速度 a で歩くと，板は 水平面に対して 加速度 b で動いた。人が板から受ける水平 方向の力を F として以下の問いに答えよ。
15-1. 運度の様子が分かるように図 ( 座標軸，力，加速度を含む ) を描け。 【解答】右図の通り。 x 軸は，地面に静止した座標系である。 F ′ は，板が人か ら受ける力である。本来なら F の始点は人の足の裏に， F ′ の始点はその直下に書 くべきだが，人も板も質点として扱うので力の矢印の始点を見やすいように移動し
4 Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute, Yanagasaki 5-34, Otsu, Shiga 520-0022 Japan
While freshwater ecosystems provide ecosystem services essential to human well-being, such as provisioning of water and fishery resources, they are the most vulnerable to human disturbances and have been concerned about their biodiversity loss. We focus on the ancient Lake Biwa because it has been exposed to various severe anthropogenic environmental changes during the last half century though its high biodiversity and endemism. Various past environmental and biota data of the Lake Biwa are recorded during the period of progressing ecosystem deterioration. We can trace back changes in biodiversity and identify human drivers and environmental pressures for the biodiversity loss. This knowledge would provide many insights for conservation of biodiversity not only for the Lake Biwa but also for Asian lake ecosystems. In this study, we focus on a littoral benthic macro-invertebrate fauna because its habitats, located in the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, are the most vulnerable to human activities. The archival data revealed that there was a significant trend for the littoral zoobenthos diversity to steadily decrease as time elapsed, especially in shallower area and that the temporal pattern of abundance was quite different among taxa. We found that community structure of the littoral benthic macro-invertebrate was largely affected by environmental factors associated with problems occurred in the Lake Biwa: e.g. eutrophication, warming and massive submerged macrophyte stand. In this talk, we will also introduce other current outcomes and future perspectives for establishing plan of conservation for the biodiversity of lake ecosystems.
5-2. この系の状態数 Ω(E) を求めよ。系のマクロ性に対する近似 (E ≫ E 0 ) を用いてよい。
例題 2. 3 次元空間中の一辺 L ，体積 V = L 3 の立方体中の領域 (0 ≤ x, y, z ≤ L) だけを運動する N 個の自
由粒子からなる系について，系のエネルギー固有状態とエネルギー固有値，状態数 Ω(E) を求めよ。
自習 2. 2 次元空間中の一辺 L の箱 (0 ≤ x, y ≤ L) の中だけを自由に運動する質量 m の自由粒子に対して，
generates and uses the variable. Two operations o 1 , o 2
are compatible if s(o 1 ) ̸= s(o 2 ) and t(o 1 ) = t(o 2 ). A
compatibility for two blocks is more complicated. It is required that input variables, operations, and output variables appearing in the two blocks are mutually com- patible, respectively. In addition, if these variables or operations appear as both input and output variables or appear in the other blocks, it implies resource sharing among them and compatibilities are required among the variables or operations that share the same resource. For a partition of a set of DFG paths, sets of variables or sets of operations that share the same resources are de- termined. We call such a set of variables and a set of operations a super variable and a super operation, re- spectively.
was proposed to improve the hierarchical testability of the data path, which can aid hierarchical test generation. In , the authors presented a DFT technique for extracting functional control- and data-flow information from RT-level description and illustrated its use in design for hierarchical testability. In , the authors presented a method based on strong testability, which exploits the inherent characteristic of datapaths to guarantee the existence of test plans (sequences of control signals) for each hardware element in the datapath. Compared to the full-scan technique, this method can facilitate at-speed testing and reduce test application time. However, it introduces hardware and delay overhead. To reduce overhead, the authors proposed a linear- depth time-bounded testability-based DFT method in . It ensures the existence of a linear-depth time expansion for any testable fault and it offers lower hardware overhead than the method in .