢᫍ ࡢ྾཰⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡣ㉥ⰍࡢȘOriࠊșPeg ࡜ ఝ ࡚࠾ࡾ ࠊ Ỉ ⣲ ࡢ ྾ ཰ ⥺ ࡣ ぢ ࡽ ࢀ ࡞ ࠸ ࠋ Hugginsࡣᫍ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚໬Ꮫ⤌ᡂࡀ␗࡞ࡿ࡜ࡲ ࡔ⪃࠼࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊ᪂ᫍࡀྜᡂࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆ♧ ࡍࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࠊᫍࡢᵓ㐀ࡸ᪂ᫍࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝኚ ໬࡟Ỉ⣲ࡀ㔜せ࡞ᙺ๭ࢆᯝࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞ ࠸࠿࡜ࡶ♧၀ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋHuggins ࡢࢫࢣࢵࢳ ࡋࡓࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆᅗ9࡟♧ࡑ࠺ࠋᫍࡢග⌫ࢫ ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜㔜࡞ࡗ࡚ᙉ࠸㍤⥺ࡢᏑᅾࡀ㢧ⴭ࡛ ࠶ࡿࠋ

(2)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ᫍ ࡜ ࡞ ࡗ ࡓ ࡀ ࠊ ࡇ ࡢ ᫍ ࡣᅇ ᖐ᪂ ᫍ ࡢ㸯ࡘ ࡛

1946ᖺ࡟ࡶ⇿Ⓨࢆ㉳ࡇࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ᅗ ᪂ᫍ 7&U% ࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡢࢫࢣࢵࢳ>@ࠋ 㢧ⴭ࡞㍤⥺ࡣ୰ኸᕥ࠿ࡽ>2,,,@Ȣύࠊ

+șྑ➃࡟ +Țࠊࡲࡓࠊᕥ➃࡟ +Ș⥺ࡀᙅ࠸㍤

⥺࡜ࡋ࡚ぢ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ࡑࡢᚋࠊ1892ᖺ2᭶࡟࠾࠺ࡋᗙ࡟᪂ᫍ (T Aur) ࡀ⌧ࢀࡓࡀࠊࡇࡢ࡜ࡁࡣHugginsࡢ࡯ ࠿࡟ࣁ࢖ࢹࣝ࣋ࣝࢢࡢM. Wolfࠊ࣏ࢶࢲ࣒ࡢ H. C. Vogelࠊࣁ࣮ࣂ࣮ࢻࡢ E. Pickeringࠊ࢟ ࣮ࣝ኱ᏛࡢR. Schumacherࡽࡀྠ᫬࡟ほ ሗ ࿌ ࢆ Astronomische Nachrichten, 1129, p. 107 - 116࡟ᥞࡗ࡚ᥖ㍕ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡢࡣኊほ࡛࠶ ࡿࠋM. Wolf࡜Schumacherࡣ ගほ ࡢ⤖ ᯝ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊVogel ࡜ Pickering ࡣඹ࡟ศ ග ほ   ࡢ ሗ ࿌ ࡛ ࠶ ࡗ ࡓ ࠋ ࡇ ࡢ ᪂ ᫍ ࡟ᑐࡋ Hugginsኵጔࡣ2 ᭶ 2᪥࡟෗┿ศගࢆ⾜࠸ࠊ 㢧ⴭ࡞㍤⥺࡜⣸ഃ࡟ఙࡧࡿ྾཰⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ ࢆぢฟࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[44]ࠋ

ኵጔࡢほ ࡛࡜ࡃ࡟┠❧ࡗࡓࡢࡣỈ⣲㍤⥺ C(HȘ)F(Hș)G(HȚ)ࡀᙉࡃࠊࡲࡓࠊ⣸ ഃ࡟྾཰⥺ࢆక࠺ࡇ࡜㸦࠸ࡲ࡛ゝ࠼ࡤ P Cyg ᆺ㍯㒌㸧࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࢀࡽࡢ⥺࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࠊኵጔ ࡣ㍤⥺Ἴ㛗ࢆᐇ㦂ᐊࡢἼ㛗࡟ẚ㍑ࡋࠊ㍤⥺㒊 ศࡣ㉥ഃ࡟ࡎࢀ࡚ᆅ⌫࠿ࡽࡢᚋ㏥ࢆ♧ࡋࠊ྾ ཰⥺㒊ศࡣ⣸ഃ࡟ࡎࢀ࡚ᆅ⌫࡬ࡢ᥋㏆㐠ືࢆ ♧ࡍ࡜㏙࡭࡚኱Ẽ㐠ືࡢ⌮ゎ࡟୍Ṍ㏕ࡗ࡚࠸ ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊHș⥺ࡢ㉥ഃ࡟ 2ᮏࡢ㍤⥺ࢆぢฟ ࡋࠊᫍ㞼⥺㸦[OIII]Ȣ5007, 4959ύ㸧ࡢྍ⬟ ᛶࡶ᳨ウࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ࢜ࣜ࢜ࣥᫍ㞼࡟㢧ⴭ࡞ ⣸እᫍ㞼⥺㸦[OII]Ȣ3772ύ㸧ࡀぢࡽࢀ࡞࠸ࡇ

࡜࠿ࡽᫍ㞼⥺࡛࠶ࡿ࠿࡝࠺࠿ࡢ⤖ㄽࡣ␃ಖࡋ ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ⫼ᬒࡢ྾཰⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡣ C ⥺࠿ࡽ3200ύࡲ࡛᧜ᙳࡉࢀ࡚࠾ࡾࠊ⣸እᇦࢫ ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡣⓑⰍᫍࡢ྾཰⥺ࢆకࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ ⓑⰍᫍ࡟ぢࡽࢀ࡞࠸H, K (CaII) ⥺ࡀᏑᅾࡍ ࡿࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡢ」ྜᛶࢆᣦ᦬ࡋ࡚࠸ ࡿࠋ

࡞࠾ࠊࡇࡢ᪂ᫍࡣ1892ᖺ࠿ࡽ1894ᖺึࡵ ࡟࠿ࡅ࡚ᩘከࡃࡢ║ど࠾ࡼࡧ෗┿ほ ࡀ⾜ࢃ ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࣜࢵࢡࠊࣉࣝࢥࣂኳᩥྎ࠿ࡽ1892 ᖺ9᭶࡟᪂ᫍࡢ࿘ࡾ࡟ᫍ㞼ࡀ᳨ฟࡉࢀࡓ࡜࠸ ࠺ሗ࿌ࡀఏ࠼ࡽࢀࡓࡀࠊࡑࢀ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࡣ㈶ྰ ୧ ㄽ ࡀ ࡛ ࡓ ࠋࢣࣥࣈ ࣜ ࢵࢪኳ ᩥ ྎ ࡢ Newall(1892)࡜ Roberts(1893)ࡣⅬ※ࢆᨭᣢ ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[45][46]ࠋNewall ࡣ║どほ ࡛࠶ࡗ ࡓࡀࠊࠕ᪂ᫍ࡟↔Ⅼࢆྜࢃࡏࡿ࡜ࠊ࿘㎶ࡢᫍࡀ ࡤࡸࡅࠊ࿘㎶ࡢᫍ࡟↔Ⅼࢆྜࢃࡏࡿ࡜᪂ᫍࡀ ࡰࡸࡅࡿࠖ࡜㏙࡭ࠊࡑࡢ⌮⏤࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊ᪂ᫍࡢ ගࡣ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝᫂ࡿ࠸㍤⥺࡟⏤᮶ࡋࠊ࿘㎶ࡢᫍ ࡢ㐃⥆ග࡜ࡣ␗࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡓࡵ࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊᒅᢡ ᮃ㐲㙾ࡢⰍ཰ᕪࢆ࠶ࡆ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡑࢀ࡟ᑐࡋࠊ Vogel(1894)ࡣ FraunhoferὶⰍᾘࡋࣞࣥࢬࡢ 15࢖ࣥࢳ (38cm) 㙾࡛ほ ࡋࡓࡢ࡛ᫍࡢ࿘ࡾ ࡢᫍ㞼ീࡣᮃ㐲㙾ࡢ཰ᕪ࡟ࡼࡿࡶࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ ࡜ᫍ㞼ㄝࢆᨭᣢࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[47]ࠋࡇࢀࡽࡢㄽத ࡟⥆࠸࡚Hugginsኵጔࡣ 1894ᖺ1᭶࡟࠶ࡽ ࡓ࡟෗┿᧜ᙳࢆ⾜࠸ࠊᫍീࢆ࿘㎶ࡢᫍ࡜ẚ㍑ ࡋࠊ᪂ᫍࡢⅬ※ࢆᨭᣢࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[48]ࠋࡇࡢ᫬ ௦ࡣⰍ཰ᕪ࡜෗┿ឤᗘࡢၥ㢟ࡀධࡾΰࡌࡗ࡚ ᫍീࡢ⢭ᗘࡀ኱ࡁ࡞ㄽⅬࡔࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

(b) Doppler ຠᯝ࡜࣭ᫍᫍ㞼ࡢど⥺㏿ᗘࡢ  ᐃ

(3)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ࠕConcerning the coloured light of double

stars and of some other heavenly bodiesࠖ࡜ 㢟ࡋ࡚⾜ࢃࢀࡓㅮ₇ࡀࡑࡢⓎ➃࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ ࡋࠊDoppler ࡢ᫬௦࡟ࡣග㏿ᗘࡀࡲࡔ▱ࡽࢀ ࡚࠸࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡢ࡛ Dopplerࡣኚ⛣㔞ࢆ㐣኱ホ ౯ࡋࠊ㐃ᫍ⣔ࡢ㌶㐨㐠ືࡀኚ⛣ࢆ཯ᫎࡋ࡚Ⰽ ࢆኚ࠼ࡿ࡜⪃࠼࡚࠸ࡓࠋගࡢ㏿ᗘࡣࡑࡢᚋࠊ Armand H. Fizeau (1849)࡜ Jean B. L. Foucault (1862)ࡢ ᐃ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࠊࡼ࠺ࡸࡃ⣙ 30 ୓࣓࣮࢟ࣟࢺࣝ/⛊࡜࠸࠺⌧௦್࡟㏆࠸್ ࡀᚓࡽࢀࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

Hugginsࡀᫍࡢど⥺㐠ື࡟㛵ᚰࢆࡶࡘࡼ࠺ ࡟࡞ࡗࡓ⏤᮶࡟ࡣBelkora࡟ࡼࡿ࡜ḟࡢ࢚ࣆ ࢯ࣮ࢻࡀ࠶ࡿ[33]ࠋ18ୡ⣖࡟Edmond Halley ࡀᫍࡢᅛ᭷㐠ືࢆⓎぢࡋࡓࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࠊHuggins ࡣᫍࡀኳ⌫ୖࢆᶓ࡟ືࡃ࡞ࡽど⥺᪉ྥ࡟ࡶ㐠 ືࡀ࠶ࡿࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸࠿࡜⪃࠼ࠊࡑࢀࡣᫍࡢࢫ ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡟࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟⌧ࢃࢀࡿࡢ࠿ࢆ▱ࡾࡓ ࠸ ࡜ᛮࡗ ࡚ ࠸ ࡓ ࠋ ࡓ ࡲ ࡓ ࡲ཭ே ࡢ William Millerࡢ໅ົࡍࡿࣟࣥࢻࣥࡢKing’s College ࡟ ࡣ ᙼ ࡢ ྠ൉࡜ ࡋ ࡚ ࠊ㟁 ☢Ẽ Ꮫ ࡛▱ࡽ ࢀ ࡓ James Clerk Maxwell ࡢ࠸ࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ▱ࡾࠊ Miller ࢆ㏻ࡋ࡚ Maxwell ࡜▱ࡾྜ࠸࡟࡞ࡗ ࡓࠋ1867ᖺ㡭࡛࠶ࡿࠋMaxwell ࡣ Huggins ࡢ㉁ၥ࡟ᑐࡋࠊDoppler ຠᯝࡢ ᐃἲࢆ୎ᑀ ࡟ᩍ࠼࡚ࡃࢀࡓࠋHugginsࡣ᪩㏿ᆅ⌫ࡢබ㌿ 㐠ື࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ⥺ࡀ࡝ࡢ⛬ᗘኚ⛣ࡍ ࡿ࠿ィ⟬ࡋ࡚ࡳࡓࡀࠊࡑࢀࡣᙼࡢศගჾ࡟࡜ ࡗ࡚ ᐃᅔ㞴࡞ᚤᑡ㔞࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑ ࢀ࡛ࡶHugginsࡣ࠶ࡁࡽࡵ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋᫍࡢ୰ ࡟ࡣBesselࡢ㧗㏿ᗘᫍࡢᵝ࡟኱ࡁ࡞ᅛ᭷㐠ື ࢆ♧ࡍᫍࡀ࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽࠊど⥺㏿ᗘࡢ኱ࡁ࠸ᫍࡶ ࠶ࡿ࡟㐪࠸࡞࠸࡜⪃࠼࡚ࠊศග࡟஌ࡾฟࡍࡇ ࡜࡟ࡋࡓࠋࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝศᩓࢆ࠶ࡆࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࣉ ࣜࢬ࣒ࢆ㸯ಶቑࡸࡋࠊࡲࡓࠊ᫂ࡿ࠸ᫍࡣ㏆ഐ ᫍࡔ࠿ࡽど⥺㏿ᗘࡶ኱ࡁ࠸࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࡜⪃࠼࡚ ࢩࣜ࢘ࢫࢆ≺࠺ࡇ࡜࡟ࡋࡓࠋࡑࡢࡓࡵ࡟ᙼࡢ ࡜ࡗࡓ᪉ἲࡣᫍࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡢ୧ഃ࡟ẚ㍑ࢫ ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡀ┤᥋↔Ⅼ㠃࡟⌧ࢃࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟ศග

ჾࢆᨵⰋࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ㸦ࡇࡢ᪉ἲࡣ1920 ᖺ௦࡟Hubble࡟ࡼࡗ࡚෗┿ศග࡟᥇⏝ࡉࢀࠊ ⣔ እ㖟 Ἑࡢど⥺ ㏿ ᗘ ࡢ   ᐃ ࡟ጾຊ ࢆⓎ ᥹ࡋ ࡓࠋ㸧

ࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚ Huggins(1868)ࡣࢩࣜ࢘ࢫࡢ F (Hș) ⥺ࡢ఩⨨ࢆẚ㍑ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜ẚ㍑ࡋࠊ ࡑࢀࡀ1.09ύࡔࡅ㛗Ἴ㛗ഃ࡟ኚ⛣ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡇ ࡜ࢆㄆࡵࡓ[41]ࠋࡇࢀࡣᆅ⌫ࡢබ㌿㐠ືࢆ⿵ ṇࡍࡿ࡜᪥ᚰど⥺㏿ᗘ+47.3 km s-1ᙜࡍ ࡿࠋࡇࡢ್ࡣ⌧ᅾࡢ8 km s-1 ࡟ẚㄗᕪ ࡀ኱ࡁ࠸ࡀᙜ᫬ࡢ║どほ ࡟ࡼࡿ ᐃ⢭ᗘ࡛ ࡣࡸࡴࢆ࠼࡞࠸⠊ᅖ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋHugginsࡣ⤖ ᯝ࡟‶㊊ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡼ࠺࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࡀㄽᩥࡢᮎᑿ ࡟ࡣ Maxwell࡟ᑐࡍࡿㅰ㎡ࡀ௜ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ Hugginsࡣど⥺㏿ᗘ ᐃࡢࣃ࢖࢜ࢽ࢔࡜ࡋ࡚ ኱ࡁࡃホ౯ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊHugginsࢆᘬࡁ⥅ ࠸ࡔࡢࡣᚋ࡟㏙࡭ࡿVogel࡛࠶ࡿ㸦➨5⠇ཧ ↷㸧ࠋ

((c) WR ᫍࡢศගほ 

Huggins (1890) ࡣᙜ᫬ヰ㢟࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓ WRᫍ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶศගほ ࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋWR ᫍ࡜ࡣࣃࣜኳᩥྎࡢWolf࡜Rayet (1866) ࡟ ࡼࡗ࡚Ⓨぢࡉࢀࡓወጁ࡞㍤⥺࡛ᫍ࠶ࡿ[49]ࠋ Wolfࡽ2ேࡣࣃࣜኳᩥྎࡢ40cm཯ᑕ㙾ࢽࣗ ࣮ࢺࣥ↔Ⅼ࡟ྲྀࡾ௜ࡅࡓࣉࣜࢬ࣒ศගჾ࡛ࡣ ࡃࡕࡻ࠺ᗙࢆほ ୰࡟ࠊྍどᇦ࠿ࡽ⣸እᇦ࡟ ࠿ࡅ࡚ᖜᗈ࠸㢧ⴭ࡞㍤⥺ࣂࣥࢻࢆ♧ࡍ3ಶࡢ ᫍࢆⓎぢࡋࡓࠋࡑࢀࡣ BDᫍ⾲࡛࠶ࡽࢃࡉࢀ ࡓḟࡢ3࡛ᫍ࠶ࡿࠋ࡞࠾ࠊHD␒ྕࠊV➼⣭ࠊ ⌧⾜ࡢศගᆺࡶཧ⪃ࡲ࡛࡟ῧ࠼࡚࠾ࡇ࠺㸸

1. BD+35o4001 HD191765 V = 8.8m WN6 2. BD+35o4013 HD191203 8.5m WC8 3. BD+36o3956 HD192641 8.2m WC7

(4)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ࡔࡗࡓࡢ࠿ࠊ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞ືᶵ࡛ࡣࡃࡕࡻ࠺ᗙ

ࡢᚤගᫍ࡟ᮃ㐲㙾ࢆྥࡅࡓࡢ࠿ࠊࡣࡗࡁࡾࡋ ࡞࠸ࡀ Wolf ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ 1868 ᖺ 8 ᭶ࡢⓙ᪤ ᪥㣗ࡢ㝿ࠊศගほ ࢆ⾜ࡗࡓ࡜࠸࠺グ㘓ࡀ࠶ ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ Rayetࡣࡑࡢᚋࠊࣃࣜࢆ㞳ࢀ࡚࣐ ࣝࢭ࢖ࣘࡸ࣎ࣝࢻ࣮ࡢኳᩥྎ࡟⛣ࡗࡓ࡜࠸ࢃ ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ2ே࡜ࡶ WRᫍ࡜࠸࠺ྡ๓ࢆṧࡋ ࡞ࡀࡽṔྐࡢ⯙ྎ࠿ࡽ㞃ࢀ࡚ࡋࡲࡗࡓே࡛࠶ ࡿࠋ

ࡇࢀࡽࡢᫍࡣⓎぢ௨᮶ࠊほ ⪅ࡢ⯆࿡ࢆᘬ ࡁ ࠊVogel(1874)࡟ ⥆ ࠸ ࡚ Huggins ኵ ጔ (1890) ࡶศගほ ࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋVogel ࡟ࡼ ࡗ࡚ึࡵ࡚Ἴ㛗ࡀ ᐃࡉࢀࠊᫍ 1࡜2, 3࡜ࡢ 㐪࠸ࡶࡣࡗࡁࡾࡋ࡚ࡁࡓ[50]ࠋ㍤⥺࡜࠸ࡗ࡚ ࡶᖜࡀᗈ࠸ࡓࡵᙼࡽࡣ㍤⥺ࡢ㉥➃ࠊ⣸➃࡞࡝ ࢆ ᐃࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋVogel, Hugginsࡽࡢࢫࢣࢵ ࢳ࡟ࡼࡿ࡜ᫍ1ࡣ 469 nm ௜㏆࡟⦆ࡸ࠿࡞ࣆ ࣮ࢡࢆࡶࡗ࡚466 ̽ 471 nm ࡲ࡛ᗈࡀࡿ㍤⥺ ࢆ♧ࡋࠊᫍ2㸪3ࡣ 465 nm ௜㏆࡟ࣆ࣮ࢡࠊ 464 ̽ 466.5 nm ࡲ࡛ᗈࡀࡿ㍤⥺ࢆ♧ࡍࠋᫍ2 ࡣᫍ1࡜ྠࡌἼ㛗ᇦ࡟ᙅ࠸㍤⥺ࡶ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ ୧⪅࡜ࡶࢫࢣࢵࢳࡢἼ㛗ᖜࡀᑠࡉ࠸ࡢ࡛ࡣࡗ ࡁࡾࡋ࡞࠸࡜ࡇࢁࡶ࠶ࡿࡀࠊᫍ 1 ࡢ㍤⥺ࡣ HeII 468.6 nm, ᫍ2㸪3ࡢ㍤⥺ࡣ CIII, CIV ࡢࣈࣞࣥࢻ㸦465 nm㸧࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋHuggins ኵጔࡣᖜᗈ࠸㍤⥺ࡣఱࡽ࠿ࡢศᏊ࡟ࡼࡿࡢ࡛ ࡣ࡞࠸࠿࡜᝿ᐃࡋ࡚ࠊⅣ໬Ỉ⣲ศᏊ࡞࡝ࡢྍ ⬟ᛶࢆ᳨ウࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ࡝ࢀࡶ࠺ࡲࡃ⾜࠿࡞࠸ ࡜Ⴣ࠸࡚࠸ࡿࠋ⤖ᒁࠊࡇࡢ᫬௦࡟ࡣHuggins ኵጔࢆྵࡵ࡚ㄡࡶཎᏊࠊศᏊࡢ⤌ᡂྠᐃ࡟ᡂ ࡋ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ

WRᫍࡣHDࢱࣟࢢ࡛ࡣOa (CII 465 nm), Ob( HeII 468.6 nm), Oc (NII 4631-41)࡞࡝᫂ ࡿ࠸㍤⥺࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ศ㢮ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊከࡃࡢ ㍤⥺࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣྠᐃࡢࡲࡲ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡇࢀ ࡽࡢ㍤⥺ࡢ୰࡟ࡣ⣸ഃ࡟྾཰ᡂศࢆࡶࡘ P Cygᆺ㍯㒌ࢆ♧ࡍࡶࡢࡀ࠶ࡾࠊᖜᗈ࠸㍤⥺ࡣ ᣑࡀࡗࡓᙇ኱Ẽ࡛ᡂࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ⌮ゎࡉ

ࢀࡿ࡟ࡣ Beals (1929)ࡲ࡛ࡓ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽ ࡞࠿ࡗࡓ[51]ࠋ

WR ᫍࡣ኱㉁㔞ᫍࡢ໬ᚋᮇ࡟࠶ࡿᫍ࡜ࡋ ࡚ὀ┠ࡉࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡿࡢࡣࠊࡉࡽ࡟ 1950 ᖺ௦௨ᚋ࡛࠶ࡿࠋWolf࡜Rayetࡣࡇࢀࡽࡢ3 ᫍࡀࡣࡃࡕࡻ࠺ᗙࡢ ࠸ኳᇦ࡟Ꮡᅾࡍࡿࡇ࡜ ࠿ࡽኳ࡛ࡣከᩘᏑᅾࡍࡿࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸࠿࡜᥎  ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ㖟Ἑ⣔ෆࡢWRᫍࡣ⌧ᅾ࡛ࡶ 300 ᫍ࡯࡝ࡋ࠿᳨ฟࡉࢀ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࠋ2 ேࡢⓎ ぢࡣ㔜࡞ほ ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ

0DUJDUHW࡜ࡢฟ఍࠸࡜ኳయ෗┿ศග࡬ 1875 ᖺ9 ᭶8 ᪥ࠊHugginsࡣ࢔࢖ࣝࣛࣥ ࢻࡢࢲࣈࣜࣥ࡟㏆࠸ Monkstown ࡢᩍ ఍࡛Margaret Lindsey Murray࡜ࡢ⤖፧ ࢆࡆࡓࠋ࡜ࡁ࡟Hugginsࡣ51ࠊMargaret 㸦1848 – 1912㸧ࡣ27࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ

Margaret ࡣᑡ᫬௦ࠊࡢ࡛ᫍᗙ ࡟ࡋࡳࠊᮃ㐲㙾࡛ኴ㝧Ⅼࢆほ ࡋࡓࡾࠊ ศගჾࢆࡋ࡚࣮࢙ࣛ࢘ࣥࣝ⥺ࢆほ ࡋࡓࡾࠊࡲࡓࠊ᪂⯆ࡢ෗┿᧜ᙳ࡟⯆࿡ࢆᣢ ࡗࡓࡾࠊᙜ᫬࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣࡋ࠸⛉Ꮫᑡ࡛࠶ࡗ ࡓࠋࡑࡢᚋࠊᙼࡣ᪥Ꮫ ࡢᩍ!ࢆࡋ࡞ࡀ

ࡽࠊ"⌮ࠊ໬Ꮫࡢᐇ㦂ࢆ㔜#ࠊ࡞࠿࡛ࡶࠊ෗

┿ᢏ⾡ࡢᨵⰋ࡟ࡣ኱ࡁ࡞㛵ᚰࢆ$ࡏ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ ࡲࡓࠊኳᩥ࢔࣐ࢳࣗ࢔࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊࣟࣥࢻࣥ࡟ఫ ࡴWilliam Hugginsࡣᙼࡢ%ࢀࡢⓗ࡛࠶ࡗ ࡓࠋMargaretࡀHuggins࡜᭱ึ࡟ฟ఍ࡗࡓ

ࡢࡣࣟࣥࢻ࡛ࣥ&࠿ࢀࡓ'()ࣟࣥࡢ఍*ࡔ

(5)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ࡛ ࡼ ࡃࢲ ࣈ ࣜࣥ ࡟5ᅾ ࡍ ࡿᶵ఍ ࡀ ࠶ ࡗ ࡓ ࠋ

Margaret࡜Hugginsࡢ࡞࠿ࢆྲྀࡾᣢࡗࡓࡢ ࡣHoward Grubb࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡑ࠺࠸࠺ࢃࡅ࡛⤖ ፧ࡣ࢔࢖ࣝࣛࣥࢻ࡛࠾ࡇ࡞ࢃࢀࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡗ ࡓࠋ

Margaret ࡣ ࢱ ࣝ ࢫ ࣄ ࣝ ࡟⛣ࡾ ఫ ࡴ ࡀ ࠊ Huggins6ࡣ ࠸๓7࡜ᗈ࠸87ࢆᣢࡘࣞࣥ ࢞9ࡳࡢ:;ᬒ࡞<࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋMargaret ࡣ

ᣢࡕ๓ࡢ=⏬ࡸ>?ࠊ@A࡞࡝ࡢB⬟࡛<ࡢ

ෆእࢆࡍࡗ࠿ࡾCD࡞ఫE࡟ኚ࠼࡚ࡋࡲࡗࡓࠋ ࡜ࡃ࡟87ࡢ࣮࢞ࢹࢽࣥࢢ࡟Fࡗ࡚ࠊ཭ே࡟ ࠕ࢚ࢹࣥࡢ7ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ᚰᆅࡼ࠸7@࡟ኚ࠼࡚ ࡳࡲࡋࡓࠖ࡞࡝࡜GࡁHࡗࡓࡾࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ࢱࣝࢫࣄࣝ࡟Iࡕ╔ࡃ࡜Margaretࡣ᪩㏿ࠊ ࡇࢀࡲ࡛ࡢJ㦂ࢆK࠿ࡋ࡚෗┿ᢏ⾡ࡢ&Ⓨ࡟ ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡴࠋᐇࡣ Hugginsࡶ෗┿ほ ࡢ㔜せᛶ ࢆㄆLࡋ࡚࠾ࡾࠊึᮇࡢ 1863 ᖺ࡟ࡶࢩࣜ࢘ ࢫ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࢥࣟࢹM࢜ࣥNO࡟ࡼࡿศගほ  ࢆヨࡳ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡇࡢ࡜ࡁࡣឤᗘࡀP ࡃࠊᮃ㐲㙾ࡢQືࠊ኱ẼRࡽSࡢຠᯝࡢࡓࡵ ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ⥺ࡣ᳨ฟ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋMargaret ࡟Tࡏࡽࢀࡓ኱ࡁ࡞T㢟ࡣUࣛࢳࣥNNO ࡢᑟධ࡜ᫍࡢศග෗┿⏝࣓ࣛࡢᑠᆺ໬࡜࡛ ࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࡣࡌࡵ࡚ኳయࡢ㛗᫬V Wฟࡀྍ⬟࡜࡞ࡗࡓࠋMargaret ࡣ᭷⬟࡞ほ  XY࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡤ࠿ࡾ࡛࡞ࡃࠊZࡢᢏ⾡ⓗ ぢゎࢆᣢࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛ࠊኵጔࡣ࡜ࡁ࡟ࡣᢏ⾡ ୖࡢၥ㢟࡛[ぢࡢᑐ❧ࢆぢࡿࡇ࡜ࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ

Margaret ࡜ࡢඹྠ\࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࢱࣝࢫࣄࣝ

࡛ࡢศග෗┿ほ ࡣ]3࡟ࡳࠊ^ᫍࡸࢥ࣓ ࢵࢺࡢศග_`ࡀa9ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡗࡓࠋ

ኵጔࡢศගほ ࡣ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎ^ᫍࡀ୺య࡛ ࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊࡑࡢ࡯࠿࡟ࡶኴ㝧ࢥࣟbࠊcᫍ㸦d ᫍࠊeᫍࠊfᫍࠊኳ⋤ᫍ㸧࡞࡝ࡀྵࡲࢀ࡚࠸ ࡿࠋg࡟1881ᖺ࡟20ᖺࡪࡾ࡟⌧ࢃࢀࡓ᫂ࡿ ࠸hᫍ (1881b, Tebbutt’s comet) ࡟ᑐࡋࠊኵ ጔࡣศග෗┿ほ ࢆ࠾ࡇ࡞ࡗ࡚ࠊࣛ࢘ࣥ ࣮࢙ࣝ⥺ࢆక࠺㐃⥆ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡢୖ࡟CaII H⥺ࡼࡾ⣸ഃ࡟Ⅳ⣲㉳※ࡢ᫂ࡿ࠸3ᮏࡢࣂࣥ

ᅗ 0DUJDUHW+XJJLQV ࡢ⫝̸ീ>@ࠋࢱࣝࢫ ࣄࣝኳᩥྎ࡟࠾࠸࡚ࠊ:LOOLDP+XJJLQV ᧜ᙳࠋ

ࢻࢆ᳨ฟࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Hugginsࡢㄽᩥࡣ⤖፧ᚋࡶiZྡ࡛Ⓨ⾲ࡉ ࢀ ࡿ ࡇ ࡜ ࡀከ࠿ ࡗ ࡓ ࡀ ࠊ1890 ᖺ㡭࠿ ࡽ William and Lady Hugginsࡢ㐃ྡࡀከࡃ࡞ ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚ Margaret ࡢ\jࡶ኱ࡁࡃホ౯ ࡉࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓ[52]ࠋࡇࡇ࡛ࠊMargaret ࡢࡋ࠸཭ே࡛࠶ࡾࠊ19ୡ⣖ኳᩥᏛࡢkl࡟ ኱ࡁࡃ$୚ࡋࡓAgnes Mary Clarke (➨1⠇ ཧ↷) ࡟ࡘ࠸୍࡚ゝmࢀ࡚࠾ࡁࡓ࠸ࠋ

(6)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ìw఍x࡟᥎yࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊᛶࡀ఍x࡟

࡞ࡿࡢࡣCaroline Herschel ௨᮶ࡢ౛እⓗ z࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋᙜ᫬ࠊ⋤❧ኳᩥ༠఍ࡢ఍xࡣ{

ᛶ࡛|ࡵࡽࢀࠊᛶࡣㄡ࡛ࡶබ&ㅮ₇఍࡟ฟ

}࡛ࡁࡿࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋClarkeࡀ~K ືࡢࡓࡵ࡟ㅮ₇఍࡟ฟ}࡛ࡁࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓ ࡢࡣኳᩥ༠఍ࡢg€ࡢィࡽ࠸࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ

19ୡ⣖ᚋࡢᛶࡢ‚఍ⓗᆅ఩ࡣࡣ࡞ࡣࡔ P࠸ࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ౛࠼ࡤࠊࢢࣜࢽࢪኳᩥྎ ࡛   ᐃ ࠊ ィ ⟬ \ ࡟ƒ஦ ࡍ ࡿ„ x ࡣ computer ࡜…ࡤࢀࠊ୰Ꮫ†\⛬ᗘࡢP‡ˆ ࡛࠶ࡾࠊࡲࡓ{ᛶ࡟‰ࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ1880ᖺ௦ ࡢ୍᫬ᮇࠊClarkeࡣᛶ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣጞࡵ࡚ࢢࣜ ࢽࢪ࡟໅ࡵࡿࡼ࠺Šࡵࡽࢀࡓࡇ࡜ࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࠋ ‹Œ60 cmࡢLassellᮃ㐲㙾ࢆ⏤࡟ࡗ࡚ ほ ࡋ࡚ࡼ࠸࡜࠸࠺Žຊⓗ࡞㠃ࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ ᐇࡣᛶ࡛࠶ࡿࡓࡵ᫬„x࡟࡜࡝ࡲࡾࠊ

zࡣ computer v࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡶࡕࢁࢇࠊ

Clarke ࡣ‘ࡋฟࢆ’ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋClarke ࡣ⏕ ᾭࢆⴭ࡟ࡉࡉࡆࠊࡑࡢෆ“ࡣ୍tྥࡅ࡜࡞ ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ⢭ᐦ࠿ࡘ”᪂࡞グ㏙ࡣኳᩥ•– ⪅࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ࡶ኱ࡁ࡞ሗ※࡛࠶ࡾࠊ•–⪅— ˜ࡢG࡜ ࡞ ࡗ ࡚ ࠸ ࡓ ࠋ ࡑ ࡢ™ࢆšࢇ ࡛ Margaret Hugginsࡣḟࡢࡼ࠺࡟㏙࡭࡚࠸ࡿ [32]ࠋ

ࠕᙼࡣኳᩥᏛࡢṌ࡟኱ࡁࡃ›œࡋࡓࡤ ࠿ࡾ࡛࡞ࡃࠊ཭࡜༠ຊࢆžࢁࡃ᥎ࡋࡓࠋ ᙼࡢ ⏕ ᾭ ࡣˆⰍ࡟ ㍤ ࡃࡤ࠿ ࡾ ࡛ ࠶ ࡗ ࡓ (golden, indeed !)ࠋࠖ

ࡇࡇ࡛ž࡜ࡇ࡜ࠊlady computer࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ ㏙࡭࡚࠾ࡇ࠺ࠋ1890ᖺ௦๓࡟ࢢࣜࢽࢪኳᩥ ྎ࡛ࡣ 2ேࡢ lady computerࡀŸ࠸࡚࠸ࡓࠋ ࡝ࡕࡽࡶ ࠸࢟¡ࣜ࢔࣮࣐࡛࢘ࣥ࠶ࡗࡓࠋ୍ ேࡣ Alice Everett ࡛ࠊ࢔ࢫࢺࣟࢢࣛ㒊¢ ࡛ࢫ࢖࣐ࢵࣆࣥࢢ (Carte du Ciel) ࣉࣟࢢ ࣛ ࣒ ࡟ཧ£ࡋ ࡚ ࠸ ࡓ ࠋ ࡶ ࠺ ୍ ே ࡣ Annie Russell ࡛ࠊ࣊ࣜ࢜ࢢࣛ㒊¢࡟¤ࡋ E.W. Maunderࢆᨭ࠼࡞ࡀࡽ෗┿࣊ࣜ࢜ࢢࣛࣉࣟ

ࢢ࣒ࣛ࡟ཧ£ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛほ ࡢ࡯ ࠿࡟๓ࡢほ ࡶྍ⬟࡛࠶ࡾࠊࡑࡢ⤖ᯝࢆ⋤ ❧ኳᩥ༠఍࡟ሗ࿌ࢆHࡿ¥¦ࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࠋᑓ¢ „࡜ࡋ࡚§ࡲࢀࡓ¨©ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ぢ࠼ࡓࡀࠊ ᫬„x࡛࠶ࡾࠊP‡ˆ࡛࠶ࡿ࡜࠸࠺ªศୖࡢ «‶ࡣ¬࠼­ࢀ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋAlice Everett ࡣ 1895 ᖺ 10 ᭶࡟ ࣏ࢶࢲ࣒ኳᩥྎ࡟ึࡢᛶ ࢫ ࢱ ࢵ࡜ ࡋ ࡚® 2ࡋ ࠊ ྠ ࡌ ᭶ ࡟ Annie Russell ࡣ Maunder ࡜⤖፧ࡋ࡚ࢢࣜࢽࢪ࡟ ␃ࡲࡿࠋࡇࡢ⤖፧ࡣ 2ே࡟࡜ࡗ࡚኱ࡁ࡞ᡂ ࢆࡶࡓࡽࡋࡓࡀࠊኵጔ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ➨8⠇㸦G. Airy㸧࡛mࢀࡼ࠺ࠋ

ᜏᫍศග࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡢฟ∧࡜ +XJJLQV ࡢᬌᖺ

Huggins࡜Margaretࡢࠊ18࢖ࣥࢳ㸦46cm㸧 㙾¯⨨௨᮶ࡢ^ᫍศගࡢᡂᯝࡣ 1899 ᖺ ࡟ “An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra from Ȣ4670 to Ȣ3300 ύ”ࡢฟ°࡜࡞ࡗ࡚ ⤖ᐇࡋࡓ[54]ࠋࡇࢀࡣ±²ⓗ⿦୎ࡢ⨾ࡋ࠸A3 ³ࡢ࢔ࢺࣛࢫ࡛ࠊࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ෗┿ࡶ´࡛᫂࠶ ࡿࠋMargaret ࡣ=ࡢB⬟ࢆK࠿ࡋࠊµ¶ࡢ ึࡵࢆ⨾ࡋ࠸·=࡛¸ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ᪥ᮏ࡛ࡣ¹

º኱ᏛᅗG»࡟¼eᩥ½ࡢ㔜G࡜ࡋ࡚ṧࡉ

ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢ࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡣᮏᩥ 8 ¶࡜ 12 ¾ ࡢᅗ°࡜࠿ࡽ࡛ࡁ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡣࡌࡵࡢ2¶࡟ࡣ ࢱࣝࢫࣄࣝኳᩥྎ&¯௨᮶ࡢ¿ࡋ࠸Ṕྐ࡜ほ  ⤖ᯝࡢᩥœࡀࡲ࡜ࡵࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊࡇࡇ࡟ ࡣHugginsኵጔࡢ㛗ᖺ࡟ࢃࡓࡿ•–࡬ࡢᛮ࠸ ࡀࡇࡵࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ⥆࠸࡚➨3¶ࡣศග෗┿ ࡢ᪉ἲࠊ➨4¶ࡣࢱࣝࢫࣄ࡛ࣝ⏝࠸ࡽࢀࡓศ ගჾࡢㄝ᫂࡟ᙜ࡚ࡽࢀࡿࠋ

(7)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ᑐ࡟ḟ➨࡟ᙉᗘࢆቑࡋࠊྠ᫬࡟ˆ¤⥺ࡶÃࢆ

⌧ࡋ࡚㢧ⴭ࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡃࠋࡲࡓࠊࣂ࣐࣮ࣝ྾ ཰⥺ࡀᫍ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࠊ⥺ᖜࡀ ࡃ㧗Ä఩⥺ࡲ࡛ L€࡛ࡁࡿࡶࡢࠊ୰Vࡢࡶࡢࠊᖜࡀᗈࡃᩘᮏ ࡛㔜࡞ࡾྜࡗ࡚ࡋࡲ࠺ࡶࡢࡢ3ÅÆ࡟ศࡅࡽ ࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࡶ♧ࡋࡓࡀࠊࡇࢀࡣ⣸እศග࡟ࡼࡗ ࡚ึࡵ࡚ྍ⬟࡟࡞ࡗࡓศගgᛶ࡛࠶ࡾࠊᚋᖺ ࡢගᗘÆ⣭ࡢ³€ࢆ♧၀ࡍࡿࡶࡢ࡜࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ ࡿࠋ

➨ 6 ¶࡛ࡣ๓¶ࡢÁㄽࢆÇࡲ࠼࡚⣙ 50 ᫍ ࡟ᑐࡍࡿศගศ㢮ࠊ໬Ꮫ⤌ᡂ࠾ࡼࡧᫍࡢ໬ ࡀㄽࡌࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋHugginsࡽࡣᙜึࡣ໬Ꮫ ⤌ᡂࡢ㐪࠸࡟ࡼࡗ࡚␗࡞ࡿ໬ࢆ♧ࡍ࡜⪃࠼ ࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊࡇࡢ࢔ࢺࣛࢫ࡛ࡣ໬ࡣ Lane ࡢ ἲÈ࡟ƒࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ[55]ࠋࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࡿ࡜Äᐃᖖ ⓗ࡟㔜ຊ཰Éࢆ⥆ࡅࡿ࢞ࢫ⌫ࡣ཰É࡜ඹ࡟⾲ 㠃 ᗘࢆቑ£ࡉࡏࡿࡀࠊࡇࡢቑ£ࡣᨺᑕ࡟ࡼ ࡿ࢚ÊࣝË࣮ÌÍࡀÎÏࡋ࡚ࡃࡿ࡜ࠊ—Ðⓗ ࡟ ᗘPq࡟⛣⾜ࡍࡿࠋƒࡗ࡚ࠊᫍࡣⓑⰍᫍ ࡜ࡋ࡚Ñ⏕ࡋࠊኴ㝧ᆺࢆJ࡚࢜ࣞࣥࢪ࠿ࡽ㉥ Ⰽᫍ࡬࡜ࡴࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡇࢀࡣᙜ᫬ࡢ୺ὶ ࡜࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓHelmholtzࡢ཰Éㄽࡢ❧*࡟❧ ࡘࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᫍ⾲㠃ࡢ໬Ꮫ ⤌ᡂࡶኚࢃࡗ࡚࠸ࡃࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ࡞࠾ࠊž࡜ࡇ ࡜௜ࡅ£࠼ࡿ࡜ࠊṔྐⓗ࡟ぢ࡚Helmholtzࡢ ཰Éㄽ࡜࠸ࢃࢀࡿࡢࡣHelmholtzࡢÒÓ࡛ࡣ ࡞࠸ࠋ᭱ึ࡟ÒÓࡋࡓࡢࡣࢫࢥࢵࢺࣛࣥࢻࡢ "⌮Ꮫ⪅ J. J. Waterston (1811 – 1883) ࡛ ࠶ࡗࡓࠋᙼࡣ 1845 ᖺ࡟ኴ㝧ࡢ཰É໬ㄝࢆ ࡲ࡜ࡵ࡚Royal Society of London࡟ÔÕࡋ ࡓࡀࠊࡇࡢㄽᩥࡣ㛗࠸VÖ×ࡉࢀࡎࠊᚋ࡟࡞ ࡗ࡚ྠ༠఍ࡢ࢔࣮࢖ࣈ_`ࡢ୰࠿ࡽⓎぢࡉ ࢀࡓ࡜࠸࠺JØࡀ࠶ࡿࠋࡑࡢᚋࠊWaterston ࡣÙ࢖ࣥࢻ఍‚ࡢÚÛᢏ!࡜ࡋ࡚࢖ࣥࢻ࡟® 2ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊ1853ᖺ࡟ࣟࣥࢻ࡛ࣥ&࠿ࢀࡓ

බ&ㅮᗙ࡛ศࡢ࢔࢖ࢹ࢔ࢆklࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Herman L. F. von Helmnoltz(1821 – 1894) ࡣࢻ࢖ࢶ࡛⏕⌮ᏛࡸゎÜᏛࡢᩍÝ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀ ⏕⌮Ꮫࡢ❧*࠿ࡽ1847ᖺ࡟࢚ÊࣝË࣮ಖᏑ

ᅗ ศග࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡢ⾲⣬>@

ࡢἲÈࢆÒÓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡓࡲࡓࡲWaterston ࡢㅮ₇ࢆÞ࠸ࡓᙼࡣ 1854 ᖺ࡟€ࡢ୍tㅮ₇ ࡛ኴ㝧ࡢ཰É໬ㄝࢆklࡋࠊኴ㝧ࡀᆅ⌫㌶ 㐨)࢖ࢬ࠿ࡽ⌧ᅾࡢ)࢖ࢬࡲ࡛཰Éࡍࡿࡢ࡟ 2500୓ᖺせࡋࡓ࡜㏙࡭ࡓࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࠊࡇࡢㄝࡀ Helmholtzࡢ཰Éㄽ࡜ࡋ࡚ὶßࡍࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ ࡗࡓ࡜࠸ࢃࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ヰࡣᑡࡋà⥺ࡋࡓࡀࠊ࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡢ➨7¶ࡣ ࢱࣝࢫࣄ࡛ࣝ᧜ᙳࡉࢀࡓ±࠸ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝNO ࡟グ㘓࡟ᙜ࡚ࡽࢀࠊ➨8¶ࡣgá࡞ᫍࠊࢺࣛ ࣌ࢪ࣒ࣗ࢘ᫍࠊ P Cyg, șLyr, Nova࡞࡝ࡢ ࡯࠿ࠊ࢜ࣜ࢜ࣥᫍ㞼࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶ¿ࡋ࠸ࢫ࣌ࢡ ࢺࣝࡢㄝ᫂ࡀ࠶ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚ࡇࡢ࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡣ Hugginsኵጔࡢ⏕ᾭࡢKືࢆ⾲ࡍグᛕⓗⴭ ࡔࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

(8)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ᅗ ศග࢔ࢺࣛࢫࡢ౛>@

࠾ࡅࡿẼäࡢኚື࡟࠶ࡗࡓࠋHugginsࡀࢱࣝ ࢫࣄࣝ࡟ఫࡳጞࡵࡓ1850ᖺ௦࠿ࡽ1870ᖺ௦ ࡢࣟࣥࢻࣥࡣࠊÎÏ;ࡀåすࡢ;࡛ࣟࣥࢻࣥ æෆࡢ኱Ẽçࡢᙳèࡶᑡ࡞ࡃࠊほ éêࡶⰋ ë࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ1880ᖺ௦௨㝆ࡣÎÏ; ࡀḟ➨࡟ìす࠿ࡽìྥࡁ࡟ኚࢃࡾࠊ኱Ẽçࡢ

ᙳèࢆ┤᥋íࡅࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠊ࡜ኵጔࡣ࢔

ࢺࣛࢫࡢ୰࡛㏙îࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

1899ᖺ࡟࢔ࢺࣛࢫࢆฟ°ࡋ࡚௨᮶ࠊࢱࣝࢫ ࣄ࡛ࣝࡣኳᩥྎෆࡢᐇ㦂ᐊ࡛ࡢཎᏊࢫ࣌ࢡࢺ ࣝ⥺ࡢྠᐃࡸࠊ┦ᑐᙉᗘࡢ ᐃ࡞࡝ᐊෆ࡛ࡢ ௙஦ࡀ୺య࡟࡞ࡗ࡚ࡃࡿࠋ1900ᖺ௦࡟࡞ࡗ࡚ ࡶ Huggins ࡣïᖺࡢࡼ࠺࡟ MNRAS r࡟ྎ

㛗ሗ࿌ࢆᥖ㍕ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝ࡣᑠࡉ࡞ グ஦࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡑࡢ࡞࠿࡛⯆࿡ࢆᘬࡃࡢࡣ1903 ࠿ࡽ 1907 ᖺ࡟࠿ࡅ࡚⾜ࡗࡓࣛࢪ࣒ࣗ࢘ࡢࢫ

࣌ࢡࢺࣝゎð࡛࠶ࡿࠋ࠾ࡑࡽࡃࠊ1898ᖺࡢ࢟

࣮ࣗࣜኵጔ࡟ࡼࡿࣛࢪ࣒ࣗ࢘Ⓨぢ࡜ኵጔࡢࣟ ࣥࢻࣥñၥ (1903)ࡀࡁࡗ࠿ࡅ࡜࡞ࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ ࢁ࠺ࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊò࠸ྎ㛗ሗ࿌࡛ࡣࣛࢪ࣒࢘ゎ ðࡢෆ“ࡲ࡛ࡣmࢀ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࠋóᖺࡢᖺ࡟G

(9)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ࢫ ࣄ ࣝ ࡟íࡉ ࢀ ࡓ ࡜グࡋ ࡚ ࠸ ࡿ ࡀ ࠊ ࡑ ࢀ ࡣ

Margaret ࡢࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿࡇ࡜ࡣゝ࠺ࡲ࡛ࡶ࡞ ࠸ࠋ

ࢣࣥࣈࣜࢵࢪ࡟⨨࠿ࢀࡓu¯ഛࡣࣁËࣥࢫ ࢻ࣮࣒࡜ࡋ࡚㛗ࡃಖᏑࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊ1950 ᖺ௦࡟࡞ࡗ࡚÷ᆅࡀY ࡟࡞ࡗࡓ࡜ࡢ⌮⏤࡛ ゎయࡉࢀࠊࢫࢡࣛࢵࣉ࡟ࡉࢀ࡚ࡋࡲࡗࡓࠋࡑ ࡢ࠺ࡕศගჾ࡞࡝ࡣࢣࣥࣈࣜࢵࢪ኱Ꮫ௜¤ࡢ

࢖ࢵࣉࣝø"»࡟ಖᏑࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ࡜ù࠸ࡓ

ࡢ࡛ࠊࣟࣥࢻࣥ࡟ú⾜ࡋࡓᢡ࡟ø"»࡟ၥ࠸

ྜࢃࡏ࡚ぢࡓࡀࠊHuggins㛵ûࡢᶵჾࡣ⌧ᅾ ࡞࡟ࡶಖᏑࡉࢀ࡚࠸࡞࠸࡜࠸࠺ü஦࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ

ýḟᅇࡣࠊSecchi(1818-1878)ࡢ࠾ヰ࠿ࡽጞࡲ ࡾࡲࡍࠋ࠾(ࡋࡳ࡟þ

ᩥ ⊩

[32](ᥖ) McKenner-Lawlor, Susan M. P. 2003, Whatever Shines Should Be Observed, Kluver Academic Publisher, Chapter 5. Margaret Lindsay Huggins (1848 – 1915), Pioneering Astrophysicist. 㸦ࣁËࣥࢫኵேࡢఏグ㸧

[33](ᥖ) Belkora, Leila 2003, Minding the Heavens – The Story of our Discovery of the Milky Way, Institute of Physics Publishing, Chapter 6. William Huggins: Pioneer of the New Astronomy, p. 165 - 205 㸦࢘࢖ࣜ࢔࣒࣭ࣁËࣥࢫࡢఏグ㸧

[41] (ᥖ) Huggins, W. 1868, Phil. Trans. R. S. London, 1158, 529 – 564, Further observations on the spectra of some of the stars and nebulae, with an attempt to determine there from whether these bodies are moving towards or from the Earth. (ᩥ œ[2], p.402ཧ↷)

[43] Huggins, W. 1866, MNRAS, 26, 275 –277, On a New Star. 㸦ึࡢ᪂ᫍศගࡢሗ࿌ࠊ ᅗ9ࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡣྠr p.297㸧

[44] Huggins, W. & Mrs. Huggins 1892, AN, 129, 107, Über den neuen Stern in Auriga; Huggins, W. 1892, AN, 1132, 143, Note on the spectrum of Nova Aurigae.

[45] Newall, H. F. 1892, Nature, 446, 489, The Nova Aurigae.

[46] Roberts, I. 1893, MN, 553, 123 – 124, Nova Aurigae.

[47] Vogel , H. C. 1894, AN 1134, 93 – 96, Ueber die Bemerkungen des Herrn Belopolsky in Nr. 3184 der AN, betreffend den neuen Stern in Fuhrmann.

[48] Huggins, W. 1894, AN, 1134, 309, On the visual appearance of Nova (T) Aurigae. [49] Wolf, C. & Rayet, G. 1866, Comptes Rendus, 665, 292 – 296, Spectroscopie stellaire. [50] Vogel , H. C. 1874, AN 884, 113 – 124, Spectralanalische Mitteilungen. (WRᫍศග)

[51] Beals, C. S. 1929, MNRAS, 990, 202 –

212, On the nature of Wolf-Rayet emission. [52] Whiting, Sara F. 1915, ApJ, 442, 1 – 3, Lady Huggins (š㎡)

[53] Clarke, Agnes M. 1902, A Popular History of Astronomy during the Ninteenth Century, Sattre Press; ྠ 1903, Problems in Astrophysics, Adam and C. Black.

[54] Huggins, W. and Huggins, M. L. 1899, An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra, from Ȣ4870 to Ȣ3300, William Wesley and Son.

[55] Lane, J. H., 1869, Amer. J. Sci, 2nd Ser. 50, 57 – 74.㸦཰É࡟ࡼࡿ^ᫍ໬㸧

[56] Huggins, W. 1910, MNRAS, 770, 331, Report of his Observatory.

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