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シェア "社会問題の調査を目的とする短期海外研修とその外国語獲得に及ぼす影響に関する記述分析"


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(1)Title. 社会問題の調査を目的とする短期海外研修とその外国語獲得に及ぼす影 響に関する記述分析. Author(s). ヒンクルマン, ダン. Citation. 北海道教育大学紀要. 第一部. C, 教育科学編, 44(1): 11-29. Issue Date. 1993-07. URL. http://s-ir.sap.hokkyodai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/5293. Rights. Hokkaido University of Education.

(2) . 4巻 第1号 北海道教育大学紀要 (第1部C) 第4 i i Sec i I lof Hokkaido Univers ty ofEducat t Jouma onIC) VOL44 on( ‐ , No. 平成5年7月 ly Ju ,1993. Short term overseas Tours to ‐ Research Soc ial工ssues and their Ef fects upon Fore・gn‐Language Acquisit ionl. 社会問題の調査を目的とする短期海外研修と その外国語獲得に及ぼす影響について2. Don HINKELMAN. H0kka ido Un i i i r n izawa Campus ty ofEdu (at on ver s :lwa lwa i l ・ l zawa068 ,japan. Aるs 云md:Short term gouPtoursaboard are an increasingly conl lnon apProach f ‐ orjaPanese ional highschoolsand universitiestostudy Engl i ignlanguage and pro1 - 1 1oteinten]at sh asafore i tudy and homestay experiences are sm‐ Cun↑ ent programs bas ed on intensive C1assroom s l l ivat ing contentthe ialeducat imi ion,and an t tured experient tedby weaklylr Iot o r r u ーnes o s c y ,p ive cho i i ions ip des inat ional exclus t sh speaking countries as t ce of native Engl r ・ Aainstruct d d igns i i h i i f i 1 des h t t t h i d h f i 1 i i d 1 t t t s e n sS u n ra egy n W c er me n e r俵s earc o soca Ssues n eveoping pe ions may be advantageous f experientiall nat ent o anguage education, recent ‐ The develop江ー changesi n 位egoalsoflan罫iageeducationin Japan,and acontent…based approachtolangi 1age. i i ion are the ma i i i t ies jortheoret acqu S s alte1native strateをw‐ Three case stud calbas sforth descr i beshort l ippi term s tudytomsto Phi ‐ nes coand Korea WhereJapanesehighschool , Me×i 1 1 ied a fore ign 1anguage to r様search socia1issues and co ege students app1 ‐ ln each case ,a icipant obse i betheobject ived 1ver methodoloをw was used to d part f渇cr {おi t虹, gn ーof mestudyto. iveresponsesoftheparticipantsandtheat i thesub t tudechangestowardlan ject earndng ≦鶏agel . observat ionsind i i i ing groups both speak in a second language, t cate 化l at when host and ▽ s lean i l d d T h i t ighbor r lers appear mo ing As ian nations and a v c e rereaxe an s suggesl$ せー atne . Th i ions may beappropr 1d nat inat ionsforJapaneses iate des t ingto tudentgroups Wish rdv▽or r l hance Engl i sh acquisition. A content‐based,experiential approach to language 血struction e i ia lissues wasal W嘘 ch focuses on thethemeofsoc sofound to pro電dest rong motivation for languagel ighschoo land 山国vers i lstudents‐ tyl earmngin both h eve. 概. 要. 集団で短期海外研修をする制度は, 外国語としての英語を学習したり, また国際認識を高める目 的で, 今や高等学校や大学に広く普及してきている. しかしながら, 残念なことに, 短期集中語学 11.

(3) . Don 日1地q 三 LMAN. コースやホーム・ステイの形を取る プロ グラムの多くは, 内容が不充分で, 経験を積めばただ単に 学習できるという安易な内容の構成は極めて貧弱であり, しかも目的地として選定される英語圏の 国にも偏りがある. そこで, 発展途上国を訪れて, その国が抱える社会問題について学生に実 地調査させるという新 しい教育計画の試みを考案した. これは従前の研修形態と比べると極めて意義深いものであると考 える. その理論的な背景には, 経験を通して学習させようとする言語教育が新しい展開を見せてい ること, 日本の言語教育の目的に大きな変革があっ たこと, 内容重視の言語獲得ア プローチが昨今 叫 ば れて い る こ と, に あ る.. 本論の目的は, フィ リピン, メキシコ, 韓国を目的地とした3つの短期海外研修の場合について 記述分析していくことである. それらの研修には日本人の高校生と大学生が参加 した. 彼らは, 外 国語としての英語を使ってそれらの国が抱える社会問題を調査していっ た. 本研究では, 研修目的 の妥当性や, 参加者の生の声, 言語学習に対する態度の変化を記述するために, 参加者を直接観察 する方法を取っ た. その結果, 受け入れ側と研修生, 双方が第2言語で話す場合の方が学習者はよ り緊張が少なく, 積極的な姿勢が見られることが分かっ た. このことは, 英語の上達を目的とする 日本人学生には, 隣接するアジア諸国や第3世界の国々 が研修目的地として適当 であることを示唆 している. また, 研修内容と経験を重視する言語指導のア プローチは, 高校生, 大学生を問わず, 言語学習に対する強い動機を与えることも明らかに なっ た.. lnt・oduct ion i Engl ty asjapanesestudents i shstudy toursto overseas cowュtries aregroWingin popular i ion i r language educat l nphas zing experiential education as a part of the and school s are e progran口 ‐. However many o i l l l va lue of e×per ial i i l to real i fthese Programs fa ent ze the f ,. ion′for t he ma in Part ofthe languages inuing s tandard classrool tudy by cont メ 1 ‐based instruct h i i l k i d d i i i tou W i t ] h d d dh t t t t t i r on ana e omesayass尊血鑓en- na ,na vespea ngcounressuc as Great hl i l inat ion whi Br l ia t i in t ta ce of des e ra , andthe USA are the overw e m ng choi , Canada , Aus l i i i i d d t f i l t ighbor ing As ian natons or Thrdv▽ord coun res are rare y cons ere appropr a e or ne. Eng1 i ド パ 1 1 attempt to out1ine some advantages to language tudy s paper ヤ sh1anguage s ・ Thi i i ion when an overseas tour uses a content‐based approach whi t ch focuses onthetheme acqは s l lowingthi loping nat ion inat ionin、 ialissues andtargets a des t sbackground a deve ofsoc ‐ Fo , lege students took l lbe descr ibed where Japan three case s tudi {おe high school and col es wi ialissues‐ tenn s th a focus on soc tudy tou short - こ rs wi. one i l grouP gathered f rom s a smal. コ he l lage development program in a rural area of t i i i ted a vi t Eお who vi s several univers. i i Phi ingl t tute whos l ipPines tud edcontempo‐ elanguageins salarger group froln as . APotheri lthat i l juana rdi rary urban Prob co sa hi ego emsin san Di ghschoo . A th , USA and Ti , Mexi i i red students to ▽ t a sister schooli n Korea orgaがzed over one hund s ‐ ln each case, the ’sub ive bed a long wi l lbe descr i ivedes ign ththes tudent ject tudy experience wi ject s ob Lofthes l “ ー ly l ines on the i t t tude changes toward language . responses and a ng ear ‐ Final ,some guide l lbe presented. fect ialissue s des i ivesoc tudy tours wi gn ofef. 12.

(4) . Sho ト V t t i ll i f i i i r - enno e r eaSTOW r t i s st oRe t s e を U r chSoc a s s = u e sand 位e rEf ec suponFo r e on zmg l ageAcqu s gnL j. Theoret i icaIBackground caland Pract A1 thoughl l ; hyimmersionin a forei仰 cotmtry is perhaps the fastest way to learn a eng language short ftWoto s term tours o ix weeks are of ‐ i l tenthenextbesta te rnat ve , . Giventhe. l propensity in Japan to take gtoup tours,they are also relatively easy pro算ams to tura cul in i iate wid=n educat t ionalinst i ions i ion tut t . ln add , when a sho比‐tenn tour is structured fsoc iali t ; herbenef i around a the lne o i t lowingsection ssues ]nefur scanbereal zed ,so ‐ Thefol l inest heoret i land practical advantages to these kindsoftours. out ca. ヱ ヒメ Ed“cのめ“ . 丑寒Padβ”霧 Exper i ia l educat ion i la纂room s ide oflanguage acqui i ion ent s the non- t us c t s e海 the ‐ l ingco ロ ヒ ロty andlocalrEおourc(お to gainlanguagespeaking practice‐ Experiential surround 1mmU ’ 1anguage1 i bl 1 unone t thspeakersofthe earningi sposs e wi shomecountrybutactualcontactwi target lanー鶏age are l l l imi d i t ted A t ign cow] i i i e n c o t m e r u s t t r ua y means vs ng a fore ec zy‐ . Theimportance ofthi fmarm, Manin & Wr scomponentcat灯1otbe overemphasized. Kauf eaver 1992 ( 3 )report on studies matnot only show students acquire morelan≦鶏age abroadthをm at :3 homebuttr i l ion fowld between pr iorcla ere has been no co attr ]汀elat ミ渇room studyi nthehome i i cot 刀itry and lan罫lage acqu ion abroad t s i l fect t t e ef ‐ VVhy would classroom study havesol ld? Perhapsi ie uponsuccEおsi ti nthef i i ioni sbecausel ea l r ningthePメ t リce s s oflanー型age acqu s s moreimportantthan lea・ning the conec t 元“ “ ” 雄 of 節elan chtendto betaughtin き 罫 lage whi i f i i classrooms ing whi cantkinds of procE渇sl eanl g n q ch occl虹 in experientialeducation . Twos ionalre ion and culturelearning‐ f l are emot ect. oneimpo沈antaspectoflan罫lageacquisitionis せ}ecoping process一机 故 emotionalchangfぉ. ‐. Much classroom attention i ive or lo淳calthinking s ide of acq山s s given to me cog頃t i ion t ‐ M[oving out ofthe classroo1n hasthe benef i fd l i w i ives t o ea ng th ロ コ ds af fect ide oflanguage lear i ゴ ロng- Fr ion confus ion hu l iat ion and inadequacy are col ÷ ustrat コ ni 1 1 lnon exper lences as - , , l iv ing and col i i thl f t i sociated wi ign country. Therei r l lnun ca ng n a or e s an emotionallearning. hati s pa賃 of me mastery of a lan罫1age. According to BroWn ( process t 1992 l頚ng a ) ear ,l ‘ ‘ language meansl ’ i l l k tera yta ing on a newse l f ident i i lf mayruncounterto ‐ t : y ssecond se ‐ Th , ive- language ident i one ty‐ s nat. Recog fortable widh i t is a long コ国zlng and becoming co江. C 1 l icate t assroo ln t l i infulbut necessaryl process r須山ng can rare y repl l s kind ofpa . earmng e×per lence ‐. FWF thennore ing one l fint コ he targetlanguagei 1ners se i s an ideal way to acq口 ,inl re what ‘ ‘ ’ Damen( l l h f 1987 i f h k t i l r fl t )ca s l 辻turel i ゴ ロng e s ○ anき聾age ear t 口 r el earがngi s not a - Cmt ,c. f contents i i tudyofthespec t ing how 1anguagei chabi sofacountry buta proc( 養 う 1 sofdi scover f t se i i ferent ly luesarei suseddf i lnpl edbyboth whati sspoken and notspoke ] 氏 - Deeplyrootedva 13.

(5) . Don 日1N I Q 三 LMAN. s a Product ofa Kゴ ロowi ng when to speak, who to sPeak to,and how a conversation Proceedsi l d i ) i ) l conversation s stanCe tyl Cs ( tura cs 街ody lan e ≦ 夢lage cul , and tempora ‐ Kines , proxemi ive lt i lnunicat i ime st of no止verba ~叩esof conl t tudes( t )arejust a few examples of a vastl at. l l( 1970 )suggestthat i icat rdw垣ste behavior onresearcherssuch as Bi ‐ Crossculturalcommun l pat tems tura ion depends on these cul f communi cat as much as 70% o ‐ Furdhermore , an l i ic utterances t ion proce繁 can occur 故rough para s ‐ nーmi 12 iona 0% ofthe communicat t addi in i iondependentuponl ion l ingintonat i ingandfa l ] ) cat ≦mis ( eavinglo% ofcommun ns s s ut ,l ,r ,al iderabl ing on the i i ion(words ) i y depend t g旧es vary cons cvocal zat . W1methesef ,sentences i l i i i l h i t t t fofthecomlnun ca on process nvoves esenon s i ion feven hal ‐ ngドds caspect tuat s ,then ,i ion ide ofcomm口匡ロcat l i h ds contextual s i l language educators need to dramat ze 仁 ca y emphas . in tand i( s dsin mind in 1977 Wi t )sugges lnerneedsto bebothl thth sthatalan圭醜agelea ≦醜i ,Fant i f ferent ingtol iveina d 1987 )add 故atonlybyl earn et粒lo 圭打apher . Sikkema and Niyekawa( “ ” l i l l d f ferentsetofculturalvaluescan active c tu 二 ra un erstand‐ i i ron Jment under a d calenvl phys d l i res ingtake p1ace. Ftばthermore,since Eng1 shi susedg1oba1 y by a variety ofcu1tt刀 ,stu ents l 頭t l 迂tureto c i ion changesf i L u r e i iveto how Engl rom c t cat sh comm則n mustbesens .. ive icat r ま t tputslan罫lageini i Aj ootherbenef s natm「alcommmn tofan overseastouri ati st l ftoa meansofcom munication‐ High t se earhingf rom anendini rol e - changinglan き鶏agel iせま er an l and 山国vers i eaIPing as e ty students in pa貴i ew lan罫ユage l cular tend to vi schoo ly lowly and pedect l lto be mastered s ion h lated ski l s are examinat so I亘d e or an i . Student th thing rather せま fhow せl an wi l ly more conce・ned wi th 口} l コ no eysaysome e co1けectfor genera l h h f V i i i h r h l d t t f h ln asnoreevance thecontento w att ey wanttosay‐ enpace nas ua on w ere or i lpedection and geta messageacross- tforge tgr buto副ycontentcomits,students mus ca ammat oxford( 1990 :8 )states that “com muldcative competence requires realistic interaction among ized lan罫lagご’ ingf山,contextual ing mean l eamersus . There are many ways that classroom‐ b l故 i fl d ingsuch anenvironにnent imulat basedl earbingcancomeclosetos , ut e most meanng u an. t コ h whom you strongly ioni th a personin another cultu ingfaced wi ; re wi tuat contextualsi sbe ロ ヒ 亘cate Wi l l l lnロ sh to co . ′content or 故eme fimply anypart i l ion doesnotbyi t Theob iveofcomm 叩dcat cular se ject l h h ion forlanguageeducat ‐ Thereare many acceptable generalthemessuc asgeogTap y,trave, 粒 h l V ce or hea lser th care. But w c contenti s i f i inessandspec cthemessuch as hote andbus. iv総 of ject tdependsonthelan bes ? Thebes tcontentthemecan beany of 故ese t ≦鰯ageob . l inton ing to Br i電dua lleanier and of society as a whol e theind . Accord , Snow and VVesche. 1989 ) ( , students who leam. th personal relevance tend to have a ‐based 故eme content s wi. ly relevant ′ i inue, the l l ing reason to cont rlanguage stu雨es. For、exannple, a personal compe i l d d ialissues‐ ingl 故emefor yotmg studentsin Japani ncreas si y towar s env rom〔nenta an soc di d d based preparatory schoo1 i Kwmon Kyoiku Kenkyu-ka , sur▽eye ts stu ents an , an osaka- ion tat f l ly conce i i ew fo em ofdefores lned wi位 値eprobl ca t 紅 ldthatover70% werespec . lnVi. 14.

(6) . Sho t t i ll r d 故e i ‐ e rm oo e r s ea sTo i 1#st oRe s e ar chSoc t a i i i s s sa l t ue 1 rE仕ec suponFo r e img t ageAcq s on l 1 gnL l. i i le i l i ofdhestudents’des re andt i i r consciousness oft t e quant e ; sof paper used bytheschool , Kuエロonorgamzeda workcampo ft超牝ystuden t tedareaoflndones ia stoplantt reesinadefores Staf f ( 9 93 ives in langl ion as a who ) ject ooking at Japads ob l lage educat e ,1 . L , , tec無口cal iciency in reading and translat ing Engl i prof sh has been para inount for many decades .. Towardsthi s aim,the gram mar/translation me位od wasidealin preparing studentsforgood inat ionpedorn i住道nthelas exan l tdecade 口ance iveprof i i l l l山国cat l c encyl sgrowlng asa ‐ VV ,con i lb i i . f t t d i h goa or n enュa ona us nessesan s g tseeingtourists‐ Thus functionallessonson business ,. ionalcooperat andtravelthemeshavebecome popular‐ ハdostrecently,鴛l ter ion hasbe I Iat come l as thousands ofJapanese volm]teers tech唖cians and peacekeepers go abroad a new goa , ,. ‐. l lyinvo Equa lved are those working dom巴き i l ly wi t ign trainees, students, and i th fore ca 1 I I In1 - nginincreasing nuu C nberstoJapan grants who arecomi ionfor st rendtowardcomm血眼cat ‐ Thi inteInat ioni ional izat fsoc ialissues beco江ーes an appropriatecontentfocus エ ー eo s wherethethe, ‐. Wi inth i th ti ter ofl stheme i i s no longerjust a mat ions or earning Engl shfor aski ng d rect ,i i 1 ロ ー ialogueabouttheva e×pla luesofa d ng a productbutal i f f l soto d ior tu i i t erentcロ ] r e eお ,thepr forspend ing money on developll ly l ent Wi se ,and otherambiguous questions. T 6 跨ぎ雌 賜o″〆 De 云物励め“s s ‐ As匁“/7 Le客r E ing ngl i qmcat 1 i 力 L 1 ivespeaking coun- ly Wi th nat sh has a Widerrol ethancon l lnU e gsol iessuch as Gr tr i in orthe Uq i ta tedstates eat Br i iona l sh operates as a defactointernat . Engl ‐ lan≦鶏age andi ial ly usefulfor busin{認s and travelin As ian cowltries, J sespec apzm’ s closest. ighbors 1992 l l i )ca i ne sEngl sha”global do曲ngi zedlan t u l - okmlo( ≦犯agぎ’andrecommendsabz s imageas aforeigl W i h thermore h i f t t d h l d l llan≦犯age J t er s eo t a a na o n r s w r o e o r s a ‐ Fur { 鵜 p g , l l lbe more andl ofaidto deve oping countries,citizens wi ththesoc ialissues ] 【 lorei nvolved Wi. i ions ldnat of Th rdVVor リ ヒ ロcalassistance progranls are . Volunteer,studentexchange ,andtech increas ing tot hesecount i 化 V V i t h i iastoward Euj res an e lnocentrc b t ; hA rope and Nor i Iロer ‐ I ca. ,. lan圭獄age educators and ordinary Japane se often neglect contact. ighbor ihg nations‐ th ne wi. study tours to nearby As ian countries can open mindsto the widerimpo貴anceofEngl i sh as loba11anguage‐ Theypro立Ioteinternationa1 ionata direct persona11evelratherd izat ag hanas ,. l l lidea an abs t ract ectua . ,inte Z Cだ瓦cα/ 7湾加島物g Cr i i t dhigherl l l calthinking al i lul l eve sofana lderstanding are necessa1γ for content ca yt - lan≦犯age instmct based、 ion‐ Moh 1986 ) point zm ( :iv s out 鉱at a lanき醒age teacher using a t l content approach 広ー d i us coor na tebodhthe deve op11 flanguageandthe develop11 1 ent o f 1 ent o. l “nking t ing ロ コ dsin a second languagei l tyetshould not be ass則med to be s di茸i cd ‐ E×press l l t h d d i f dl soey e omano a vance earners- Even elementary s tudent scanspeak aboute電dence ia lprobl ofsoc i ems rhomecotmt ry sforchangeboth ,compare 菌ds wi位 the ,and makejud卸ロent h he ▽ i i ing country- The contenttheme ofsoc at oαL e andt t s ia l or globa li i t ssues benef sthe languageleanr hanc l ingthi lerbye i icalthinking t i l i I Unkingi t scr calt sbestapproached ‐ Butcr ia l ma ln a s ive le equent t r u lersta貴ing f jec l i rom ob l ing on z江ly obse tythenref lvablerea ect ,c ions be foreinterpretations can be n.ade・ 1nt personalenlot h ds process of conscious せ=nking. ,. 15.

(7) . Don HI I O I LMAN N. ldarot dthem ←l ingthewor i ing 1ofhear ivel insattheob 江 l ng ject a person beg eve ,andsens ,see. ”lhate enざ7 lus( imu l i ) l l ngstowardthatst om fee p soref ectupon, see a pe〆) e may a . ‐ Wr. A. ienceぐ be l i lthat way and abs eve pens t ldeeperi 1 ractupon 故eexper sto say why wefee eve ’ l ional wi l can be ca l l i fashioned) sdom ld‐ eve ed 故einterpretive l sl eve are o . Convent ‐ Th f i ix t T h l h i l l l t e rs d a e s e v e n a d t e r n r hat on y a vance earners can converse a us s eve‐ suggestst 1 1coI i i f i 1 1 1nunicate i 1 目 i ffor i ed texts and sti to ten years o I r ー ng arefaced W1th s ra na1Eng1 sht p1 l. lpol i iona hemessuch as educat However many content cy ‐basedt , , ’ d b i l b i b d t iori ies or i i h t j d t i t j v e o v a n s u e c e s e c o n o e e o s e ronmental pr r n e n o u s g envi p p y g g , 〕 ヒ f llevelsr i ia at mor esupe c. t anking fwhy?” loft i t l i ty by askingthe question,‘ veleve rea lpre . ,aninte 8 sq 7 f s彰御”な ‐ Fe僻猪妬か 力γ Lα呼e 配“鎚る8 i i bi l ionyetremalnsaposs ty lfor i ialeducat i i b d d Longter d ent ・nofexper l nstu ya roa 、san ea for very few foreignlanguagestudents ‐. f However short ter ready parto ‐ ln studytours are al ,. i ies l t t high school the cun〔iculuim in mos eges and 山国vers s and many col ‐ ln atleast one i ix weeks l tudytourtoanat i l dorcol ve Sapporo areajun jorsgoonas sh ma ege ,70% of 故e Eng Engl ish speaking country‐. ing for the teachers but have been These tours are exhaust. fects upon the students ional ef ivat inued year af ter year because of the strong mot cont ‐. l ibi i i blyopen 官i ty ian comコtriescould reducecostsandposs Redes ig山ng 化l eposs t 刀 r sto As eseto to even mo re students‐. inglanguageacqul overseastou ia lissuesthusplayanimpo食antrol ‐ s l eineねhanc ; rs onsoc l advanじages by fer fundamenta ion based i i r 1 forc ing c lassroom‐ truct ion and re t ns ‐ They of i ゴ ロng fec lopmentinlanguagel ingaf ivedeve ialeducation,enabl ‐ t ear ( 五ngexper ient provi ,immers ive goals,using 窟lotivating content コ ヒ 立cat l ing studentsincu turalcontexts,focus無g on co l l l lnロ , l l F l l l i i i d t t fd i v x r l o n i a v e e e e e s s n a i i t t omo n e v a u l l W i W i d n r d t a p y 係 3 n a o n s p g a r e ves yo a o ng . , , L l i tytohan司 i lbenef i heprac elarge t ter t に ndgteatercapabi soflowercosta ー ln tourshavet ca shorヒ fstudents. nuェnbers o. M[ ethodology i r s as 1 Li ented tou〕 t t e or no docu叢口ented research has been conducted on socia1i祭sue or ・ ‐ i ion t ructonai iedto 1apz eins sengagedinlan罫lageeducat u l esestudent appl ‐ Approachesto せl ialeducation areconsequentiy qui tetentative and experimen‐ ient ignofsuchformsofexper des fexper ia ieduca‐ ient i ten unstructured natu ; re o i ta sperhaps duetotheindependent si ‐ Th ,of “ ” ies i b f h d df i d T h f t f i h iont at t s non‐aca en・c . i ere ore t on or rolnthepercept , e ore ar an as 畳leor i ld tested,and f approaches need to bef ions can be made a Wide variety o e or recom mendat , i hus ionofanappropdateresearch meせま t odoiogyt 〕 n ; ended manner repo edinanopen‐ - Theques ive lperspect ti l i i ivetec卸P iques whi s i l r ca tat ed ch wouldpro電dea detai eads usto qua - l ,empi thodoiogy waschosen‐ l h ds contextthatthefol f owing research me rom t ipantobserverresearch h dspaperemployedapani - Thedescr ipt iveapproachoft c ‐method。・ 、 l 立t i iveres i・ i tud tudina sand esto der cases l鎚mar zedt脳eeiongi ch documented andsu o≦評 whi 16.

(8) . Sho i t t ll f } i ‐ i r enn ove r s easTom t 「 st o Re s ear chSoc a s s sand甘 e ue rEf ec suponFo r e gn. i i i t 弧g t ageAcqu s on l. col i i ion i l l lnon featuresl thodo logy of fersa nmmberof t eadingtowardlanguageacqは s s me ‐ Th. l i iveapproachi advantages fulforinv総t tat rst igat ingal imi tednmmberofcases suse ‐ Fi ,a qua in dep位‐ Genera l i i l l l nu団nber of subjects, however, may not be wi tyf zabi rom such asma se l though deta i led descr ipt ions can be extremely useful for subsequent appl icat ion of the a ient iall ly lana ina lys tud i proposed desigr an lin an exper ≦醜age pro s can l享am. Second ,alongi better asce【aint heprocess ofchangeovertime▽Vthin arathercomplex setofvar iab1 E潟 such ionalstudi asi n an educationai program. 1n contrast ldbe moresu i ‐sect e i s Wou tedfor , cross large numbe f i b ted at one po ntint ime where one var rso su ject iabl lated stes ei si so .. Thethree casesse1ected Were sin. i 1ari i r cod=non purpose to research socia1i藻;ues. nthe HOWever i iontosub f fer i inggroup size,destination,issue ject cat sofd ,each represented an appl focus school ma l d l l f i i i T h l i j n l o r n a a t a e v e e o 罫1 g acqus on e Phi uded ten Ppines tour inc , - , 6-22 l i students l e and e e ghtfema , age 1 ,two ma. wi鉱 valying majors (nursing, economics, ion and Eng l i f h f f d i h l o educat t ) ior Eng l i s rom eren sc oos nehighschoolstudenthad no pr sh ‐. ience Wh i l i i ty Engl speakingexper l ethetWo 山国vers jors wereatanadvancedleve sh ma ‐ The i is gl th‐South relations and probl ssue focus f or th s Nor 「oup wa ems of developmentin rural. I M [ areas i exi leand a co group Wascompr l l sed of48student s ‐ The USA/ ,agel9‐21 ,90% fema . inthesameintensive Eng l i h s ang.age pro惇r am- As a vocational school , general entrance leve l i l i lylowerthanmn ivers ty weregeneral i sofEngl tystudent shabi though motivation may sal have been h ighdueto thespec ia l lyfocused cuu r riculwm. Theissue focus wa s open‐ended and ind ividua l l ided thoughstudentstendedtochoosecontemporary 則「ban problemssuch as ydec ,al i wome口srolein society or AIDS treatment. Theth rd pro≦;ram consisted offemale,second ighschoolstudentsf year rom a privateinstitution‐ BetWeen loo and150 ofthese students ,h K i t orea each yearto study Korean‐Japanese relations and examine problems of re vi s ice jud p. betweenthetwocoun ies i t l i ty washigherせl r thighschoolstudent shspeakingabi an mos s ‐ Engl because t i tended an overseas program to r p members had previously at. USA or Englandfor. l i l ロng dur ing d t le i i igh school sht rai pure Eng rf rstyear ofh ‐ Docu墓nentat ion o fthe cases was th ゴ ビ ough extendedinter電ews ofthe tour 1 eaders. I ‐ AI 1 i d d h ea ers accompan e t e tours atleast once and were part oftheteam whi igned ロコe ch des icululn‐ lnt hecaseofthe Phi curr l ippineand USA/Mexicotours theyfuI i d t ・ c one as 仇echief , i bl ign andfac i l i ion espons tat person r efordes . Theinterviewsfocused on courseco1nponents, iculu ign cunr im de ions and observa‐ s ,usefultech匡亘ques,studentresponses , mistakesand adaptat , i t ons on d f i f i i ion. l th coα1 t i ion somestudentrepon;s andd cul es Wi lnunicat t iar i n add es were. ,. i inalchange. examinedfo t tud r clues to at Thefol lowingsectionsdescr ibesasu ionsrel iedheavi ly ー ー p umary oftheseinterviews ‐ Notat ive assessment oftheinformantsto determine what aspects played as on thesubject i f icant g皿i i rolef ion and personalgrowth ofthestudents‐ t orlanguage acqui s. Case Study one l ippine Vi l la Phi l lage :▽Vorkcampi VV i th the intent to explore rural development in the Th i ld rd VVor ,ten students from 17.

(9) . Don 日…斑三 LMAN. li landsofthe lv i l lage on one of 故ecent l legesspenttwelve daysin asmal ra s Sapporo area co ’ ’ ‘ ‘ h d b k l l ippine Wror camp , was oste lm山国ty l Phi ippines y a con l江, cal ed the Phi s to ‐ Thi l l ingcenterforsma IAf fai i ion twr lopmentorga ) mzat rain t tuteofCul athadat deve a rs ,せi ,thelns t A I T d t t re ma e os ay a land cottageindust angements we i tura cul scale ag ly demonstrations‐ r i lopmentpro l lage deve l lagersin several vi ject in vi sh s i tory and tojo the r dormi ‐ Since Engl ly l ipu lagers ionbetweenthestudent l ・expected et r sandvi wastheonly meansofcommU1dcat ,せま became an intensivelan ≦醜agelearnung exerclse. ing in a l lage tudent i Dur ing thee sjoined work groups garden ght days spentin the vi ,s h h f t i i i b i l d i ion vege demonstrat ・ng a comm山国t tabl e plot y u ng ,vstng ouse o ouse or a ,repair ime working fofせl tudentspenthal edayt l hea th survey,andteachingin a pre‐school . Eachs h i ividua l lyin a pro speaking person to ind ject ofthe rinterest. They had no ot er Japanese- i icat ingi tfo nEngl sh dependon andthusspentatl - l rhoursperdayconImmn eas ‐ EveningsWere lking i ing and play gu tar i l l te国ng to localyouth s i i i t s age spent v ng homesin せ} e vi s ,andta ,l ’ l b i t f u 士 亘 i d d T h f ld t a t i t e na ay consse o a comm y cee ra on tthe togetheraboutthe ays even s. formingsongs,games i i ion‐ TheJapane t c segrouppar elementa1γ schoolgraduat patedbyper ummer kimonos‐ and a danceinsu l iedby a Fi ipino youth i VVhen students vi tedhomesinthe eveningsthey wereaccompan s Having notranslator l f ty rom thecommuni . There wasno otherJapanesespeakertore y on‐ ing because dhe students had much they wanted to ask about the icular ly frust t rat was par. i ioncouldhavebeen a feinJapan i i laboutthe tuat l fami lゾsl i feand muchtote ethi ss rl . 駅 粒l h l l S i i d t b t tt i f i t t i e udent srepo〔edthey bad exper ence, n act , t urne ou o e a mo va ng c a eng ‐ terto usaboutthe t l lagersthoughtofJapanesepeopl i e(Werethey bi t r ed to ask whatthe vi l i i ive wi ty or i fes thoute impl tyl r i ect c ? e(How can youl ) el r war gl led by 故es . They wereint thonly a one‐room l肥nbing? ) sseemedcheerfulandproud wi p . They wondered why 故eparent house f ldren i r eleven chi orthe. l i fe so sul ) en in Japan? 鞘J hyis our l .. ike these ionsl t Ques. ing i r l i ef tprompt e teacher‐ During late evening and morP1ng debr rom t ng f e inerged wi故ou ing h d i li dh ed whateverwordstheycouldremember r sessions ,notpaus ,stu entsexpane ow t eyt ibl t wasimpos i lstructures‐ VVheni s e to speakin words, to f tinto perfect g ca l orm i rammat ionabout why ぬe l ingqu鮎t i t tudentra ing orhand gestures wereused. ones set sedanu l ュ nt poi l i 雄 l h h d i i ementaryschool lagerscouldspeakbe l t ter Engl shthant emse ves - {鵜pte avng o ye vi ing Eng l i bi i t ion. Add i tedthehos sh‐ They ingtothesmpr swereinus sewashow 曜日副h educat i sh t correction and had no coinplaints aboutbroken Engl lconcenled abou ngl wereseemi . y ul d h i t t t t t t i h f i l i d せ l r u u e n t J o o k t t s s e r l i t t C1 l i a a n e s e y n v r n u me n a e e t e o a c a p Was a ow rs eary ‘ fore ig tha‘ i i fofthem,i tchancetocomm山国catewi l er” i twas 故e rs rf l sh spokenEngl . . Forhal i l h i d l t 貴 i t t t d f t x e r e n c e : t e t o Thefol lowing 皿lco]nec e e×ceIP rom a s u en rep usraes s p ’ ‘ ‘ toodeachothe r i tanhour s lcou ldspeaktoh imin Engl shabou ‐ APd . Butldontknow weunder i l imeWassubs tant コ dedtounde tand myspeech l l a i r s shspeech wasnotwe ‐ 工 myEngl . Thet ,buthet ’ ’ i l l l f ld d n l i t h i i i t kW i hf tb l i i l llspea t oregner i l speak d e eve e oregner idntreal sht zetheva ueofEng . ’ l b l l d l i i N d t t t t TV l di d e f i n r s o o a ea o u i T h m n o w u e thforegner swor n my peop e oregnerwas wi . ‐ “ l f f k i d i e erence anguag‐ spea ng. ime for ip was a t l i ion to express themselves in Eng ivat Bes ides gaimng mot r sh , 故e t 18.



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