Again, this is done because doing so makes these combinations of consonants far easier to pronounce. It is also something that Japanese learners of English are recommended to
make some effort to cultivate in their own speech, as it makes unnecessary (and therefore
counteracts) such katakana-pronunciations as [アンドリ 4 4
One of my favorite grad classes at Wayne State University was called Oral Interpretation. We learned techniques of reading aloud from fi ction and poetry, and the public reading ̶ not performing ̶ of plays. Reading aloud is an important part of family life for many parents, and of teaching, but in this class we were trained as public readers for live performances or radio. The poet Gary Snyder gave a reading of his poems in Detroit, and partly because many of his poems were about his life in Japan, my interest in Japan was re-awakened. A Detroit poet urged me to read a poetry magazine published in Kyoto, called Origin, to fi nd more poems by Gary Snyder, and there I discovered a translation of the Noh play Yashima. My study of theater history included reading about Noh, Bunraku and Kabuki, but I had had diffi culty understanding why people were excited about Noh from reading translations by Arthur Waley, and the Ezra Pound/Ernest Fenollosa book. This translation of Yashima was strikingly different. I began to correspond with Cid Corman in Kyoto. Cid and Will Petersen were the translators, and Cid urged me to get in touch with Will Petersen, who was teaching at Ohio State University, a few hours drive from Detroit. So I telephoned his offi ce at Ohio State. Later, Will told me that he had not been in his offi ce for months; he walked in and the phone rang, with me calling. This was my fi rst mysterious experience in connection with the world of Noh. I met Will, and in addition to other draft translations he showed me dozens of notebooks about his lessons as an amateur performer of shimai, the dance of Noh.
lucky/, /happy/, /little/, etc., have nothing whatever to do with the pronunciation of those consonants, themselves, and function only to indicate that the immediately-preceding vowel is
being used to indicate a short vowel, and not a long one or a diphthong. Useful in demonstrating this are the pairs /lucy/[lu:sı] and /lucky/[l Λ kı], and /biter/[baıt ə:] and /bitter/[bıtə:]. Due to the unfortunate incorporation of at least /lucky/ and /happy/ into learners’ native vocabularies, but as pronounced with completely inappropriate glottal stops inserted (i.e. as, respectively, [ ラッ 4 キー], and [ ハッ
望 月 通 子 MOCHIZUKI Michiko
MAKE is a high frequency verb regardless of style and register, whereas GET is high in frequency in spoken English but low in written English. Both MAKE and GET are used as activity verbs and in causative constructions, and both are difficult for EFL learners since they are polysemous and light verbs. This paper compares differences in the use of MAKE in academic prose written by Japanese university students and by American university students with ICLE-J as the learner corpus and LOCNESS as a reference corpus. Results show that Japanese learners of English underuse causative MAKE as well as phrasal/PP MAKE but overuse idiomatic MAKE and that money MAKE and light verb MAKE are underused in MAKE NP constructions, with creative MAKE overused.
トーレス = ボデーは、1928年に発表された「新しい詩」 9） と題する文章で、同時代の詩の行
方について省察をおこなっている。そのなかで、トーレス = ボデーは、文学全体が危機にさ らされていることを認めながら、しかし、死にかけているのは詩だけにとどまらず、深刻な懐 疑主義に陥った文明精神そのものであり、その元凶は実証主義にほかならないと主張している。 さらに、高踏派、象徴主義、ダリオのようなモデルニスモの詩人たちを点検したうえで、従来 の頽廃したロマン主義を乗り越えた同時代の詩を生み出す必要性があることを訴えた。“A través del poema se sienten los andamios que el artista no tuvo tiempo de destruir. El lector atento podría hacer, dentro de cada uno de ellos, la historia de una emoción romántica y su tránsito al esquemático juego de inteligencia en que se realiza. Lo que era aritmética, nú mero lleno de sugestiones y de promesas, se ha ido trocando en álgebra, fría ecuación de astucia.” 「詩を通して、芸術家に崩す暇のなかったさまざまな足場があることが感じられる。 注意深い読者ならば、それぞれの裡にロマン主義的な感動の物語を作り上げ、その感動が成就 される図式的な知の遊びへと移し変えることができるだろう。算術的なもの、つまり暗示と約 束で満たされた数字であったものは、代数学に、狡知の冷たい等式に転じてしまった」。トー レス = ボデーは、ここで示されたような変革の意思が、まだ不完全なものであるにしても、ジャ ン・コクトーやルヴェルディ、ヘラルド・ディエゴ Gerardo Diego（1896‒1987）やアルベルティ Rafael Alberti（1902‒1999 ）、フェルナン・シルバ = バルデス Fernán Silva Valdés（1887‒ 1975）やオリベリオ・ヒロンド Oliverio Girondo（1891‒1965）といった詩人たちの作品に見 出せるとしている。