恒星天文学の源流 恒星分光の開幕期 その5 「天文教育」(2009年9月号)

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

全文

(1)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 ᜏᫍኳᩥᏛࡢ※ὶ࠙ࠚ

ᜏᫍศගࡢ㛤ᖥᮇ ࡑࡢ

ᑠᬽᬛ୍㸦ඖி㒔኱Ꮫ㸧

/HZLV0RUULV5XWKHUIXUG ⏕࠸❧ࡕ࠿ࡽ࢔࣐ࢳࣗ࢔ኳᩥᐙ࡬

1856 ᖺ ࡢ ⛅ ࠊ ࢽ ࣗ ࣮ ࣚ ࣮ ࢡ 㑹 እ ࡢ

Rutherfurdᐙ࡛ࡣᗞඛ࡟᪂ࡋ࠸ኳᩥྎࡀ᏶ᡂ

ࡋࡓࠋ

Rutherfurd ࡣࢽ࣮࣮ࣗࣚࢡᅾఫࡢࠊᘚㆤ

ኈ࠿ࡽ㌿㌟ࡋࡓ࢔࣐ࢳࣗ࢔ኳᩥᐙ࡛࠶ࡿࠋඃ ࢀࡓᕤᏛⓗࢭࣥࢫࢆࡶࡕኳᩥ࡛ࡣ෗┿ほ ࡜

ศගほ ࡞࡝࡛ࠊ࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡟࠾ࡅࡿWilliam

Huggins࡟ఝࡓᙺ๭ࢆ࢔࣓࡛ࣜ࢝ᯝࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ᙼࡢ⏕ᾭ࡜௙஦ࡣྠ᫬௦ே࡛῝࠸ぶ஺ࡢ࠶ࡗ ࡓ John K. Rees (1906)࡜ Benjamin A.

Gould (1895)ࡢ㏣᝚ᅇ᝿㘓࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࡑࡢ㊊㊧

ࢆ㎺ࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿ[96][97]ࠋRees ࡣࢥࣟࣥ

ࣅ࢔኱Ꮫኳᩥྎ㛗㸦఩⨨ኳᩥᏛ㸧࡛ࠊࡇࡢኳ

ᩥྎ࡛ࡣ Rutherfurd ࡢ᧜ᙳࡋࡓᫍ㔝෗┿ࡢ

ゎ ᯒ ࡟ ኱ ࡁ ࡃ ྲྀ ࡾ ⤌ ࢇ ࡛ ࠾ ࡾ ࠊRutherfurd

࡜ࡣ῝࠸㛵ಀ࡟࠶ࡿࠋ୍᪉ࠊGould ࡣ࢔࣓ࣜ

࢝ ἢ ᓊ ㄪ ᰝ ᡤ ᡤ 㛗 ࡢ ᚋ ࠊ ࢔ ࣝ ࢮ ࣥ ࢳ ࣥ ࡢ

Cordoba ኳᩥྎ㛗࡜࡞ࡾࠊRutherfurd ࡢᮃ 㐲㙾ࢆ⏝࠸࡚༡ኳࡢᜏᫍ┠㘓ࡢసᡂ࡟㈉⊩ࡋ

ࡓࠋᙼࡣ1849ᖺ࡟ Astronomical Journal ㄅ

ࢆ๰หࡋࡓࡀࠊ1861ᖺࠊ༡໭ᡓத࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ఇ

หࢆవ൤࡞ࡃࡉࢀࠊࡋ࠿ࡶ Cordoba ࡛ࡢ໅

ົࡀ㛗࠿ࡗࡓࡓࡵ࡟᚟หࡋࡓࡢࡣ 1885 ᖺ࡟

࢔࣓ࣜ࢝࡟ᖐᅜࡋࡓᚋ (Vol. 7, 1888) ࡜࠸࠺

⤒Ṕࡶ࠶ࡿࠋGouldࡣࡲࡓ㖟Ἑ⣔ࡢ኱つᶍᵓ

㐀࡛ࢢ࣮ࣝࢻ࣋ࣝࢺࡢⓎぢ࡛ࡶ▱ࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Gould, Rees ࡢㄽᩥ࡟ࡣࡋࡤࡋࡤRutherfurd

ࡢᴗ⦼ࡀᘬ⏝ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊࡑࢀࡣ୺࡟ᫍࡢ

෗┿ほ ࡢᡂᯝ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚࡛࠶ࡿࠋRutherfurd

ㄽ ᩥ ࡣ American Journal of Science and

Artsㄅ࡟ᥖ㍕ࡉࢀࡓࡢ࡛ ADS ࡞࡝࡛࢔ࢡࢭ

ࢫ࡛ࡁ࡞࠸ࡀࠊࡑࡢ⏕ᾭࡸᴗ⦼ࡣୖグ2ேࡢ

ᅇ᝿㘓࡜ㄽᩥ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚㎺ࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿࠋ

Rutherfurdࡣ 1816ᖺ 11᭶ 25᪥ࠊࢽ࣮ࣗ

࣮ࣚࢡᕞࡢ Morrisania㸦⌧ᅾࡣࢽ࣮࣮ࣗࣚ

ࢡᕷࡢ୍㒊㸧࡛⏕ࡲࢀࠊ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ྡ㛛ࡢ⾑ࢆ

ᘬ ࡁ ⥅ ࠸ ࡛ ࠸ ࡿ ࠋ ∗ ࡣ Robert Walter

Rutherfurd࡜࠸࠸ࠊ♽∗ࡢ John Rutherfurd

ࡣ1791 – 1798ᖺ࡟ྜ⾗ᅜୖ㝔㆟ဨࢆົࡵࡓࠋ

ẕ ࡣ Sabina Elliot Morris ࡛ ࡑ ࡢ ♽ ∗ ࡢ

Lewis Morris ࡣ ྜ ⾗ ᅜ ࡢ ⊂ ❧ ᐉ ゝ (1776)

࡟⨫ྡࡋࡓ୍ே࡛࠶ࡿࠋRutherfurdࡣࡑࡢྡ

ࢆẕ᪉ࡢ᭮♽∗࠿ࡽ㈔ࡗ࡚ Lewis Morris ࡜

ྡ࡙ࡅࡽࢀࡓࠋ

1831ᖺ 15ᡯ࡛࢘࢖࣒࣭ࣜࣕ࢝ࣞࢵࢪ࡟ධ

Ꮫࠊἲᚊᑓᨷ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ≀⌮ᐇ㦂࡟⯆࿡ࢆ ࡶࡕࠊ≀⌮ࡢᤵᴗ࡛ࡣᐇ㦂⿦⨨ࡢ〇సࢆᡭఏ

ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓ࡜࠸࠺⤒Ṕࡶ࠶ࡿࠋ18ᡯ࡛༞ᴗࡍࡿ

࡜ 2ᖺ㛫ࠊἲᚊᐇົࡢ◊ಟࢆ⾜ࡗࡓᚋࠊࢽࣗ

࣮࣮ࣚࢡࡢἲᚊ஦ົᡤ࡛ᘚㆤኈ࡜ࡋ࡚ാࡃࡼ ࠺࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑࡢవᬤࡣ໬Ꮫᐇ㦂࡜ኳ ᩥほ ࡟㐣ࡈࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ࡜࠸࠺ࠋ

1841 ᖺ ࠊ ࣐ ࣮ ࢞ ࣞ ࢵ ࢺ ࣭ ࢳ ࣕ ࣥ ࣛ ࣮

(Margaret S. Chanler) ࡜⤖፧ࡍࡿࠋᙼዪࡶ ྡ㛛ࡢฟ࡛ࠊ⏕ᾭࡢࡼࡁక౶࡜࡞ࡿࠋ⤖፧ᚋ

ࡣࡉࡽ࡟ኳᩥ࡬ࡢᚿྥࢆᙉࡵࠊ1849ᖺࠊࡘ࠸

࡟ᘚㆤኈࢆᗫᴗࡋ࡚ኳయほ ࡟ᑓᛕࡍࡿࡇ࡜

࡟࡞ࡿࡀࠊࡑࢀ࡟ࡣ࣐࣮࢞ࣞࢵࢺኵேࡢ≀ᚰ ୧㠃࠿ࡽࡢᨭ࠼ࡀ኱ࡁ࡞ຊ࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡋ ࠿ࡋࠊࡇࡢࡇࢁ࣐࣮࢞ࣞࢵࢺࡢ೺ᗣࡀඃࢀࡎࠊ

་ᖌ࠿ࡽ㌿ᆅࢆ່ࡵࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛ࠊ2 ேࡣ

ᙼዪࡢ⒪㣴ࢆ࠿ࡡ࡚࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡬࡜Ώࡿࠋࡑ ࡋ࡚ᩘᖺ㛫ࠊࣇࣛࣥࢫࠊࢻ࢖ࢶࠊ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࢆ ゼࡡࡿࡀ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ᅾ୰ࡣࣇ࢕ࣞࣥࢶ࢙ࡢ≀

⌮Ꮫ࠾ࡼࡧ⮬↛ྐ༤≀㤋ࡢGiovanni Batista

(2)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

ࣥࢬࡢ〇స࡞࡝ගᏛᢏ⾡ࡢ⩦ᚓ࡟࠶ࡓࡗ࡚࠸

ࡿࠋ

ᖐᅜᚋࠊཱྀᚄ 11࢖ࣥࢳ㸦28.5 cm㸧ᒅᢡᮃ

㐲㙾࡜Ꮚ༗൤ࢆ〇సࡋࠊᐙࡢᗞ࡟ኳᩥྎᘓタ ࢆィ⏬ࡍࡿࠋࡇࡢᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾ࡣᙼࡢᣦᑟࡢୗ

࡟ Henry Fitz ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚〇సࡉࢀࡓࡢ࡛ࣇ࢕

ࢵࢶᮃ㐲㙾࡜࿧ࡤࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊᙼࡀ᭱ ึ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇࡔࡢࡣᏊ༗൤࡟ࡼࡿ⤒ᗘほ ࡛ ࠶ࡗࡓࠋᙼࡢᢏ⾡ຊࢆά࠿ࡋ࡚〇సࡉࢀࡓᏊ

༗൤ࡣ ᐃ⢭ᗘࡀ༟㉺ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࡓࡵࠊ࢔࣓ࣜ

࢝ἢᓊㄪᰝᡤ (Coastal Survey) ࠿ࡽὀ┠ࡉ

ࢀࡓࠋࡲࡓࠊࡑࢀࡀዎᶵ࡜࡞ࡗ࡚ᡤ㛗ࡢGould

࡜▱ᕫ࡟࡞ࡾࠊ⏕ᾭࡢ஺཭ࡀጞࡲࡿࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚1856ᖺ⛅࡟Rutherfurd㑰ࡢᗞ࡟ ᪂ࡋ࠸ኳᩥྎࡀ᏶ᡂࡍࡿࠋࡇࡢኳᩥྎࡢᏊ༗ 㤋ࡣࡲࡶ࡞ࡃ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ἢᓊㄪᰝᡤ⤒ᗘ ᐃᇶ ᆅᒁࡢ㸯ࡘ࡟ᣦᐃࡉࢀ࡚ࠊ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ࡢ⤒ᗘほ  ࡟኱ࡁࡃ㈉⊩ࡍࡿࠋࡇࡢ㡭ࠊἢᓊㄪᰝᡤࡣ

࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡜࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ࢆึࡵ࡚↓⥺㏻ಙ࡛ࡘ ࡞࠸࡛⤒ᗘ ᐃ⢭ᗘࢆ㣕㌍ⓗ࡟ྥୖࡉࡏࡓࡇ

࡜ ࡛ ࡶ ▱ ࡽ ࢀ ࡚ ࠸ ࡿ ࠋ ࡋ ࠿ ࡋ ࠊRutherfurd

ࡣ⤒ᗘほ ࡀ㡰ㄪ࡟㐍ࡴࡢࢆ☜࠿ࡵࡓᚋࠊほ

 ࡣᇶᆅᒁࡢே࡟௵ࡏࠊ1858ᖺ࠿ࡽࡣḟࡢ௙

஦࡜ࡋ࡚ኳయ෗┿⾡ࡢᨵⰋ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡴࠋࡑࡢ

ᖺࡢ6᭶ࠊࣇ࢕ࢵࢶᮃ㐲㙾࡟ྲྀࡾ௜ࡅࡓ෗┿

൤࡟ࡼࡗ࡚‶᭶ࡢ᧜ᙳ࡟ᡂຌࡋୡ㛫ࡢヰ㢟࡟

࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡑࢀࡣ᭶㠃㍤ᗘࡢ⃰ῐࢆ⿵ṇࡍࡿࢢ ࣛࢹ࣮ࢩࣙࣥࡢ᪉ἲࢆ๰᱌ࡋࡓࡓࡵ࡜࠸ࢃࢀ

࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢ෗┿ࡣୡ㛫ⓗ࡟ࡣRutherfurd ࡢ

௦⾲ⓗ࡞௙஦࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ1860ᖺࠊ

࢝ࢼࢲ໭㎶ࡢࣛࣈࣛࢻ࣮࡛ࣝⓙ᪤᪥㣗ࡀ࠶ࡗ ࡓ࡜ࡁࠊSecchi (1852)[64]࡜ྠࡌࡼ࠺࡟ኴ㝧 ࡜᭶ࡢྠ᫬෗┿᧜ᙳࢆ⾜࠸ࠊ᭶ࡢ⦕ࡀࢩ࣮ࣕ ࣉ࡞ቃ⏺ࢆసࡿࡢ࡟ᑐࡋࠊኴ㝧ീ࡛ࡣ⦕ࡀࡰ

ࡅ࡚࠾ࡾࠊ୧ኳయࡢᵓᡂࡢ㐪࠸ࢆ᫂☜࡟♧ࡋ ࡓࠋࡲࡔ‵ᘧ஝ᯈ࡛ࡣ࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊࡇࡢ㡭࠿ࡽ ḟ➨࡟㩭᫂࡞⏬ീࡀᚓࡽࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋ

1861 ᖺ࡟ࡣ࢝ࢭࢢࣞࣥ཯ᑕᮃ㐲㙾㸦ཱྀᚄ

13࢖ࣥࢳ(33 cm), ↔Ⅼ㊥㞳 240 cm㸧ࡢヨస ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇ࡛࠸ࡿࠋࡇࢀࡶࣇ࢕ࢵࢶࡼࡗ࡚〇 సࡉࢀࡓࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊ࣓ࢵ࢟ᢏ⾡ࡀࡲࡔ༑ ศ࡛࡞࠿ࡗࡓୖࠊࢽ࣮࣮ࣗࣚࢡᕷෆࡢሻᇕ࡞

࡝࡟ࡼࡾࠊ10᪥ࡈ࡜࣓ࢵ࢟ࢆ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡉ࡞ࡅࢀ

ࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠸࡜࠸ࡗࡓ≧ἣ࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡢ࡛ࠊᙼࡣ

ヨసࢆࢃࡎ࠿3ࣨ᭶࡛࠶ࡁࡽࡵ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ᅗ 5XWKHUIXUG⫝̸ീ

:HE 6PLWKVRQLDQ ,QVWLWXWLRQ /LEUDULHV 'LJLWDO&ROOHFWLRQ ࡼࡾ㌿㍕

ᜏᫍศගほ 

Rutherfurd ࡢ ᜏ ᫍ ศ ග ࡬ ࡢ 㛵ᚰ ࡣ 1861

ᖺࡢ12᭶࡟཭ேࡢDr. W. B. Gibbs࡜ࡢ఍ヰ

࡟ጞࡲࡿࠋࡇࡢ࡜ࡁ Gibbsࡣ Fraunhoferࡀ

༙ୡ⣖㏆ࡃ๓࡟ኴ㝧ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ୰࡟ከᩘࡢᬯ ⥺ࢆⓎぢࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࢆ⤂௓ࡋࠊᙼ࡟ᫍ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ ࡑࡢ௙஦ࡢ⥆ࡁࢆࡸࡗ࡚ぢ࡞࠸࠿࡜⸀ࡵࡓࠋ

(3)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

⾲ 5 Rutherfurdࡢศගศ㢮[97]

--- ࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜Ⰽ ௦⾲ⓗ࡞ᫍ

--- 1 ኴ㝧࡟ఝࡓከᩘࡢ྾཰⥺࡜ࣂࣥࢻ Capella, șGem, Ori, ࢆ♧ࡍࠋⰍࡣ㉥ࡲࡓࡣ㯤㔠Ⰽࠋ ȚLeo, șPeg, Arcturus 2 ኴ㝧࡜␗࡞ࡗࡓከᩘࡢ⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ Sirius

ࢆ♧ࡍࠋⓑⰍᫍ

3 ⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆ♧ࡉ࡞࠸ⓑⰍᫍ Vir, Rigel

---

࠿࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢศගჾࡢ≉Ⰽࡣ᭱ึ࠿ࡽ෗┿ ほ ࢆពᅗࡋ࡚࠸ࡓⅬ࡟࠶ࡿࠋศගჾࡣࣇ࢕ ࢵࢶᮃ㐲㙾ࡢ᥋║㒊࡟ྲྀࡾ௜ࡅࡽࢀࠊ෇⟄ࣞ

ࣥࢬ࡛ᖜ௜ࡅࡉࢀࡓ㩭᫂࡞ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡀᚓࡽ ࢀࡓࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚ 1862 ᖺ࡟࠸ࡼ࠸ࡼศගほ ࢆ㛤

ጞࡋࠊࡑࡢ➨1ሗࡣ⩣ᖺ1᭶࡟Amer. J. Sci.

Artsㄅ࡟ᥖ㍕ࡉࢀࡓ[98]ࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚࢔࣓ࣜ࢝

࡟࠾࠸࡚ࡶྠࡌ 1863 ᖺ࡟࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡜ࡣ⊂

❧࡟ᜏᫍศගࡢ᫬௦ࡀጞࡲࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢᖺ࡟ᙼ

ࡣ 3ࡘࡢㄽᩥࢆබหࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ࡇࡢ➨㸯ㄽᩥࡣGibbs࡜ࡢ఍ヰ࠿ࡽࡣࡌࡲ

ࡿศගほ ࡬ࡢືᶵ࡜ࠊࡑࢀ࡟ᚲせ࡞ࣉࣜࢬ ࣒ศගჾࡢ〇సᐇ㦂࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡢグ㏙ࡢᚋࠊほ  ⤖ᯝࢆ㏙࡭࡚࠸ࡿࠋほ ࡣኴ㝧ࠊ᭶ࠊᮌᫍࠊ

ⅆᫍࡢ࡯࠿ 17 ಶࡢᜏᫍࢆྵࢇ࡛࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢ

࠺ࡕࠊᮌᫍࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ㉥እᐤࡾ࡟ ᩘᮏࡢᮍ▱ࡢࣂࣥࢻࢆ᳨ฟࡋࡓࡀࠊࡇࢀࡽࡣ

1932ᖺ࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࣓ࢱࣥ㸦CH4㸧ࠊ࢔ࣥࣔࢽ࢔

㸦NH3㸧࡜ྠᐃࡉࢀࡓࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡓࡵࠊ

Rutherfurdࡣ࠸ࡲ࡛ࡶᮌᫍศගࡢࣃ࢖࢜ࢽ࢔

࡜ࡶ࿧ࡤࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ[99]ࠋ

ᜏᫍࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆጞࡵ࡚ぢࡓ࡜ࡁࠊࡑࡢ ከᵝᛶ࡟኱ࡁ࡞༳㇟ࢆཷࡅࠊ

ࠕᫍࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࡣ኱ࡁ࡞ࣂ࢚ࣛࢸ࢕ࢆ♧

ࡍࡢ࡛ࡑࢀࢆศ㢮ࡍࡿࡢࡣᅔ㞴࡛࠶ࡿࠋ௒ ࡢ࡜ࡇࢁࠊ⚾ࡣᫍࢆኴ㝧ࠊࢩࣜ࢘ࢫࠊࢫࣆ

࢝࡜࠸࠺ 3 ࡘࡢࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ࡟ศࡅ࡚࠾ࡁࡓ

࠸ࠋࠖ

࡜㏙࡭࡚⾲5ࡢࡼ࠺࡟3ࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ࡟ศ㢮ࡋࡓࠋ

⌧௦ⓗ࡟ぢࡿ࡜ࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ 1ࡣᬌᮇᆺᫍࠊࢢ

࣮ࣝࣉ2ࡣ Aᆺ࡛ࣂ࣐࣮ࣝ⥺ࡢᙉ࠸ᫍࠊࢢࣝ

࣮ࣉ3ࡣࣂ࣐࣮ࣝ⥺ࡢᙅ࠸᪩ᮇBᆺᫍ࠿ࠊࡲ

ࡓ ࡣ ࠊ ྾ ཰ ⥺ ࡢ ⣽ ࠸ ㉸ ᕧ ᫍ ࢆ ᣦ ࡋ ࡚ ࠸ ࡿ ࠋ

Rutherfurd ࡀ⥺ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆ♧ࡉ࡞࠸࡜㏙

࡭ࡓࡢࡣศගჾࡢศᩓࡀࡲࡔ༑ศ࡛࡞࠿ࡗࡓ ࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢㄽᩥࡢ୰࡛ᙼࡣ

ࠕ୍ࡘࡢ⪃࠼ࡀ⚾ࢆᤊ࠼࡚ヰࡉ࡞࠸ࠋࡇࢀ

ࡲ࡛ࡣࠊ࠶ࡿᫍ࡜௚ࡢᫍ࡜ࡢ㐪࠸ࡣ᫂ࡿࡉ

࡟࠶ࡿ࡜ࡉࢀ࡚ࡁࡓࡀࠊᫍࠎࡣᐇࡣࡑࢀࡒ ࢀࡢඖ⣲⤌ᡂ࡛ࡶ␗࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡢࡔࠋࡋ࠿ ࡋࠊࡑ࠺࡞ࡿ࡜ཎጞᫍ㞼ࡢᆒ୍ᛶ࡟ᇶ࡙࠸ ࡓᫍ㞼௬ㄝࡣ࡝࠺࡞ࡿࡔࢁ࠺࠿㸽ࠖ

࡜ Huggins ࡜ྠࡌࡼ࠺࡞␲ၥࢆ࿊ࡋࡓᚋࠊ

ࡇࢀࡲ࡛ࡢ⤒㦂ࢆά࠿ࡋ࡚ศගჾࢆࡉࡽ࡟ᨵ Ⰻࡋ࡚ᫍࡢほ ࡟ᣮࡳࠊᫍࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜ࠊ Ⰽࠊ➼⣭ࠊኚගࠊ㐃ᫍ࡞࡝ࡢ㛵㐃࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡳ

ࡓ࠸࡜ពḧࢆ⇞ࡸࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋᙼࡣࡍࡄ࡟ศග

ჾࡢᨵⰋ࡟஌ࡾฟࡋࠊࡑࢀࡣ 4 ࣨ᭶ᚋ࡟➨2

ㄽᩥ࡜ࡋ࡚⤖ᐇࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

➨ 2ㄽᩥ࡛ࡣศගჾࡢ᧯సᛶࢆᨵⰋࡋࠊࡲ

ࡓࠊࣉࣜࢬ࣒ࢆ㏻ࡋ࡚ẚ㍑⏝ࣛࣥࣉࡢගࡀᫍ ࡜ྠ᫬࡟ど㔝࡟ධࡿࡼ࠺࡟ࡋ࡚Ἴ㛗 ᐃ⢭ᗘ

ࢆୖࡆࠊArcturusࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝࢆゎᯒࡋ࡚࠸

ࡿ[100]ࠋࡑࡢࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ୰࡟Fraunhofer⥺

(4)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡜ᑐᛂࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࢆぢฟࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ➨

1 ㄽᩥ࡜࠶ࢃࡏࠊᙼࡣࡲࡍࡲࡍᫍ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚໬

Ꮫ⤌ᡂࡀ␗࡞ࡿ࡜⪃࠼ࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋ

⥆࠸࡚ྠࡌᖺ࡟ᥖ㍕ࡉࢀࡓ➨3ㄽᩥ࡛ࡣ⮬

ࡽࡢศගჾࡢᛶ⬟ࢆ࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ ࢢ࣮ࣝࣉࡢศ

ගჾ࡜ẚ㍑ࡋ࡚ࠊගᏛ⣔ࡢほⅬ࠿ࡽ฼ⅬࠊḞ

Ⅼࢆㄽࡌ࡚࠸ࡿ[101]ࠋࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࢀࡤ⮬ࡽ〇స

ࡋࡓศගჾ࡛ࡣ Kirchhoff ࡢኴ㝧ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ

࣐ࢵࣉ࡜ẚ㍑ࡋࠊኴ㝧D⥺㸦Ἴ㛗 ~5890ύ㸧

ࡀ㸷ᮏࡢᡂศ࡟ศ࠿ࢀࡿ࡜୺ᙇࡋࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡶࠊ ࡑࡢ࠺ࡕ㸳ᮏࡣᆅ⌫኱Ẽ㉳※࡛࠶ࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ♧ ࡋ࡚ࠊศගჾࡢඃࢀࡓᛶ⬟ࢆ㄂♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Rutherfurd࡟ࡣ࠿࡞ࡾ࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡟ᑐࡍࡿࣛ

࢖ࣂࣝព㆑ࡀぢ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊࡇࢀ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࣚ

࣮ࣟࢵࣃ࠿ࡽࡣఱࡢ཯ᛂࡶ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ

ࡑࡢᚋࡢάື

ࡑࢀ௨ᚋࡶ Rutherfurd ࡣᮃ㐲㙾〇సࠊศ

ගჾ࡜෗┿ᢏ⾡ࡢᨵⰋ࡞࡝୺࡜ࡋ࡚ᶵჾ㛤Ⓨ ࡟ពḧࢆὀ࠸࡛࠸ࡿࠋ

1864ᖺ࡟ࡣ㸴ಶࡢࣉࣜࢬ࣒ࢆࡶࡘศගჾࢆ

〇 స ࡋ ࡓ ࠋ ᙼ ࡣ ࡑ ࡢ 㧗 ࠸ ศ ゎ ⬟ ࡟ ࡼ ࡗ ࡚,

Bunsen and Kirchhoffࡢసᡂࡋࡓኴ㝧ࢫ࣌ࢡ

ࢺ࣐ࣝࢵࣉ࡟ẚ㍑ࡋ࡚3ಸࡶࡢከᩘࡢ྾཰⥺

ࢆ᳨ฟࡋࡓ࡜ሗ࿌ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊඖ⣲ྠᐃࡲ࡛

ࡣ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸࡞࠸[102]ࠋᙼࡢ⯆࿡ࡣᶵᲔ〇సࡢ

ᢏ⾡ⓗഃ㠃࡟㞟୰ࡋ࡚࠾ࡾࠊᙼࡢᜏᫍศගࡀ 㛗ࡃ⥆࠿࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡢࡶࡑࡇ࡟ཎᅉࡀ࠶ࡿࡢ࡛ ࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋ

1865ᖺ࡟ࡣཱྀᚄ11.25࢖ࣥࢳ㸦28 cm㸧↔

Ⅼ㊥㞳 15 ࣇ࢕࣮ࢺ (4.5 m) ࡢᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾

ࢆ〇సࡋࡓ[103]ࠋࡇࡢᮃ㐲㙾࡜ࡑࡢほ ࡟ࡘ

࠸࡚ࡣ Gould (1867, 1878)࡟ヲࡋ࠸グ㏙ࡀ࠶ ࡿࡢ࡛ࠊࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࡑࡢ≉ᚩࢆ⤂௓ࡋ࡚ぢ

ࡼ࠺[104][105]ࠋ

1) ᑐ≀ࣞࣥࢬࡣⰍᾘࡋ࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊᚑ

᮶࡜␗࡞ࡿⅬࡣⰍᾘࡋࡀ║ど࡛࡞ࡃࠊ෗┿ឤ ᗘ࡟఍ࢃࡏࡓ࡜࠸࠺࡜ࡇࢁ࡟࠶ࡿࠋⰍᾘࡋ᮲

௳ࢆ᥈ࡿࡓࡵ࡟ Rutherfurd ࡣࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ࡟

ࡼࡿἼ㛗ศゎᐇ㦂ࢆ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡋ࡚᭱㐺್ࢆồࡵ ࡓ࡜࠸࠺ࠋᚑࡗ࡚ࡇࡢᮃ㐲㙾ࡣ෗┿൤࡛࠶ࡗ ࡚║ど⏝࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣ౑⏝࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ

2) ᮃ㐲㙾ࡣ 9 cm ™12 cmࡢ஝ᯈ࡟࡯ࡰ1

ᖹ᪉ᗘࡢど㔝ࢆᣢࡕࠊ෗┿ࡣ‵ᘧ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀ ᙜ᫬࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣࡶࡗ࡜ࡶ㩭᫂࡞෗┿ീࢆᚓ࡚࠸

ࡿࠋࣉࣞ࢔ࢹࢫࠊࣉࣞࢭ࣌ᫍᅋ࡟ᑐࡋࠊ4 ศ

ࡢ㟢ฟ࡛ 8.5➼ᫍࡲ࡛ࡢᚤගᫍࡢ᳨ฟ࡟ᡂຌ

ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[104]ࠋ

3) ᮃ㐲㙾࡜ᖹ⾜ࡋ࡚〇సࡉࢀࡓ෗┿஝ᯈ

⏝ࡢ࣐࢖ࢡ࣓࣮ࣟࢱࢆ⏝࠸ࡿ࡜ᫍࡢ఩⨨ࡀ⛊ ゅ༢఩࡛ ᐃࡉࢀࠊᫍࡢᅛ᭷㐠ືࡸどᕪࡢ  ᐃ࡟ᛂ⏝ࡉࢀࡓࠋ

ᐇ㝿ࠊGould ࡣࣉࣞ࢔ࢹࢫᫍᅋࡢ෗┿஝ᯈ

ࡢ఩⨨ ᐃࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚ 1840 ᖺࡢ Bessel ࡢ 

ᐃ࡜ẚ㍑ࡋࠊ1866 ᖺࡲ࡛ࡢ 26 ᖺ㛫ࡢ⛣ື

࠿ ࡽ Alcyone ࡢ ᅛ ᭷ 㐠 ື ࡜ ࡋ ࡚ ᖺ ⋡ ㉥ ⤒

+0”.015ࠊ㉥⦋ -0”.048 ࡢ⤖ᯝࢆᚓ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ ௚ࡢᫍ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶྠᵝࡢ ᐃࢆ⾜࠸ࠊࣉࣞ࢔ ࢹࢫᫍᅋࡢ࣓ࣥࣂ࣮ᫍࡀࡑࢀࡒࢀ␗࡞ࡗࡓ㐠

ືࢆ♧ࡋࠊࠕࡇࡢᫍᅋࡀ༢୍ࡢ⣔⤫ⓗ㐠ືࢆ♧

ࡍࡶࡢ࡛࡞࠸ࠖ࡜⤖ㄽࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ᅗ *RXOGࡢ⫝̸ീ

(5)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

⾲ 6 Rutherfurd ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚᧜ᙳࡉࢀࡓኳయ࡜෗┿ࢿ࢞ᩘ[96] --- ኳయ ࢿ࢞ᯛᩘ ほ ᮇ㛫

--- ኴ㝧᧜ീ 175 ᯛ 1860 – 1874 ᖺ

ኴ㝧ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ 174 1860 – 1874 ᭶ 435 1858 – 1877 ᜏᫍ 664 1858 – 1877

---

Rutherfurd ࡢ෗┿ᢏ⾡࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣࠊᚋ࡟

࡞ࡗ࡚ Rees (1892)ࡶࡇࡢ᫬ᮇࢆᅇ㢳ࡋࠊ18

60 - 70ᖺ௦࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣ᭱ࡶඃࢀࡓ෗┿࡛࠶ࡗࡓ

࡜㧗ࡃホ౯ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[106]ࠋࡇࡢ 11 ࢖ࣥࢳᮃ

㐲㙾ࡣ 1870 ᖺ࡟ Gould ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚࢔ࣝࢮࣥ ࢳࣥ࡟⛣タࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡀࠊ㍺㏦ࡢ㏵ ୰࡛ᑐ≀ࣞࣥࢬࡀ┿ࢇ୰࠿ࡽ㸰ࡘ࡟๭ࢀ࡚ࡋ ࡲ࠺࡜࠸࠺ࣁࣉࢽࣥࢢࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡸࡀ࡚ࠊ᪂

ࡋ࠸ࣞࣥࢬࡀ฿╔ࡋࠊ1871ᖺ࡟࢔ࣝࢮࣥࢳࣥ

ࡢ୰ኸ㧗ᆅ࡟ࣛࢸࣥ࢔࣓࡛ࣜ࢝ࡣ᭱ึࡢኳᩥ

ྎ࡜ࡋ࡚ Cordoba ኳᩥྎࡀ㛤タࡉࢀࡓࠋ࢔

ࣝ ࢮ ࣥ ࢳ ࣥ ࡢ ࡜ ࡁ ࡢ ኱ ⤫ 㡿 Domingo F.

Samiento ࡣ⚃㎡ࡢ୰࡛ࠕࡶࡋࠊ⚾ࡀᇶ♏⛉

ᏛࡢⓎᒎࢆᨭᣢࡋ࡞ࡅࢀࡤࠊᩥ᫂ㅖᅜࡢ௰㛫 ධࡾ࡜࠸࠺⌮ᛕࢆᨺᲠࡋࡓࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠖ࡜㏙ ࡭࡚ࣛࢸࣥᅜᐙࡢពẼ㎸ࡳࢆ⾲᫂ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚Gouldࡀึ௦ྎ㛗࡟௵࿨ࡉࢀࡿࠋ

ࡇࡢኳᩥྎ࡛ࡣ Rutherfurd ࡢᮃ㐲㙾࡟ࡼ

ࡗ࡚༡ኳࡢほ ࡀ㐍ࡵࡽࢀࠊ1879ᖺ࡟ࡣ㸵୓

ಶࡢᫍࢆྵࡴ Uranometria Argentina ࢆබ

หࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[107]ࠋࡲࡓࠊࡇࡢࢧ࣮࣋࢖ほ ࡢ

୰࡛Gould ࡣ᫂ࡿ࠸㹀ᆺᫍࡀ㖟Ἑ㠃࡜⣙20o

ࡢഴࡁ࡛ᖏ≧࡟ศᕸࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࢆⓎぢࡋࡓࠋࡇ

ࢀ ࡣ ⌧ ᅾ ࠊGould Belt ࡜ ࿧ ࡤ ࢀ ࡿ ࠋ

Uranometria ࡣ ᚋ ࡟ ᣑ ᙇ ࡉ ࢀ ࠊ ୍ ⯡ ᫍ ⾲

Cordoba Durchmustrung (CoD, 1892 -

1900) ࡜ࡋ࡚㡰ḟබหࡉࢀࡿࠋ

1868ᖺ࡟ࡣ Henry Fitz ࡜ࡢඹྠ࡛13࢖

ࣥࢳᒅᢡ㙾ࡀ〇సࡉࢀࠊRutherfurd㑰ࡢኳᩥ

ྎ࡟タ⨨ࡉࢀࡓࡀࠊRutherfurd ࡣࡇࡢᮃ㐲

㙾࡟ࡼࡗ࡚෗┿ほ ࡟ᑓᛕࡍࡿࠋࡇࡢᮃ㐲㙾

ࡣᑐ≀ࣞࣥࢬࡢእഃ࡟ 13 ࢖ࣥࢳࡢ⿵ṇࣞࣥ

ࢬࡀࣇ࢛࣮࢝ࣝࣞࢪ࣮ࣗࢧ࣮࡜ࡋ࡚ྲྀࡾ௜ࡅ

ࡽࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠾ࡾࠊࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚↔Ⅼ

㊥㞳ࡀ15ࣇ࢕࣮ࢺ࠿ࡽ13ࣇ࢕࣮ࢺ࡬▷⦰ࡉ

ࢀᝨᫍ࠾ࡼࡧᫍ㔝ࡢ෗┿ほ ࡟ጾຊࢆⓎ᥹ࡍ ࡿࠋ

ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ1880ᖺ௦ึᮇ࠿ࡽᙼࡣḟ➨࡟೺ᗣ

ࢆᐖࡍࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡇ࡜ࠊ࠾ࡼࡧࠊࢽ࣮ࣗ ࣮ࣚࢡᕷ⾤ࡢᣑ኱࡟క࠺ගᐖࡢࡓࡵほ ࡀḟ

➨࡟ᅔ㞴࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡇ࡜࡞࡝ࡢ⌮⏤࡛ࠊ1883

ᖺ࡟ࡣࡇࡢᮃ㐲㙾࡜᧜ᙳࡉࢀࡓ෗┿ࢿ࢞ࡢࡍ ࡭࡚ࡀࢽ࣮࣮ࣗࣚࢡࡢࢥࣟࣥࣅ࢔኱Ꮫኳᩥྎ ࡟ᐤ㉗ࡉࢀࡓࠋࡇࡢ࡜ࡁࡢ෗┿ࢿ࢞ᯛᩘࡣ⾲

6ࡢࡼ࠺࡟1456ᯛ࡟㐩ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ[96]ࠋ

Rutherfurd ࡣ⾲ 6 ࡢࡼ࠺࡟✀ࠎࡢኳయࡢ ෗┿᧜ᙳࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊࡑࡢ࠺ࡕࠊᜏᫍ࡟ ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣศග෗┿ࡀྵࡲࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ࠿࡝࠺࠿ࡣ ᫂ࡽ࠿࡛࡞࠸ࠋᫍ㔝෗┿࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࡣࢥࣟࣥࣅ

࢔኱Ꮫኳᩥྎ࡛ᗈ⠊࡞ゎᯒࡀ㐍ࡵࡽࢀࡓࠋ୰

ᚰ࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡢࡣH. Jacobi࡜ H. S. Davis࡛

࠶ࡿࠋ2ேࡣRutherfurdࡢᜥᏊRutherfurd

Stuyvesantࡢ༠ຊ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚୺࡜ࡋ࡚どᕪࢆ୰

ᚰ࡜ࡋ࡚ ᐃࢆ㐍ࡵࠊከᩘࡢㄽᩥࢆබ⾲ࡋ࡚ ࠸ࡿࠋRees (1897)ࡢࣞࣅ࣮ࣗ[108]࠿ࡽࡑࡢ ୍㒊ࡢ⾲㢟ࢆ࠶ࡆࡿ࡜ࠊ

ڧࣉࣞ࢔ࢹࢫᫍᅋࡢ Rutherfurd ෗┿ࡢ ᐃ

(6)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

ڧșCyg ࿘㎶ᫍ㔝ࡢRutherfurd෗┿ࡢ ᐃ

(Jacob)

ڧRutherfurd ෗┿ࡢ ᐃ࡟ࡼࡿȣ࠾ࡼࡧȟ

Cassiopeiaࡢどᕪ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ (Jacob)

ڧRutherfurd ෗┿ࡢ ᐃ࡟ࡼࡿȞCas ࡢど

ᕪ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ (Davis)

ڧRutherfurd෗┿ࡢ ᐃ࡟ࡼࡿ 61 Cyg࠾ࡼ ࡧ Bradley 3077ࡢどᕪ (Davis)

ࡑࡢ࡯࠿࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

ࡇࢀࡽࡣࢥࣟࣥࣅ࢔኱Ꮫኳᩥྎ⣖せ࡟ᥖ㍕ ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚ࠊࡲࡔ‵ᘧ஝ᯈࡢ᫬௦

࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊRutherfurd-Fitz ᮃ㐲㙾ࡣᜏᫍ

ኳᩥᏛࡢⓎᒎ࡟኱ࡁࡃᐤ୚ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Rutherfurd ࡣ 1870 ᖺ௦௨ᚋࠊᜏᫍศග ࡟ࡣྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇ࡛࠸࡞࠸ࡀࠊ୍᪉࡛ࡣࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ ࢕ࣥࢢࡢ㛤Ⓨ࡟኱ࡁ࡞ຊࢆὀ࠸࡛࠸ࡿࠋࢫ࣌ ࢡࢺࣝ⥺ࡢἼ㛗 ᐃ࡟ࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢࢆ⏝࠸

ࡓ ࡢ ࡣ Fraunhofer ࡀ ᭱ ึ ࡛ ࠶ ࡗ ࡓ ࡀ

Rutherfurdࡶࡑࡢ㔜せᛶࢆㄆ㆑ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࢢ

࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢศගࡢ฼Ⅼࡣࢫ࣌ࢡࢺࣝ⥺ࡢ఩ ⨨ࡀἼ㛗࡟ẚ౛ࡋἼ㛗 ᐃ࡟㐺ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࠿ࡽ ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

Rutherfurdࡀᫍࡢศගࢆጞࡵࡓ㡭ࠊ᭱Ⰻࡢ

ࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢࡣࢻ࢖ࢶࡢFriedrich Nobert

ࡀ 1850 ᖺ௦࡟〇సࡋࡓ㢧ᚤ㙾⏝ࡢᑠᆺࢢࣞ

࣮ࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡇࢀࡣ⁁ᩘ296 mm-1

࠸࠺ࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊࡑࡢ〇సἲࡣ௻ᴗ⛎ᐦ

࡜࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋRutherfurdࡣࡑࡢࡓࡵ➨1Ṍ

࠿ࡽࡑࡢ〇స࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇࡔࠋ㏱㐣ᆺࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ ࢕ࣥࢢ࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊ࢞ࣛࢫ࡟⁁ࢆ้ࡴ࣮ࣝࣜࣥࢢ

࣐ࢩࣥ࡜ࡋ࡚ᙼࡀ⪃᱌ࡋࡓࡢࡣࠊ࣮ࣔࢱ࣮࡟ ࡼࡿࢫࢡ࣮ࣜࣗ㥑ື࡜ࠊ࢝ࢵࢱ࣮࡜ࡋ࡚ࢲ࢖

ࣖࣔࣥࢻ࣊ࢵࢻࡢ౑⏝࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ1867ᖺ࡟1

ྕᶵࡀ〇సࡉࢀࠊኴ㝧࡜ᫍࡢศග࡟౑⏝ࡉࢀ ࡓࡀࠊࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ〇స࡟ࡣࢫࢡ࣮ࣜࣗࡢ

Ᏻᐃᛶࡸࢲ࢖ࣖࣔࣥࢻ࣊ࢵࢻࡢᙧ≧ࠊࡑࢀ࡟  ᗘไᚚ࡞࡝࡟኱ࡁ࡞ၥ㢟ࡀṧࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ཭

ேࡢᩍᤵRoodࡢ༠ຊ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࡇࢀࡽࡢᨵၿ࡟

஌ࡾฟࡋࠊ1875ᖺ࡟࡞ࡗ࡚ࡼ࠺ࡸࡃ‶㊊࡛ࡁ

ࡿ㏱㐣ᆺࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢࡢ〇స࡟ᡂຌࡍࡿࠋ ࡇࢀࡣ 16.4 mm ™ 24.5 mmࡢ㠃ୖ࡟ 680

mm-1ࡢ⁁ᩘࢆࡶࡕࠊNobertࡢࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥ

ࢢࢆ㐶࠿࡟ࡋࡢࡄࡢࡶ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ1877ᖺ࡟ࡣ

㔠ᒓ㠃ୖ࡟཯ᑕᆺࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢࡶ〇సࡋ࡚

࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚Rutherfurdࡣࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ

ࡢ㛤Ⓨ࡛▱ࡽࢀ࡚࠾ࡾࠊHenry Draperࡶᙼࡢ

ࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ࡛ኴ㝧ࡢศගほ ࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸

ࡿࡀ[109]ࠊᙼ⮬㌟ࡣ࡞ࡐ࠿ࢢ࣮ࣞࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ࡟

ࡼࡿᜏᫍศගほ ࢆ⾜ࡗࡓグ㘓ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋ

Rutherfurdࡣ 1858ᖺ࠿ࡽ 1884ᖺࡲ࡛ࠊ ࢥ

Rutherfurd ࡣ≀ᰂࡽ࠿࡛Ẽ๓ࡀࡼࡃࠊ

ୡ⣖ࡢᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾ࡢᘓタ≧ἣ

ࣟࣥࣅ࢔኱Ꮫࡢホ㆟ဨࢆົࡵ࡚࠾ࡾࠊኳᩥ  ᆅᏛᩍᐊࡢタ❧࡟ᐤ୚ࡋࠊࡲࡓࠊ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝

⛉Ꮫ࢔࢝ࢹ࣑࣮࡟ࡣタ❧ጤဨ఍ࡢ᫬ᮇ࠿ࡽཧ ຍࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚⢭ຊⓗ࡟ࡍࡍࡵࡽࢀࡓ ᙼ ࡢ ௙ ஦ ࡣ ࡑ ࡢ ᚋ ࠊ ࢔ ࣓ ࣜ ࢝ ࡟ ࠾ ࠸ ࡚ ࡣ

Henry Draper ࡟ᘬࡁ⥅ࡀࢀࠊࡉࡽ࡟ศගほ

 ࡣE. Pickering࡟ࡼࡿ Harvardศගศ㢮

࡬࡜Ⓨᒎࡋ࡚࠸ࡃࠋᬌᖺࡢ Rutherfurd ࡣḟ

➨࡟೺ᗣࢆᦆࡡ࡚ࠊࡋࡤࡋࡤࣇࣟࣜࢲࡸ༡ࣚ ࣮ࣟࢵࣃ࡞࡝࡬ࡢ㌿ᆅ⒪㣴ࢆ⥆ࡅ࡚࠸ࡓࡀࠊ

᭱ᚋࡣ1892ᖺ5᭶ࠊ╀ࡿࡼ࠺࡟ࡋ࡚ 76ṓࡢ

⏕ᾭࢆ㛢ࡌࡓࠋGouldࡣ Rutherfurd࡜ࡢ30

ᖺࡢ஺཭ࢆᅇ㢳ࡋࠊᙼࡢࡇ࡜ࢆḟࡢࡼ࠺࡟ㆭ ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ே࡟ࡣぶษ࡛␗࡞ࡗࡓពぢ࡟ࡶᐶᐜ࡛࠶ ࡗࡓࠋᙼ࡟ࡣෆẼࡉ࡜㐲៖῝ࡉࡀࠊᶵჾ

㛤Ⓨ࡟࠾ࡅࡿ኱⫹ࡉࠊ㎞ᢪᙉࡉ࡜ྠ᫬࡟ ഛࢃࡗ࡚࠾ࡾࠊࡑࡢẼ㉁ࡣ◊✲⪅௰㛫࡛  ࠿ࡃ㏄࠼ࡽࢀࠊ኱ࡁ࡞⛉Ꮫⓗ่⃭ࡢ※ Ἠ࡟ࡶ࡞ࡗࡓࠋ࠸ࡎࢀࡢⅬ࠿ࡽゝࡗ࡚ࡶ

ᙼࡣࡍࡄࢀࡓ⤀ኈ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࠖ

(7)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧

ࡇࡇ࡛ᮏ㢟࠿ࡽࡑࢀࡿࡀࠊ1898 ᖺࡢ The

O

࢖ࢬศᕸ (The Obs. 21, 239, 1898)

1

ࡿࠋ2 ࡿ

࡛ࠊᜍࡽࡃ1880-90ᖺ௦ࡀ኱ᆺᒅᢡ㙾ᘓタ

---

ཱྀᚄ(࢖ࣥࢳ) ᮃ㐲㙾ᩘ

bservatoryㄅ (Vo. 21, 239)࡟ 19ୡ⣖࡟࠾

ࡅࡿ኱ᆺᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾(12 ࢖ࣥࢳ௨ୖ) ࡢࣜࢫ

ࢺࡀ♧ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛ࡑࢀࢆ═ࡵ࡚ぢࡼ࠺ࠋ

1830ᖺ௦࠿ࡽ1898ᖺࡲ࡛࡟ᘓタࡉࢀࡓᮃ㐲

㙾⥲ᩘࡣ 124ྎ࡟㐩ࡋࠊࡑࡢࢧ࢖ࢬศᕸࡣ⾲

7ࡢࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ㸦15-19࢖ࣥࢳ࡛ +1 ࡜

࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡢࡣࡇࡢࣜࢫࢺ࡟ Rutherfurd ࡢ

ᮃ 㐲 㙾 ࡀ Ḟ ⴠ ࡋ ࡚ ࠸ ࡿ ࡓ ࡵ ࡛ ࠶ ࡿ ࠋ ࡇ ࢀ ࡣ

Rees ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᣦ᦬ࡉࢀࡓ㸧ࠋḟ࡟ࠊࣜࢫࢺ࡟

ࡣ〇సᖺ௦୙᫂ࡀከ࠸ࡀࠊ▱ࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿศ࡟ ࡘ࠸࡚኱ᆺᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾ࡢ〇సᖺ௦࡜ཱྀᚄࡢศ

ᕸࢆᅗ 21 ࡟♧ࡍࠋࡇࡢᅗ࠿ࡽ኱ᆺᒅᢡ㙾ࡢ

〇సࡀ 1880 ᖺ௦࠿ࡽᛴ㏿࡟ቑ኱ࡍࡿᵝᏊࡀ

࠺࠿ࡀࢃࢀࡿࠋ࡜ࡃ࡟ࠊ20࢖ࣥࢳࢆ㉺ࡍ኱ᆺ

ᒅᢡ㙾ࡣ1880ᖺ௦࡟࡞ࡗ࡚ึࡵ࡚ᘓタࡉࢀ

⾲ 7 1898ᖺࡲ࡛࡟ᘓタࡉࢀࡓᒅᢡᮃ㐲㙾

---

40 1

30 – 39 6

20 – 29 19

15 – 19 36 +

12 – 14 61

--- ྜィ 124

---

0ୡ⣖࡟ධࡿ࡜཯ᑕᮃ㐲㙾ࡢ᫬௦࡜࡞

ࡢ඲┒ᮇࡔࡗࡓ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋ

(8)

ኳᩥᩍ⫱ ᖺ ᭶ྕ㸦9RO1R㸧 㸦7KH2EV ࡼࡾసᡂ㸧

[6

te

[9

is Morris Rutherfurd, pp.1 – 15.

bs.harvard.edu/full/1

ᩥ ⊩

4] (෌ᥖ) Secchi, A. 1852, AN, 333, 139-141, Schreiben des Hern Secchi der Sternwar Collegio Romano an den Herausgeber.

(ึᮇࡢ᪥㣗෗┿ほ ࡟㛵ࡍࡿྎ㛗ሗ࿌)

6] Rees, John K. 1906, Contributions from the Obs. of Columbia Univ., No. 1. The Rutherfurd Photographic Measures, No.1. Lew

㸦ఏグ㸧

http://articles.adsa 906CoRut...1...5R

7] Gould, B. A. 1895, Memoir of Lewis Morris Rutherfurd, 1816 – 1892, Repo [9

rt al Academy, pp. 415 – 441.

[9

ions

[9

the

[1

ith the

[1

rvations

[1

ts, 39, 129 (6-prism

[1

෗┿൤ࠊࣉࣞ

࢔ࢹࢫࠊࣉࣞࢭ࣌ᫍᅋ᧜ീ)

[1 867, AN, 68, 183 – 186,

[1 13 –

[1 . 1892, The Obs., 15, 49 – 51

[1

nal Argentino en

[1 . 1873, Philosophical Mag. 46, 418, On diffraction spectrum photography.

ᑠᬽᬛ୍㸦ඖி㒔኱Ꮫ㸧 tkogure@pa2.so-net.ne.jp

04] Gould, B. A. 1

Schreiben des Herrn Dr. Gould an den Heausgeber.

05] Gould, B. A. 1878, The Obs., 2, 19, Celestial Photography. 㸦Rutherfurd

ᮃ㐲㙾ࢆ୺య࡜ࡋࡓࣞࣅ࣮ࣗㄽᩥ㸧

06] Rees, J. K

Preliminary notice of the Rutherfurd’s star-plates.

07] Gould, B. A. 1879, Resultados del Obervatorio Nacio

Cordoba, Uranometria Argentina, pp. 385. (ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥㄒ)

for Nation

㸦ఏグ㸧

8] Rutherfurd, L. M., 1863, Amer. J. Sci. & Arts, 35, 71, Astronomical observat

[108] Rees, J. K. 1897, Bull. Yerkes Obs. of the Univ. Chicago, 5, 431 –435.

09] Draper, H with the spectroscope. 㸦➨ 1ㄽᩥ㸧

9] Taylor, F. W. et al. 2004, in Jupiter: The planet, satellites and magnetosphere, Bagenal, F. et al. (eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press, p. 59 – 78, The composition of atmosphere of Jupiter.㸦ᮌᫍศග㸧

00] Rutherfured, L. M. 1863, Amer. J. of Sci. and Arts, 35, March, 407, Astronomical observations w

spectroscope. II. 㸦➨2ㄽᩥ㸧

01] Rutherfured, L. M. 1863, Amer. J. of Sci. and Arts, 36, June, 154, Obse

on stellar spectra. 㸦➨3ㄽᩥ㸧

02] Rutherfured, L. M. 1864, Amer. J. of Sci. and Ar

spectroscope).

Updating...

参照

Updating...

関連した話題 :