いた。鎖の両端をそれぞれ A と B ，また A から x 離れた点を P とする。 B を力 F で水平に引っ張ると全体が加速度 a で動いた。
19-1. 運動の様子を図示せよ。点 P における鎖の張力を S とする。 【解答】右図の通り。図の S は， A ∼ P 部分を右に引く張力である。もちろ ん実際には P で鎖はくっついているが， S が A ∼ P 部分に働くことを明らか にするため少し離して書いた。図の左向きの力は， S の反作用であり， P ∼ B 部分を左に引いている。
Although the structure of a GSR is hard to be identi- fied, it may not be secure if part of the contents of the GSR leak out. To avoid such leakage, we consider more secure scan registers whose contents never leak out. First, we de- fine several concepts in the following. Consider a circuit C with a single input, a single output, and k flip-flops. C is called to be scan-in secure if for any internal state of C a transfer sequence (of length k) to the state (final state) can be generated only from the connection information of C, inde- pendently of the initial state, such that the transfer sequence is always different from that of a k-stage shift register. C is called to be scan-out secure if any present state (initial state) of C can be identified only from the input-output sequence (of length k) and the connection information of C, such that the output sequence is always different from that of a k-stage shift register. C is called to be strongly secure if C is scan-in secure and scan-out secure.
Excellence in Mentoring and Advising, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University. He served as a distinguished visitor of the IEEE Computer Society during 2005- 2007 and 2010-2012, and as a distinguished lecturer of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society during 2006-2007 and 2012-2013. He currently serves as an ACM distinguished speaker. He served as the editor-in- chief of IEEE Design & Test of Computers during 2010-2012. He cur- rently serves as the editor-in-chief of ACM Journal on Emerging Tech- nologies in Computing Systems and IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems. He is also an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Computers, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on Multiscale Computing Systems, and ACM Trans- actions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems. He serves on the Steering Committee of IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Compu- tational Devices and Circuits, and as an editor of the Journal of Elec- tronic Testing: Theory and Applications (JETTA). In the recent past, he has served as an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems (2005-2009), IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (2001-2013), IEEE Transactions on Cir- cuits and Systems I (2005-2006), and IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II (2010-2013). He is a fellow of the ACM, the IEEE, and a golden core member of the IEEE Computer Society.
Book Review: Small Firms in the Japanese Economy by D. Hugh Whittaker, Cambridge University Press. Journal of Economic Literature 36 (December 1998), 2186–8.
“Guest Editor’s Introduction,” Journal of the Japanese and International Economies 11 (1997), 314–318. Japanese Translation: Paul Milgrom and John Roberts, Economics, Organization and Management. Prentice-Hall, 1992 (with Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara and Haruo Imai).
overhead scan design approach for protection of secret key in scan- based secure chips,” Proc. 25th IEEE VLSI Test Symposium. pp.455– 460, 2007.
 G. Sengar, D. Mukhopadhyay, and D. R. Chowdhury, “Secured flipped scan-chain model for crypto-architecture,” IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol.26, no.11, pp.2080–2084, Nov. 2007.
8 Aqua Restoration Research Center Kawashima Kasada-machi Kakamigahara-City Gifu Prefecture, 501-6021,
9 Water Resources Environment Technology Center, Tokyo, Japan.
We conducted complimentary analysis for fish fauna covering the entire Japanese archipelago as well as the specific regions such as Hokkaido and Kyushu. The results were compared with the protected areas (national parks and other reserves) to see the gaps between them. Although important areas found by the complimentary analysis in Hokkaido were relatively covered by the current reserves, those in Kyushu were not protected. There is a bias of data availability in Kyushu, and therefore we should fill the gaps of database using niche models for various species before complimentary analysis. Sediment control dams and water reservoir constructions and gravel mining are causing progressive sediment starvation in Japanese rivers, which results in rapid degradation of the riverbeds followed by forest expansion. Benthic invertebrates and fish cannot survive there, and migrating fish lose their spawning habitat. Bar-braided channels are changed to single-thread channels, and thereby habitats for overwintering juvenile fish will disappear. The bars and floodplains are covered by trees, because flood disturbances are greatly reduced by dams. The forest expansion has indirect impacts on material flows and organisms in the rivers and floodplains. It may reduce primary production and water temperature, and increase allochthonous input, which affect invertebrates and fish. Not only aquatic organisms, terrestrial animals, such as birds and mammals, also suffer from various impacts of forest expansion. The maximum stream temperature in summer may rise associated with dam construction and global warming. We focused on whitespotted char and Dolly varden as an indicator species, and build a niche model to predict shrinkage of their distribution by those impacts.