Solve the following problems in Snyder and Nicholson (11th):. 1.[r]

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Solve the following problems in Snyder and Nicholson (11th):. 1.[r]

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Prisoners’ Dilemma: Analysis
( Silent , Silent ) looks mutually beneficial outcomes, though
Playing Confess is optimal regardless of other player’**s** choice! Acting optimally ( Confess , Confess ) rends up realizing!!

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(d) Zermelo’**s** theorem assures that the first mover has a winning strategy in ANY perfect information game with strictly opposite interests.
(e) The weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium puts NO restriction on beliefs at the information sets that are not reached in equilibrium.

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(d) What is the Nash equilibrium of this game? 4. Mixed Strategy (15 points)
Three …rms (1, **2** and 3) put three items on the market and can advertise these products either on morning (= M ) or evening TV (= E). A …rm advertises exactly once per day. If more than one …rm advertises at the same time, their pro…ts become 0. If exactly one …rm advertises in the morning, its pro…t is 1; if exactly one …rm advertises in the evening, its pro…t is **2**. Firms must make their daily advertising decisions simultaneously.

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5. Bayesian Game (20 points)
There are 10 envelopes and each of them contains a number 1 through 10. That is, one envelope contains 1, another envelope contains **2**, and so on; these numbers cannot be observable from outside. Suppose there are two individuals. Each of them randomly receives one envelope and observes the number inside of her/his own envelope. Then, they are given an option to exchange the envelope to the other person; exchange occurs if and only if both individuals wish to exchange. Finally, individuals receive prize ($) equal to the number, i.e., she receives $X if the number is X. Assume that both individuals are risk-neutral so that they maximize expected value of prizes.

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(c) Confirm that by choosing the tax t appropriately, the socially optimal level of pollution is produced.
(d) Add a second firm with a different production function. Now the consumers observe a pollution level b = b 1 + b **2** . Show that the social optimum can still

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Consider the following two-person dynamic game. In the …rst period, game A is played; after observing each player’**s** actions, they play game B in the second period. Assume that the payo¤**s** are simply the sum of the payo¤**s** of two games (i.e., there is no discounting).

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4. Auctions (30 points)
Suppose that the government auctions one block of radio spectrum to two risk neu- tral mobile phone companies, i = 1, **2**. The companies submit bids simultaneously, and the company with higher bid receives a spectrum block. The loser pays nothing while the winner pays a weighted average of the two bids:

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Three firms (1, **2** and 3) put three items on the market and can advertise these products either on morning (= M ) or evening TV (= E). A firm advertises exactly once per day. If more than one firm advertises at the same time, their profits become 0. If exactly one firm advertises in the morning, its profit is 1; if exactly one firm advertises in the evening, its profit is **2**. Firms must make their daily advertising decisions simultaneously.

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That is, given that the incumbent’**s** information set is reached, choosing A is clearly optimal irrespective of her belief over nodes. → Choosing F looks non-credible.
SPNE cannot eliminate this since there is no proper subgame. Weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium (explain in detail later) is enough to exclude (O, F ) in this case.

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A belief about other players’ types is a conditional probability distribution of other players’ types given the player’**s**
knowledge of her own type p i (t −i |t i ).
When nature reveals t i to player i, she can compute the belief p i (t −i |t i ) using Bayes’ rule:

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First-Price: General Model (1)
Consider a first-price auction with n bidders in which all the conditions in the previous theorem are satisfied.
Assume that bidders play a symmetric equilibrium, β(x). Given some bidding strategy b, a bidder’**s** expected payoff becomes

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Axiomatic Approach (**2**)
PAR (Pareto Efficiency) Suppose hU, di is a bargaining problem with v, v ′ ∈ U and v ′
i > v i for i = 1, **2**. Then f (U, d) 6= v. The axioms SYM and PAR restrict the behavior of the solution on single bargaining problems, while INV and IIA require the solution to exhibit some consistency across bargaining problems.

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Proof Sketch (**2**): Existence of Pivotal Voter Lemma 3 (Existence of Pivotal Voter)
There is a voter n ∗ = n(b) who is extremely pivotal in the sense that by changing his vote at some profile he can move b from the very bottom of the social ranking to the very top.

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Explain.
(b) Show that any risk averse decision maker whose preference satisfies indepen- dence axiom must prefer L **2** to L 3 .
3. Question 3 (4 points) Suppose a monopolist with constant marginal costs prac- tices third-degree price discrimination. Group A’**s** elasticity of demand is ǫ A and

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b + (1 )b 0
where b is the winner’**s** bid, b 0 is the loser’**s** bid, and is some constant
satisfying 0 1. (In case of ties, each company wins with equal probability.) Assume the valuation of the spectrum block for each company is independently and uniformly distributed between 0 and 1.

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Dual Problem - Theory | 双対問題 - 理論 (3)
Thm Suppose the consumer’**s** preference is continuous, monotone and strictly convex. Then, we have the following relations between the Hicksian and Marshallian demand functions for p ≫ 0, ω ≥ 0 and u ∈ R, and i = 1, **2**, ..., n:

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Let w = (w 1 , w **2** , w 3 , w 4 ) ≫ 0 be factor prices and y be an (target) output.
(a) Does the production function exhibit increasing, constant or decreasing returns to scale? Explain.
(b) Calculate the conditional input demand function for factors 1 and **2**. (c) Suppose w 3 >

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すべて**の**プレーヤーに支配戦略が無いゲームでも解け る場合がある
「支配される戦略**の**逐次消去」（後述）
（お互い**の**行動に関する）「正しい予想**の**共有＋合理性」 によってナッシュ均衡は実現する！

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