日韓共同理工系学部留学生の縦断的な発話分析 : 終助詞を含む表現に注目して

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ᣣ㖧౒หℂᎿ♽ቇㇱ⇐ቇ↢ߩ❑ᢿ⊛ߥ⊒⹤ಽᨆ

㧙⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߦᵈ⋡ߒߡ㧙            ㊄ᐸ ਭ⟤ሶ࡮ᅏ㊁ ↱♿ሶ࡮ጊ᫪ ℂᕺ ޣࠠ࡯ࡢ࡯࠼ޤ ❑ᢿ⊛ᄌൻޔ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ޔ߆ߚ߹ࠅޔ⡞߈ᚻ㈩ᘦޔ    ⶄᲑ⪭

㧝㧚ߪߓ߼ߦ

ᧄ⎇ⓥߩኻ⽎⠪ߢ޽ࠆᣣ㖧౒หℂᎿ♽ቇㇱ⇐ቇ↢㧔એਅᣣ㖧↢㧕ߪޔᄢቇ ߩቇㇱ౉ቇ೨ߩ੍஻ᢎ⢒߆ࠄฃߌ౉ࠇవߩᄢቇߦ࿷☋ߒޔߘߩᓟ߽ቇㇱߢ 㧠ᐕ㑆ࠍㆊߏߔޕߘߩ㑆ޔᣣ㖧↢ߩᣣᧄ⺆ߪޔᣣޘᄌൻߒߡ޿ࠆޕᧄ⎇ⓥ ߢߪᣣ㖧↢߇ߤߩࠃ߁ߥᄌൻࠍㆀߍࠆߩ߆ㅊ〔⺞ᩏࠍⴕ޿ޔ㧟ฬߩᣣ㖧↢ ࠍኻ⽎ߦ㧞ᐕඨߦࠊߚࠅ㧠࿁ߩACTFL-OPI (1) 㧔એਅOPI㧕 ߦࠃࠆญ㗡ࠗࡦ ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ࠍⴕߞߚޕߘߩ⚿ᨐޔળ⹤ߩ࡟ࡌ࡞߇਄߇ࠆߣหᤨߦ⡞߈ᚻߦਈ ߃ࠆශ⽎߇⇣ߥࠆ(2) ߣᗵߓࠄࠇߚޕᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔߘߩⷐ࿃ߩ৻ߟ߇ޔ୘ੱౝ ߦ߅޿ߡ࡟ࡌ࡞߿ᤨᦼߏߣߦ૶↪௑ะ߇⇣ߥࠆ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߦ޽ࠆߩ ߢߪߥ޿߆ߣ⠨߃ޔ㧟ฬߩ❑ᢿ⊛࠺࡯࠲ࠍޔ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߦᵈ⋡ߒߡ ಽᨆߔࠆߎߣߦߔࠆޕ

㧞㧚వⴕ⎇ⓥ

 OPI࠺࡯࠲ࠍ߽ߣߦ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ࠍขࠅ਄ߍߡ޿ࠆ⎇ⓥߦߪޔ㊄ (2000)ޔጊౝ (2004)ޔ↢ᄤ⋡(2009)߇޽ࠆޕ㊄ (2000)ߢߪޔKYࠦ࡯ࡄࠬ(3) ߣࠕࡦࠤ࡯࠻⺞ᩏߩಽᨆ߆ࠄޔ㖧࿖ੱቇ⠌⠪ߪޔޟࠃߨޠޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ ߾ߥ޿߆ޠߩਃᒻᑼߦࠃࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞⴫⃻߇਄⚖Ბ㓏ߢ⠌ᓧߐࠇᆎ߼ࠆߣㅀ ߴߡ޿ࠆޕጊౝ (2004)ߪޔKYࠦ࡯ࡄࠬࠍޟ⨥╮(4)ޠࠍ↪޿ಽᨆߒߚ⚿ᨐޔ ޟߨ࡮ߨ࡯ޠޟࠃޠߪೋ⚖߆ࠄ૶↪ߐࠇߪߓ߼ޔ࡟ࡌ࡞߇਄߇ࠆߦߟࠇᰴ ╙ߦჇ߃ࠆߣႎ๔ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ․ߦޟߨޠߩ႐ว⿥⚖ߢߪ㘧べ⊛ߦߘߩ૶↪ ߇Ⴧ߃ࠆߎߣࠍ␜ߒߡ޿ࠆޕߐࠄߦޟNࠣ࡜ࡓ⛔⸘(4)ޠࠍ↪޿ޟߨޠ߿ޟࠃޠ ࠍ฽߻ᢥሼ೉ࠍಽᨆߒߚ⚿ᨐޔ⿥⚖ߪޟࠎߢߔޠࠍޟߨޠޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠ 䋭㪌䋭

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ߥߤߣ߁߹ߊ⚿߮ߟߌߡ૶↪ߒߡ߅ࠅޔઁߩ࡟ࡌ࡞ߦߪ߶ߣࠎߤ⷗ࠄࠇߥ ޿․ᓽߛߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆޕߎࠇࠄߩ⚿ᨐ߆ࠄޔޟߨޠޟࠃޠߪೋ⚖߆ࠄ࡟ࡌ ࡞ࠍㅊ߁ߏߣߦჇ߃ޔ਄⚖ߦߥࠆߣޟࠃߨޠޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ߾ߥ޿߆ޠ߇ ૶↪ߢ߈ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥࠅޔ⿥⚖ߢߪޟࠎߢߔߨޠޟࠎߢߔࠃޠޟࠎߢߔࠃߨޠ ߇૶߃ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥࠆߩߢߪߥ޿߆ߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ߹ߚޔ↢ᄤ⋡(2009)ߪ਄ ᧛ࠦ࡯ࡄࠬ(5)ࠍ↪޿ޔᣣᧄੱᲣ⺆⹤⠪ߣᣣᧄ⺆ቇ⠌⠪ฦ20ฬࠍኻ⽎ߦ⏕⹺ ⷐ᳞⴫⃻ߩޟߨޠޟࠃߨޠޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߢߪߥ޿߆ޠࠍ⺞ߴߚ⚿ᨐޔ⡞߈ ᚻߣߩ౒ㅢ⹺⼂ࠍ༐⿠ߔࠆ࠲ࠗࡊߩ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ߦ߅޿ߡቇ⠌⠪ߪਇㆡಾߥ ޟߨޠޟߛࠈ߁ޠࠍ૶↪ߒޔᲣ⺆⹤⠪߇૶↪ߔࠆޟࠃߨޠޟߢߪߥ޿߆ޠ ߩ૶↪ߪዋߥ޿ߎߣࠍႎ๔ߒߡ߅ࠅޔቇ⠌⠪ߩᢥᧃ⴫⃻ߦ߅ߌࠆᓙㆄ⊛ߥ ਇㆡಾߐࠍᜰ៰ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ㩷 ╩⠪ࠄߪᧄ⎇ⓥߦవ┙ߟᅏ㊁࡮㊄ᐸ࡮ጊ᫪(2010)ߦ߅޿ߡ❑ᢿ⊛ߥ⊒⹤ࠍ ⷰኤߒߚ⚿ᨐޔ࡟ࡌ࡞ߣṛᣣᱧ߇਄߇ࠆߦߟࠇ⡞߈ᚻߦਈ߃ࠆශ⽎߇ᄌൻ ߔࠆߎߣࠍᜰ៰ߒޔߘߩⷐ࿃ߣߒߡޔ⋧ᚻࠍ㈩ᘦߒߚ➅ࠅ㄰ߒ߿⸒޿឵߃ ߇Ⴧ߃ߡ޿ߊߎߣࠍ␜ߒߚޕߘߩࠃ߁ߥශ⽎ߩᄌൻߦߪޔవⴕ⎇ⓥߢ߽ᜰ ៰ߐࠇߡ޿ࠆࠃ߁ߦ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߩࡃ࡝ࠛ࡯࡚ࠪࡦߩᄌൻ߽㑐ࠊߞߡ ޿ࠆߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕߒ߆ߒߥ߇ࠄޔߎࠇ߹ߢߩ⎇ⓥߪKYࠦ࡯ࡄࠬࠍ↪޿ߚ ᮮᢿ⊛ߥಽᨆޔ߹ߚ਄᧛ࠦ࡯ࡄࠬࠍ↪޿ߚᲣ⺆⹤⠪ߣߩᲧセߩߺߢ޽ࠅޔ ୘ੱౝߩ❑ᢿ⊛ߥࡊࡠ࠮ࠬߩᄌൻߪ␜ߐࠇߡߪ޿ߥ޿ޕߘߎߢᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔ ṛᣣᱧ߇਄߇ࠆߦߟࠇ⡞߈ᚻߦਈ߃ࠆශ⽎߇ᄌൻߔࠆ৻ⷐ࿃ߣߒߡ⚳ഥ⹖ ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߦ⌕⋡ߒޔߘߩ୘ੱౝߩᄌൻࠍ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ ߹ߚޔᓥ᧪ߪຠ⹖ࠍਛᔃߦ⎇ⓥ⠪ߩቯ߼ߚ࠲࡯ࠥ࠶࠻ߩߺߦ⛉ߞߡ૶↪ ⁁ᴫࠍ⷗ࠆ⎇ⓥ߇ᄙ߆ߞߚ߇ޔጊౝ(2004)ߢߪޔNࠣ࡜ࡓ⛔⸘ࠍ↪޿ߡ಴ ⃻㗫ᐲߩ㜞޿ᢥሼ೉ࠍ᛽಴ߔࠆߎߣߦࠃߞߡޔቇ⠌⠪ߩ޽ࠅߩ߹߹ߩ૶↪ ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦࠍតࠅᓧߚޕߐࠄߦEllis, N. (1996)ߪޔࠗࡦࡊ࠶࠻߆ࠄᓧࠄࠇ⸥ ᙘߐࠇߚޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠߩ⫾߃߇ᢥᴺ⠌ᓧߩ㓙ߩ࠺࡯࠲ࡌ࡯ࠬߣߥࠅޔߘࠇ ߇ಽᨆߐࠇߡᢥᴺൻ߇⿠ߎࠆߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆޕߘߩ㓙ߦߪޔᔅߕߒ߽ᢎᏧ߆ ࠄᢎ߃ࠄࠇߚࠃ߁ߦߢߪߥߊޔቇ⠌⠪⁛⥄ߩᴺೣߦࠃࠅ૞ࠅ಴ߐࠇࠆࡄ ࠲࡯ࡦ߽⠌ᓧߩㆊ⒟਄ߦ߅޿ߡᜰ៰ߐࠇߡ޿ࠆ(6) ޕᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ ฽߻⴫⃻ߩ⠌ᓧㆊ⒟ߦ߅޿ߡ߽ޔᤨᦼ߿࡟ࡌ࡞ߦࠃߞߡ⇣ߥࠆࡃ࡝ࠛ࡯ࠪ ࡚ࡦߦޔߘߩࠃ߁ߥࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇฽߹ࠇߡ޿ࠆน⢻ᕈࠍ߰߹߃ޔಽ 䋭㪍䋭

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ᨆࠍⴕߞߡ޿߈ߚ޿ޕ

㧟㧚⺞ᩏ

䋳䋭䋱㩷 ಽᨆ䊂䊷䉺 ᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔᣣ㖧↢㧟ฬ㧔ቇ⠌⠪Nޔቇ⠌⠪Bޔቇ⠌⠪O㧕ࠍኻ⽎ߦޔᣣ ᧄߢߩ੍஻ᢎ⢒ࠍฃߌࠆߚ߼ߦ᧪ᣣߒߚᤨὐ߆ࠄቇㇱ㧞ᐕᰴ⚳ੌᤨὐ߹ߢ ߩ㧠࿁ (᧪ᣣᤨ࡮ඨᐕᓟ࡮㧝ᐕඨᓟ࡮㧞ᐕඨᓟ) ߦࠊߚࠅޔ⚂30ಽߩOPI(7) ߦࠃࠆญ㗡ࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ࠍⴕߞߚ (8) ޕ࡟ࠗ࠹ࠖࡦࠣߩ⚿ᨐޔ⴫㧝ߦ␜ߔࠃ ߁ߥ࡟ࡌ࡞ߩᄌൻ߇⷗ࠄࠇߚޕ㧟ฬߩ㧠࿁ಽߩ࡟ࡌ࡞ߩផ⒖ࠍ␜ߔޕ ⴫䋱㩷 ❑ᢿ⊛䈭䊧䊔䊦䈱ᄌൻ ቇ⠌⠪ ᧪ᣣᤨ ඨᐕᓟ 㧝ᐕඨᓟ 㧞ᐕඨᓟ ቇ⠌⠪N ਛ⚖࡮ਛ ਛ⚖࡮਄ ਄⚖࡮ਛ ਄⚖࡮ਛ ቇ⠌⠪B ਛ⚖࡮ਛ ਄⚖࡮ਅ ਄⚖࡮ਛ ਄⚖࡮ਛ ቇ⠌⠪O ਛ⚖࡮਄ ਄⚖࡮ਅ ਄⚖࡮ਛ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 䋳䋭䋲㩷 ಽᨆ䈱ᚻ㗅  ᚻ㗅ߣߒߡߪޔ߹ߕࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߩᢥሼ⿠ߎߒࠍⴕ޿ޔో૕⊛ߥ⺣⹤ߩ ဳ߇ߤߩࠃ߁ߦᄌൻߒߡ޿ߊߩ߆ߦߟ޿ߡ❑ᢿ⊛ߥᄌൻࠍⷰኤߒᲧセࠍ ⴕߞߚ㧔ᅏ㊁ઁ2010㧕ޕߘߩ⚿ᨐޔ㧟ฬߣ߽ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߣ㧞ᐕඨᓟߢߪޔ หߓޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤߩ࡟ࡌ࡞ߩ߹߹ߢ޽ߞߚߦ߽㑐ࠊࠄߕޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩࠗࡦ ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߩᣇ߇ᅢශ⽎ߢ޽ߞߚޕᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔ⡞߈ᚻߦਈ߃ࠆශ⽎߇ࠃߊ ߥࠆⷐ࿃ߩ৻ߟߣߒߡޔ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍਛᔃߣߒߚޟߨޠޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠޟ߆ޠ ޟ߆ߨޠࠍኻ⽎ߦޔ߹ߕߘࠇࠄߩᢙ㊂⊛ߥᄌൻࠍ␜ߔޕᰴߦߘࠇࠄߩ⴫⃻ ߣ㓞ធㇱࠍ࠺࡯࠲߆ࠄోߡᛮ߈಴ߒⷰኤߔࠆޕᦝߦߘࠇࠄࠍ฽ߺޔ಴⃻₸ ߇㜞ߊޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠߣߒߡ૶↪ߐࠇߡ޿ࠆน⢻ᕈߩ㜞޿⴫ ⃻ߦ⌕⋡ߔࠆޕߐࠄߦޔቇ⠌⠪߳ߩࡈࠜࡠ࡯ࠕ࠶ࡊࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ࠍⴕ޿ޔ ⡞߈ᚻߦਈ߃ࠆශ⽎ߣߩ㑐ࠊࠅ߿⺣⹤ߩဳߩᒻᚑߣߩ㑐ࠊࠅߦߟ޿ߡ⠨ ኤߔࠆޕ 䋭㪎䋭

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䋳䋭䋳㩷 ⺞ᩏ⚿ᨐ䋱㵪⚳ഥ⹖䉕ਛᔃ䈫䈚䈢⴫⃻䈱ᢙ㊂⊛䈭ᄌൻ  ⴫㧞ߪޔቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ޟߨޠޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠޟ߆ޠ ޟ߆ߨޠߩ૶↪࿁ᢙࠍߺߚ߽ߩߢ޽ࠆޕޟߨޠߪޟߘ߁ߢߔߨޠߩޟߨޠ ߪ㒰޿ߚޕ߹ߚޔޟ߆ޠߦߪޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠޔࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ᤨߦ࠹ ࠬ࠲࡯ߦ⾰໧ߔࠆޟᔕ╵ਛߩ⇼໧ᢥޠࠍ฽߻ޕࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗᤨߦࡠ࡯࡞ߣ ߒߡ૶↪ߒߚ⇼໧ᢥߩޟ߆ޠߪ㒰޿ߚ(9)ޕ ⴫䋲㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䈱૶↪࿁ᢙ ቇ⠌ ᤨᦼ ࡟ࡌ࡞್ቯ ߨ ࠃ ࠃߨ ߆ ߆ߨ ว⸘ ᧪ᣣᤨ㩷 ਛ⚖࡮ਛ 3 1 0 9 0 13 ඨᐕᓟ ਛ⚖࡮਄ 5 0 0 5 0 10 1ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 5 26 16 17 0 64 N㩷 2ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 13 14 8 12 1 48 ᧪ᣣᤨ㩷 ਛ⚖࡮ਛ 10 1 3 4 0 18 ඨᐕᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਅ 32 10 2 11 3 58 1ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 22 28 14 9 6 79 B㩷 2ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 28 2 4 4 2 40 ᧪ᣣᤨ㩷 ਛ⚖࡮਄ 1 0 0 5 0 6 ඨᐕᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਅ 15 0 0 5 0 20 1ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 13 3 1 4 0 21 O㩷 2ᐕඨᓟ ਄⚖࡮ਛ 18 9 4 6 2 39 ⴫㧞ߩ⚳ഥ⹖ߩว⸘૶↪࿁ᢙࠍߺࠆߣޔਛ⚖߆ࠄ਄⚖ߦ਄߇ߞߚᤨߦቇ⠌ ⠪Nߪ10଀߆ࠄ64଀ޔBߪ18଀߆ࠄ58଀ޔOߪ㧢଀߆ࠄ20଀ߣޔ౒ߦޔ⚳ഥ ⹖ߩ૶↪߇Ⴧ߃ࠆޕጊౝ(2004)ߣห᭽ߩ⚿ᨐߣ⸒߃ࠃ߁ޕߒ߆ߒߥ߇ࠄޔ਄ ⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ߦ೔㆐ߒߡએ㒠ޔቇ⠌⠪Oߩ૶↪ᢙߪ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦ߿߿Ⴧ߃ߡ޿ࠆ߽ ߩߩޔቇ⠌⠪Nߪ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ64଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪ48଀ޔBߪޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤߣ್ ቯߐࠇߚඨᐕᓟߪ58଀ޔޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤߣߥߞߚ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ79଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ ߪ40଀ߣޔหߓ਄⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ౝߢ޽ߞߡ߽ޔ୘ੱᏅ߿ᢙߩჇᷫ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆޕ ߎߩὐߦߟ޿ߡߪޔᮮᢿ⊛ߥ⺞ᩏ߆ࠄ⚳ഥ⹖߇਄⚖߆ࠄ⿥⚖߳ߣჇ߃ߡ޿ ߊߣߔࠆጊౝߩ⚿ᨐߢߪ⷗߃ߥ߆ߞߚ਄⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ౝߢߩᄌൻ߇┍߃ࠆޕ⏕ 䋭㪏䋭

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߆ߦ㧟ฬߣ߽ޔޟߨޠߦߟ޿ߡߪਛ⚖ߩᤨߣᲧߴ਄⚖ߦߥࠆߣჇ߃ߡ޿ࠆ ߇ޔቇ⠌⠪NߣBߦߟ޿ߡߪޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠޟ߆ޠ߇㧞ᐕඨᓟߦᷫߞߡ޿ࠆޕ ߎߩታᘒࠍតࠆߚ߼ߦ߽ޔᰴ▵ߢߪޔቇ⠌⠪߇ߤߩࠃ߁ߥ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫ ⃻ࠍ↪޿ߡ޿ࠆߩ߆ߦߟ޿ߡ㓞ធㇱ߽฽߼ߡ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ 䋳䋭䋴㩷 ⺞ᩏ⚿ᨐ䋲㵪⚳ഥ⹖䉕฽䉃⴫⃻䈱䊌䉺䊷䊮ᄌൻ  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚޟߨޠޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠޟ߆ޠ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫ ⃻ࠍޔߘߩ㓞ធㇱ߽฽߼ࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߩᤨᦼᲤߦᲧセߒޔ⴫3-1߆ࠄ⴫6-3ߦ ␜ߒߚޕޟ߆ߨޠߪ↪଀ᢙ߇ዋߥ޿ߩߢ⋭⇛ߒߚޕ⴫ౝߩ   ߪޔࡄ࠲ ࡯ࡦൻߒߡ޿ࠆน⢻ᕈ߇޽ࠆ⴫⃻ߢ޽ࠆޕቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔOߩ޿ߕࠇ߆ߦ㧟 ଀એ਄⷗ࠄࠇߚࡄ࠲࡯ࡦࠍ␜ߒߚޕ  㪊㪄㪋㪄㪈㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈰䇹䈱႐ว  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟߨޠߩᢥ଀ࠍ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ  ቇ⠌⠪N㧔⴫3-1㧕ߩ႐วޔᓢޘߦޟߨޠߩ૶↪߇Ⴧ߃ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪធ ⛯ߔࠆㅀ⺆ߩ⒳㘃߇Ⴧ߃ߡ޿ࠆޕ ⴫㪊㪄㪈㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䇸䈠䈉䈪䈜䈰䇹㒰䈒䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 3଀ ୯Ბ߇ߜࠂߞߣ߆ߞޔ቟޿ߎߞޔޔ୯Ბ߇ޔߣߨ ࡆ࠶ࠢࠞࡔ࡜ࠃࠅߜࠂߞߣ㜞޿ߢߔߨ ߎߩޔ᝹㒰ᯏߪหߓߎߣߢߔߨ ඨᐕᓟ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ 5଀ ⑳ޔోὼߛ߼ߢߔߨ 㑐⷏࿾ᣇߩᣇߪోὼߛ߼ߢߔߨ ߹޼ޔߣޔ࡜࠶ࠠޔ࡜࠶ࠠߢߔߨ ታߪޔ⍮ߞߡ޿߹ߔߨ ޽ߥߚޔߜࠂߞߣޔ߿ߖߚޔ߿ߖߚߨߞߡޔ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 5଀ ⴕ߈ߚ޿ቇ↢߇޿ߥ޿ߣޛ߁࡯ࠎޔޜ޿ߌߥ޿ࠎߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ߜࠂߞߣਇ቟ߢߔߨ ߹޼ޔ޽ࠎ߹ࠅޔߨޔᡷༀߞߡ޿߁߆̖ ߢ߽ޔ߿ߞ߬ࠅޔߨޔ߁ࠎޔߤ߁ߛࠈ߁ ߢ߽ߨޔ޽ߩ߁ޔ޽ޔߢ߽ޔߔ޿߹ߖࠎ 䋭㪐䋭

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2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 13଀ ߪ޿ޔ޽ࠎ߹ࠅ⠨߃ߚߎߣ߇ߥ޿ࠎߢߔߨ ߹޽ޔߘࠎߥᗵߓߢߔߨ ᗲߩᛛⴚޔߣ޿߁ޔߘࠎߥᗵߓߢߔߨ ᥉ㅢߩ↢ᵴߢߔߨ ߘߎߦᗲࠍㆡ↪ߔࠆߞߡޔ㔍ߒ޿ߢߔߨ ޽ޔߘࠇߪᧄᒰߦ㔍ߒ޿ߢߔߨ ⛘ኻߥ޿ߢߔߨ ߘࠇޔߥࠎ߆ޔᦐᣣߦࠃߞߡ㆑޿߹ߔߨ 㧞㒢߆ࠄ᝼ᬺߥࠎߢޔߜࠂߞߣ૛⵨߇޽ࠅ߹ߔߨ ᳇᥍ࠄߒ⊛ߦޔޛ߃߃ޜߚ߹ߦ߿ࠅ߹ߔߨ ߘࠎߥᗵߓߢ߽シߊ㘩ߴ߹ߔߨ ⪺⠪߇ߘ߁⸒ߞߡ߹ߔߨ ޽ޔ⏕߆ߦޔߘࠇߪ޽ࠅ߹ߔߨ ቇ⠌⠪B㧔⴫3-2㧕ߩ႐วޔޟߨޠߪ᧪ᣣᤨߦޟࠎߢߔߨޠ߇಴⃻ޔඨᐕᓟ ޟࠎߢߔߨޠ߇㧣଀ߣჇ߃ޔޟߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨޠ߇㧝଀಴⃻ߔࠆޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟ ߪޟߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ࡮ߞߡᕁ޿߹ߒߚߨޠ߇㧡଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪޟߣᕁ޿߹ ߔߨ࡮ߣ㧔ߪ㧕ᕁ߁ࠎߢߔߨޠ߇㧤଀ߦߥࠆޕ߹ߚޔޟ޽ࠅ߹ߒߡߢߔߨޠ ߥߤޟ߹ߒߡߢߔߨޠߪඨᐕᓟ㧠଀ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߦ㧝଀޽ߞߚ߇ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ ߦߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ߆ߞߚޕߘߒߡޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦೋ߼ߡޟࠊߌߢߔߨޠ߇㧣଀಴ ⃻ߔࠆޕߎߩࠃ߁ߦᤨᦼߏߣߦࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߩࡃ࡝ࠛ࡯࡚ࠪࡦ߇ᄌൻߒߡ ޿ߞߡ޿ࠆߎߣ߇⺒ߺขࠇࠆޕ ⴫㪊㪄㪉㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪙䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䇸䈠䈉䈪䈜䈰䇹㒰䈒䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 10଀ ⠨߃ߕߦߔࠆࠎߢߔߨ ⽋⡺ߢߔߨ ⽋⡺ߩㇱಽߢߔߨ ߘࠇߥࠄᄢਂᄦߢߔߨ ޽߹ࠅੱ᳇ߥ޿ߢߔߨ ߥࠎ߆ޔዊߐ޿㐷߇޽ࠅ߹ߔߨ ᓙߞߡ޿ࠆߣߢ߈߹ߔߨ ᡼ㅍߐࠇࠆޔߐࠇ߹ߔߨ ࡢ࡯࡞࠼ࠞ࠶ࡊߦߪࠃߊߢ߈߹ߒߚߨ ࠹ࠬ࠻ߦⴕ߆ߥߊߡߪߥࠅ߹ߖࠎߨ 䋭㪈㪇䋭

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ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 32଀ ߹ߕޔ⥄ା߇ޔޔߥ޿ߣޔޔߞߡ⠨߃߹ߔߨ ޽ߍ࡯ࠄࠇࠆߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ੹5ޔ5ࡩ᦬ߊࠄ޿⚻ߞߚࠎߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅޔޔ࡝ࠬࠢ߇޽ࠆࠎߢߔߨ ᵆ᫔߇౉ࠇߥ޿ࠎߢߔߨ ᛄ߃ࠆࠎߢߔߨ ߘࠇ߇৻⇟ᄢᄌߛߞߚࠎߢߔߨ ࠦࡦࡆ࠾ߩᑯᒰߪᑄ᫈ޔޔޔߦߥࠆࠎߢߔߨ ࠕࠞࡍ࡜߇ߥ޿ࠎޔޔߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅߢߔߨ ৻⇟ᭉߒ޿ߢߔߨ ߟߊࠄࠇߚ㖸ᭉߢߔߨ ࠕࠞࡍ࡜ߢߔߨ ৻⇟ᅢ߈ߢߔߨ 㖸ࠍޔੱ㑆ߩჿߢ಴ߔߞߡ޿߁ߎߣޔߢߔߨ ㇷଢߩޔ઀੐ߣޔޔޔޔޔޔޔߘ߁޿߁߽ߩߢߔߨ ḩ⿷ߔࠆࠃ߁ߦޔߔࠆߎߣߢߔߨ Ꮻࠆ߅ቴ᭽߇ޔᄙ޿ߢߔߨ ଢ೑ߐߒ߆ߥ޿ߢߔߨ ߘߩḰ஻ࠍߒߡ߹ߔߨ ⥄ା߇޽ࠅ߹ߔߨ 1᦬߆ࠄޔޔߒޔߒߡ߹ߔߨ ᣣᧄߩ㘩ߴ‛ߛߣ޿߃߹ߔߨ ޿ߊߟޔޔߒ߆޽ࠅ߹ߖࠎߨ ࠃߊࠊ߆ࠅ߹ߖࠎߨ ૶޿߹ߖࠎߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅࠨ࡯ࡆࠬᬺߢߔޔ߆ࠄߨ ࡄࠞࠪࡖࡦߪ޽߹ࠅߒߥߊߡߢߔߨ ࠽࠽ࠦࠞ࡯࠼ߞߡ޿߁߇޽ࠅ߹ߒߡߢߔߨ ਣߊߡޔ㐳޿㘩ߴ‛߇޽ࠅ߹ߒߡߢߔߨ ᐫ㐳ߦߥࠆߞߣ޿߁ߎߣߦߥࠅ߹ߒߡߢߔߨ ߥࠎ߆ਛ࿖߆ࠄ᧪߹ߒߡߢߔߨ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 22଀ ߿ߞ߬ࠅߒߞ߆ࠅߒߡࠆߥߞߡᕁ޿߹ߒߚߨ ᕈᩰࠍᜬߞߡ޿ࠆੱ߇ᄙ޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ߘ߁޿߁໧㗴ߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ᗧ⷗ߣ߆ࠍ಴ߖࠆߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ⽿છߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅ㆑߁ߥ޽ߞߡᗵߓߚࠅߔࠆࠎߢߔߨ ࠦࡦࡆ࠾ࠃ߁ߩࡃࠗ࠻ࠍ߿ߞߡߚࠎߢߔߨ ߤࠎߤࠎ⷗߃ߡߊࠎߢߔߨ 䋭㪈㪈䋭

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ㅢ⹤ߒߚࠅߔࠆࠎߢߔߨ ૗ᤨ૗ಽ߹ߢ᳿߼ߚࠅߔࠆߢߔߨ ࡀ࠶࠻ߢߢߔߨ ߘࠇߢߔߨ ඨᐕ߱ࠅߢߔߨ ࠕࡊ࡞ߢߔߨ ࡀ࡯࠻ࡦߣ޿߁ࡔ࠶࠮ࡦࠫࡖ࡯ߢߔߨ 㧹㧿Sߺߚ޿ߢߔߨ ߛ߹ߐࠇߦߊ޿ߢߔߨ ⹏್ࠍ⡞޿ߡߢߔߨ ߰ࠆ޿ߣޔᕁߞߡ߅ࠅ߹ߒߡߢߔߨ ߽߁⚳ࠅ߹ߒߚߨ ᗵߓࠆߺߚ޿ߢޔߢߒߚߨ ෻㕙ߢߔ߆ࠄߨ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 28଀ ౮ߒㆊ߉ߚࠎߓ߾ߥ޿߆ߥߣߪᕁ߁ࠎߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅ⊒ዷߐߖߥ߈߾޿ߌߥ޿ߣᕁ߁ࠎߢߔߨ ߹ᔃ㈩ߪߥ޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ήℂߥᑧ㐳ߪᱛ߼ߚᣇ߇޿޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ઀ᣇߥ޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ޿޿㘩੐ߥࠎߓ߾ߥ޿߆ߥߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ޿ߌ߫޿޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿߆ߥߣޔᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ੱ᳇߇޽ࠆߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ ৻✜ߦ߿ߞߡࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ߘߩᵹࠇࠍਸ਼ࠆᗵߓߦޔߞߡ〭ࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ࠳ࡦࠬࠬࠢ࡞ߣ޿߁ᯏ㑐߇޽ࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ᭉߒ߼ࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ੱ᳇߇޽ࠆߣᕁ߁ࠊߌߢߔߨ 㐳ߊߔࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ̖߇౉ߞߚ㘩ߴ‛߇޿ߞ߬޿㧫㧫ࠆࠊߌߢߔߨ ⷡ߃ߡߥ޿ࠎߢߔߨ ޽߹ࠅᦨㄭߪ㘩ߴࠇߥ޿ࠎߢߔߨ 㘩ߴࠇߡߥ޿ߢߔߨ 㘩ߴࠄࠇߥ޿ߢߔߨ ⷗ߡߥ޿ߢߔߨ ṽሼߣ߆ޔߢߔߨ ੱ‛ߞߡ޿߁߆ᓎഀߢߔߨ ᰳὐߢߔߨ ࡝ࠕ࡞ޔ⊛ߢߔߨ ਄ߋࠄ޿ߢߔߨ ߪ޿⷗߹ߔߨ 䋭㪈㪉䋭

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㆑޿߹ߔߨ ㅪ⛊ߒߚߌߤߨ ቇ⠌⠪O㧔⴫3-3㧕ߩ႐วߪޔඨᐕᓟߦߪធ⛯ߔࠆㅀ⺆ߩ⒳㘃߇Ⴧ߃ޔ㧝 ᐕඨᓟߦߪޟࠎߢߔߨޠ߇㧟଀⷗ࠄࠇࠆޕ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪޟભߺ߽߿ߞߡߚߒޔ ߢߔߨޕޠߩࠃ߁ߦㅢᏱޟߢߔߨޠߦធ⛯ߒߥ޿▎ᚲߢ߽ޟߢߔߨޠࠍᝌ ౉ߒߡ޿ࠆޕߐࠄߦޔޟᗵߓߢߔߨޠߩࡄ࠲࡯ࡦ߇㧠଀⷗ࠄࠇߚޕ ⴫㪊㪄㪊㩷 㪦䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䇸䈠䈉䈪䈜䈰䇹㒰䈒䋩 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ 1଀ ᮮᵿߪߣߡ߽ᄢ߈޿ㇺᏒߢߔߨ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 15଀ ᦨೋߩޔㅢߓߥߊߡޔ࿎ߞߚߎߣ߇৻⇟ᄢᄌߥߎߣߢߔߨ ᦨೋߪ105ߩޔቇ↢ߐࠎߢߔߨ ᦬ߦోߡߩ࡟࠶ࠬࡦࠍฃߌࠆߎߣ߇ߢ߈ࠆળຬߢߔߨ ৻⇟ᄢ੐ߥߎߣߢߔߨ 㔍ߒ޿⹤ߢߔߨ ਔᣇߢߔߨ ৻ᔕޔࠦࡦࡇࡘ࡯࠲࡯ߦߟ޿ߡߢߔߨ ૕ߦޔߥࠎ߆ᨵࠄ߆ߐࠍᒝ߼ࠆޔᒝ߼ࠆߩ߇ᄙ޿ߢߔߨ ߪ޿⚿᭴ޔ╉߁ߩ߇ᅢ߈ߢߔߨ ߅㊄ߚߊߐࠎᛄ߃߫ޔߪߞ߈ࠅޔߒߚߊੱ߽޿߹ߔߨ ౉႐ᢱߓ߾ߥߊߡޔߘߩㆬᚻߥߤߩ໡ຠ߇޽ࠅ߹ߔߨ ޽ߩޔᤤભߺߦᤤ㘩㘩ߴ߹ߔߨ ߪ޿ޔ㖸ᭉߪ৻⇟㆑޿߹ߔߨ ߪ޿ޛߢߔ߆ޜߘࠇߪߒߥ޿ߢߔߨ BS߇಴ߥ޿ߢߔߨ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 13଀ ߎ߹ࠍ࡮࡮࡮ㆇ߱ࠎߢߔߨ ߹ߞߚߊߘࠎߥᯏળ߇ߥߊߥߞߚࠎߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅ߿ߐߒߊߥࠆࠎߢߔߨ 㔍ߒ޿ߢߔߨ߂ ߥࠎߛࠈߥޔ㔍ߒ޿ߞߔߨ ߻ߕ߆ߒ޿ߢߔߨ ߥࠎ߆ޔㆆߴߞߡ⸒ߞߡ߽ޔߒࠂ߁߇ߥ޿ߢߔߨ 㔚ᵹߣ߆㔚࿶ߪ᥉ㅢߦ⍮ߞߡ޿߹ߔߨ ߽߁ޔవ↢߇ߒࠈߣ⸒ߞߡ߽ߒߥ޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔߨ 䋭㪈㪊䋭

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߽߁ޔ᡽ᴦߦෳടߒ߹ߔߨ ࠳࠙ࡦ࠲࠙ࡦߩ᧻ᧄੳߐࠎ߇ᦨㄭޔ߁ߌߡ߹ߔߨ ࠫࡖࡦ࡞߇㆑޿߹ߔߨ ߪ޿ޔߘ߁ߢߔߨ⡞߆ߥ޿ߢߔߨ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 18଀ ၮᧄޔࡀ࠶࠻ߩ⁁ᘒߢ߿ࠆࠎߢߔߨ ੹ߪࡐ࠶ࡊߞߡ޿߁ޔ૕ࠍࡅࠩࠢޔ૕ࠍࡅࠩߊᗵߓߢߔߨ ࠠࡖ࡜ࠢ࠲࡯ࠍ૞ߞߡޔᚢߞߡ޿ߊޔᗵߓߢߔߨ ⠨߃ߡ޿ࠆੱߪ޽ࠎ߹ޔ޿ߥ޿߆ߥᗵߓޔߢߔߨ ᄢቇ㒮තᬺߒߚࠄޔડᬺߢ௛ߊᗵߓޔߢߔߨ ৻ੱߢޔࡃ࠻࡞ߣ߆಴ߚࠅޔߢߔߨ ߃ߞߣޔߎߩ೨ߩ౻ભߺ߽߿ߞߡߚߒޔߢߔߨ ᵆ᫔ޔޛ޽޽ޔߪ޿ޜޔߣ㝷ᴺ૶޿ޔޛ߁ࠎޜߥߤߢߔߨ ߘࠇߢޔᏀߦ૕㊀ࠍਸ਼ߖߡޔ޽ࠇߩ෻ᓳߢߔߨ ࠎߣޔߥࠎߛࠈ߁ޔ⺑᣿ߔࠆߩޔ㔍ߒ޿ߢߔߨ ߿ߞ߬ቇ↢ߪീᒝߒߚᣇ߇޿޿ߢߔߨ บḧߦߪࠨ࡯ࡃ࡯߇޽ߞߡޔᣣᧄߦߪߥ޿ߢߔߨ ᄌりߩߢ߈ࠆࠢ࡜ࠬߞߡޔ޿߁ߒ߆ޔ޿߁ߒ߆ߥ޿ߢߔߨ ޽ࠎ߹ޔߒߥ޿ߢߔߨ ੹ᦼߢᦨᓟߩ᝼ᬺߢޔߢޔ߽߁ోㇱขࠅ߹ߒߚߨ Ფᣣߞߡ޿߁߆ޔᤐભߺ߆ᄐભߺߩ㑆ޔ߿ࠅ߹ߔߨ ࠨ࡯ࠢ࡞ߣߒߡߪޔ߿ߞ߬ޔߺࠎߥࠣ࡞࡯ࡊߢߒ߹ߔߨ ޿߿㆑޿߹ߔߨ 㪊㪄㪋㪄㪉㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䇹䈱႐ว㩷  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃޠߩᢥ଀ࠍ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ  ቇ⠌⠪N㧔⴫4-1㧕ߩ႐วޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃޠߩ૶↪ߪޔ᧪ᣣᤨߪ㧝଀ߩߺޔ ඨᐕᓟߦߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕߛ߇ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪޟࠃޠߩ26଀ߩ߁ߜޔ19଀ߪࡄ ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇ⷰኤߐࠇࠆޕߘࠇ߇㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃޠߩ૶↪⥄ ૕߇ዋߥߊߥࠅޔޟࠎߢߔࠃޠ߽㧡଀ߦᷫዋߒߚޕ ⴫㪋㪄㪈㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧝଀ ߃ߞߣޔ㔍ߒ޿ߢߔࠃ 䋭㪈㪋䋭

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ඨᐕᓟ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ ߥߒ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 26଀ ߥࠎ߆ቝቮ߆ࠄߥࠎ߆߇᧪ߡޔ῜⊒ߔࠆ߇ࠃߍࠎߢߔࠃ ߹ޔ⏕߆ߦߘࠅ߾ߘ߁ߢߔࠃ ߥࠎ߆ޔ௢ߩ෹㆐ߪ⚿᭴㖧࿖ߦ⥝๧ߪ޽ࠅ߹ߔࠃ ߢޔߥࠎ߆ޔᮮ࿖ߩਛߢޔ⚿᭴㖧࿖ੱ⚿᭴޿߹ߔࠃ ቇ߱ଔ୯߇޽ࠆߎߣ߇ޔᄙಽߥ޿ࠎߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ ߢޔ౻ߦߪ௢ߚߜ߇ᣣᧄߦⴕߞߡޔ߹ߜޔ߹ޔ᧪ߡߢߔࠃ 㖧࿖ߦ⥝๧߇޽ࠆ߆ߘࠇಽ߆ࠎߥ޿ߞߔࠃ ᣣᧄ㑐ଥߩ઀੐ࠍߒߡࠄߞߒ߾ࠆᣇ߇⚿᭴ᄙ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ߘࠅ߾⚿᭴ᒝ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ࠲ࠞ࠮ߓࠀ߁߇ߞߎ߁ߣᆌᆂߌߞߖࠎߛߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ࠺ࠖࡌࠗ࠻ߩਥ㗴߇޽ࠇߛߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ታኅࠍ㔌ࠇߚߎߣ߇ోὼߥ߆ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߅ߓ޿ߐࠎߣ߅߫޽ߐࠎߪޔᣣᧄߢ⚿᭴૑ࠎߢߚࠎߢߔࠃ 㖧࿖ߩᄢቇߦታߪฃ߆ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߢޔ⚿᭴ޔ㖧࿖ߦߪᵹⴕߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ৻ᔕޔ㖧࿖ߩో࿖ߢޔ↳ߒㄟߺࠍ߽ࠄ߁ࠎߢߔࠃ ߘࠇࠍߥࠎ߆ޔ᡹᠄ߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ࠃߊಽ߆ࠎߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ޽ߩ߁ޔᏫ࿖ߞߡ޿߁ߩߪࠃ߁ߡ޿߇ߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ߽߁㖧࿖ߦᏫߞߡ߽߽߁ㆆ߱෹ߛߜߥࠎ߆޿ߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ቇ↢ߪోㇱޔోㇱߞߡ޿߁߆ᄢ૕ޔ↵ߥࠎߢߔࠃ ᣣᧄߩᢥൻ߇ᅢ߈࡯ߥੱޘߥࠎߢߔࠃ ߘࠎߥᗵߓߪ߿ߚ㆑߁ߎߣߥࠎߢߔࠃ ޿߿ޔߘࠇߪᧄᒰߦ߻ޔߥࠎ߆ޔⶄ㔀ߥ⹤ߥࠎߢߔࠃ ࠃ߭ᢎ⢒ߩᚑ❣߽฽߼ߡޔᄢቇ᳿߼ࠄࠇߚࠄߒ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ޽ࠇߦߟ޿ߡߪ⸃᳿ߔࠆᣇᴺ߇ߥ޿ࠄߒ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 14଀ ⸒߁ߪߕߢߔࠃ ߹ߛߜࠂߞߣޔ߅ޔᄖੱߛߣᕁߞߜ߾޿߹ߔࠃ ޿߿ޔ⚿ዪᖡญߦߥࠆߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ 㖧࿖߽ోὼหߓߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ ળߞߚࠃ ᄢᄌߛߞߚࠃ ޟᄢਂᄦߛࠃޠ ߘߩ⹤ߒߚ޿ߎߣߪޔ⹤ߖߚߎߣ߇ߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ోὼߥ޿ࠃ ߥࠎ߆ోὼታ㛎ౕེ߇ޔ߽ޔߕࠇߜ߾߁ࠎߢߔࠃ ௢ߩⷫ߇ߺࠎߥᣣᧄߢീᒝߒߡߚࠎߢߔࠃ 䋭㪈㪌䋭

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௢ޔ௢৻ᔕᶉੱߒߡߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߡޔ޽߹ࠅޔ߅߆ߕߣ߆ޔኅޔ಄⬿ᐶߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ ߹޽ޔㅳᧃߪޔ߹ޔ௢ޔ⿰๧ߪࠨ࠶ࠞ࡯ߥࠎߢߔࠃ ቇ⠌⠪B㧔⴫4-2㧕ߩ႐วޔ᧪ᣣᤨߦߪ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃޠߩ૶↪ߪ㧝଀ߩߺ⷗ ࠄࠇޔඨᐕᓟߪ10଀ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ28଀ߣߥߞߡ޿ࠆޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪޔ28଀ߩ ߁ߜ15଀ߪޟࠎߢߔࠃޠߣޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆ߇ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪޟࠃޠ ߩ૶↪⥄૕ᷫࠅޔ㧞଀ߒ߆૶↪ߒߡ޿ߥ߆ߞߚޕ ⴫㪋㪄㪉㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪙䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧝଀ 㧝㧜౞₹ࠍ౉ࠇߡ૶߁ࠎߢߔࠃ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 10଀ 20ࡔ࡯࠻࡞ߩ೨ߦ੤⇟߇޽ࠅ߹ߔࠃ ߹޽ޔ޿ࠈࠎޔ޿ࠈ޿ࠈ޽ࠅ߹ߔࠃ ᦨㄭߕ޿߱ࠎޔჇ߃ߡ߹ߔࠃ 3ᤨ㑆೨ߦޔᝥߡߜ߾޿߹ߔࠃ ೋ߼ߡࠦࡦࡆ࠾ޔޔߢ௛ߊߩߢޔಽ߆ࠄߥ߆ߞߚߢߔࠃ ญߦߒߡ௛ߊࠎߢߔࠃ ߘࠇߦ࠴ࡖ࡯ࠫߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃ రޘ⥝๧߇޽ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ⒳㘃߇ߚߊߐࠎ޽ࠅ߹ߒߡޔ࿎ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ 㧝᦬31ᣣߦࠝ࡯ࡊࡦߒߚࠎߢߔࠃ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 28଀ 80ࡄ࡯࠮ࡦ࠻એ਄ߪᖡญߢߔࠃ ߌߞߎ߁ޔߎ߁ޔ޽ߞߡࠆ⹤ߢߔࠃ ৻⇟਄ߦ಴ߡߊࠆࠊߌߢߔࠃ ߘ߁ߒߜ߾ߛ߼ߛࠃ ᖡ޿ߣߎࠈ߆ࠄ⷗ࠆߣޔㆃ޿ߢߔࠃ ߘࠎߥߦ෩ߒߊߪ߿ࠄߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ߅㊄ߣ߆ขࠄࠇߚࠅߪߒߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ାߓߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ੖ᐕߒ߆ߥߞߡߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ૗ߩᢎ⢒߽ޔ੹ฃߌߡߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ో⥸⊛ߦޔㆃ޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ ⽿છߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ ߽ߞߣ޿޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃ 䋭㪈㪍䋭

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ߔߏߊߪ߿ߊ⊒ዷߒߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߔߏߊ㜞ߊ਄߇ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߽ߞߣ㗎ᒛߞߡߚࠎߢߔࠃ ߘ߁޿߁ᯏ⢻ߩߚ߼ߦ૞ࠄࠇߚࠎߢߔࠃ ోㇱޔߎ߁ߢ߈ߜ߾߁ࠎߢߔࠃ ߿ߞ߬ࠅޔߘ߁޿߁ߩࠍ߿ߞߡߒ߹߁ࠎߢߔࠃ 㗎ᒛߞߡߥ޿ߺߚ޿ߪޔ⷗߃ߡߊࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ૶߃ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ߎ߁޿߁࡝ࠬ࠻ߢߡޔ߹ߚ಴ߡߊࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ᆎ߹ࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ෹㆐ߩ࡝ࠬ࠻߇ోㇱ಴ߡߊࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ᦠ߈ㄟࠎߛࠅߔࠆੱ߇޿ࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ᝝߹߃ߚࠅ߽ߒߚੱ߽޿ࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ߿ߞ߬ᱜ⏕ߥࠎߢߔࠃ ᄢ⛔㗔߇੹ޔߌߞߎ߁ޔࠃߊ߿ߞߡߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧞଀ ోㇱᚻᦠ߈ߢᦠ޿ߡࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ᄖߢኢߚࠅ߽ߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃ



ቇ⠌⠪O㧔⴫4-3㧕ߩ႐วޔ᧪ᣣᤨޔඨᐕᓟߪ⚳ഥ⹖ޟࠃޠߩ૶↪߇⷗ࠄ ࠇߥ޿ޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ㧟଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪ㧥଀⷗ࠄࠇࠆ߇ޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߩ௑ะ ߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ࠃ߁ߢ޽ࠆޕ ⴫㪋㪄㪊㩷 㪦䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ ߥߒ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ ߥߒ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧟଀ ᄢ⛔㗔ߩ୥⵬߇ߺࠎߥⴕߊࠎߢߔࠃ ߃ߞߣࠢ࡞࡯ߢޔߺࠎߥߢ߿ࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ޽ࠇ ࠲ࠗࡊߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧥଀ ߘࠎߥၮ࿾ߥ߆ߞߚࠎߢޔታᗵߢ߈ߥ޿ߢߔࠃ ࡑࠗࠤ࡞ߐࠎߪޔ੹ᐲߪޔ਎⇇ߦⴕߊߞߡ⸒ߞߡߚࠃ ૕ࠍേ߆ߔߎߣ߽޿޿߆ࠄޔ߿ߞߡ߽޿޿ߞߡ⸒ߞߡߚࠃ ਎⇇ߢ৻⇟ᾲ޿࠳ࡦࠨ࡯ޔ᦭ฬߥ࠳ࡦࠨ࡯ߛࠃ ߁ࠎޕࡑࠗࠤ࡞ߣ੹ᣣࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߒߚࠃ 䋭㪈㪎䋭

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ߔߏ޿ߣᕁ߁ࠃ 㖧࿖ߪࠥ࡯ࡓߩ᡼ㅍዪ߇޽ࠆࠎߢߔࠃ ࠳ࡦࠨ࡯߇಴ߡޔ㧔߁ࠎ㧕޽ࠇߩ⇟⚵߇޽ߞߚࠎߢߔࠃ ޽ߘߎߢޔ〭ߞߚࠅߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃ 㪊㪄㪋㪄㪊㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䈰䇹䈱႐ว㩷  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃߨޠߩᢥ଀ࠍ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ  ቇ⠌⠪N㧔⴫5-1㧕ߩ႐วޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟࠃߨޠߩ૶↪ߪޔ᧪ᣣᤨޔඨᐕᓟ ߦߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ16଀ޟࠃߨޠࠍ૶↪ߒߡ޿ࠆ߇ޔߘߩ߁ߜޟߘ ߁ߢߔࠃߨޠޟߘࠇߢߔࠃߨޠޟ޽ࠇߢߔࠃߨޠߩࠃ߁ߦᢥ⣂ᜰ␜ߣߒߡ 㧢଀૶↪ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ߹ߚޟߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨޠߪ㧡଀⷗ࠄࠇޔߎࠇࠄߪࡄ࠲ ࡯ࡦൻߒߡ޿ࠆߣ⸒ߞߡࠃ޿ߛࠈ߁ޕ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪ㧤଀ޟࠃߨޠࠍ૶↪ߒߡ ޿ࠆ߇ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕ ⴫㪌㪄㪈㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ ߥߒ ඨᐕᓟ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ ߥߒ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 16଀ ߹޼ޔߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨ ߜࠂߞߣޔᒙὐߞߡ޿߁߆ޔߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨ ⏕߆ߦߘࠇ࡯ߪߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨ ߹޼ޔ⏕߆ߦߘࠇߪߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨ ߿ߞ߬ࠅ௢߇ޔ߹޼ޔ⸒޿ߚ޿ߩߪߘࠇߢߔࠃߨ ᄙಽޔ޽ࠇߢߔࠃߨ ࿖⾌ߢߔࠃߨ ߘࠇ߇ߜࠂߞߣჇ߃ߡ߹ߔࠃߨ ௢ޔߥࠎ߆ޔߥࠎ߆ޔᷓ޿ᗧ๧ޔߘࠇಽ߆ࠅ߹ߖࠎࠃߨ ߢޔߥࠎ߆߿ߞ߬ࠅ⸒޿⸶߇ޔߥ߈߾ߥࠄߥ޿ߢߔࠃߨ ߘࠇߪ߹ߛࠃ߁ߡ޿߇ߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߹޼ޔ߿ߞ߬ࠅߺࠎߥീᒝߪ߿ࠄߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ੹ߪ߹ߛߘࠎߥߎߣ⠨߃ߚߎߣ޽ࠎ߹ࠅߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ⴕ߈ߚ޿ቇ↢߇޿ߥ޿ߣ(T㧦߁࡯ࠎޔ)޿ߌߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߘࠇߪ߹ߛಽ߆ࠎߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ 䋭㪈㪏䋭

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௢ޔ௢޽ߩ߁ᄙಽޔᣣᧄߦ޿ߥ޿ߘ߁ߥࠎߢߔࠃߨ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧤଀ "㧔㨀㧦ߎߎߦ᧪ߡੑᐕࡊ࡜ࠬඨᐕ̖㧕ߢߔࠃߨ ߘࠇ߽⿰๧ߣ⸒߃߫ޔ⿰๧ߢߔࠃߨ ߽ߜࠈࠎߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨ ㆑߁ߣ޿߁߆ޔᐢ޿ߢߔࠃߨ ޿ࠆޔ޽ޔ޿߹ߔࠃߨ ޿߿ޔᭉߢߪߥ޿ߢߔࠃߨ ߚ߱ࠎޔߚ߱ࠎߞߡ޿߁߆ޔ޽߹ࠅߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߽߁ޔߘࠇ߇৻⇟㛳޿ߚࠎߢߔࠃߨ  ቇ⠌⠪B㧔⴫5-2㧕ߩ႐วޔ᧪ᣣᤨߦ㧟଀ޟࠎߢߔࠃߨޠߩ૶↪߇⷗ࠄࠇ ࠆ߇ޔඨᐕᓟߦߪห᭽ߩ௑ะߪⷰኤߐࠇߥ޿ޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪޟࠎߢߔࠃߨޠ ߇14଀ਛ㧣଀ߣޔ߿߿ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆޕ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪޟࠃߨޠߩ ૶↪ᢙ⥄૕߇ዋߥߊޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕ ⴫㪌㪄㪉㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪙䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧟଀ ਛߦ✢߇޽ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߕߞߣ೨߆ࠄⴕߊࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߥࠎ߆ޔᤨ㑆ᄢਂᄦߢߔ߆ࠄߢ߈ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 㧞଀ ࠦࡦࡆ࠾ߦߟ޿ߡߩ౏Ṷߢߔࠃߨ ┙ᵷߥᐫ㐳ߐࠎߢߔࠃߨ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 14଀ 1᦬ޔߓࠀ߇ߟޔߢߔࠃߨ ᱜߒ޿⹤ߢߔࠃߨ ೨ᦼߋࠄ޿ߢߔࠃߨ ޿߹ޔ૶ߞߡࠆࠊߌߢߔࠃߨ ᢎ⑼ᦠ߇޽ࠅ߹ߔࠃߨ ߽ߞߣ޿޿ߣᕁ޿߹ߔࠃߨ න⺆߇޽ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ࠾ࡘ࡯ࠬߣ߆߽޽ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ௢ߪߔࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ৻ᣣਛߢ⚳ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ⷗߃ࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ߎ߁಴ߡߊࠆࠎߢߔࠃߨ ᱜߒߊߥ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿߆ߥߣᕁ߁ࠎߢߔࠃߨ ࠦࡦࡆ࠾ࠃ߁ߩࡃࠗ࠻ࠍ߿ߞߡߚࠎߢߔࠃߨ 䋭㪈㪐䋭

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2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧠଀ 6ੱ߇ోຬ߇↵ߥࠊߌߢߔࠃߨ ߶߷ోߡߢߔࠃߨ ߎߣߒ߆ߥ޿ߣᕁ߁࡯ࠎߢߔࠃߨ  ቇ⠌⠪O㧔⴫4-3㧕ߩ႐วޔ᧪ᣣᤨޔඨᐕᓟߪ⚳ഥ⹖ޟࠃߨޠߩ૶↪߇⷗ ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪ㧝଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪ㧠଀⷗ࠄࠇࠆ߇ޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߚ ૶↪ߣ߹ߢߪ⸒߃ߥ޿ࠃ߁ߢ޽ࠆޕ ⴫㪌㪄㪊㩷 㪦䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䉋䈰䇹䈱ᢥ଀㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ ߥߒ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ ߥߒ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧝଀ ߜ߾ࠎߣീᒝߒߡߥ޿ߢߔࠃߨ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 㧠଀ ޽ࠇޔࡔࠗࡦࠬ࠻࡝࡯࠻⍮ߞߡ޿߹ߔࠃߨ MMޔMMRPGߣ޿߁ߣࠊ߆ࠄߥ޿ߢߔࠃߨ ࠥ࡯ࡓߞߡޔߛ޿ߚ޿ޔ᥸ജ⊛ߢߔࠃߨ ࠳ࡦࠬߦߪ߹ߞߡ޿ࠆߩߪᓮሽߓߢߔࠃߨ 㪊㪄㪋㪄㪋㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈎䇹䈱႐ว㩷  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ߩޟ߆ޠߩᢥ଀ࠍ⷗ߡ޿ߊޕ  ቇ⠌⠪N㧔⴫6-1㧕ߩ႐วޔ᧪ᣣᤨߪቇ⠌⠪BߣOߦᲧߴߡ⇼໧ᢥߩ૶↪߇ ᄙ޿߇ޔඨᐕᓟߪߘߩ⇼໧ᢥ߇ᷫዋߒߡ޿ࠆޕ߹ߚޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪޟ㧔ࠎ㧕 ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠ߇13଀ߣ಴⃻ߒޔ․ߦޟ޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠ߇ࡄ ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߡ޿ࠆ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆޕߚߛߒޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪޟ㧔ࠎ㧕ߓ߾ߥ ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪ߪ㧤଀ߦᷫߞߡ޿ࠆޕ 䋭㪉㪇䋭

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⴫㪍㪄㪈㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈎䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䊨䊷䊦䊒䊧䉟ਛ䈱䇸䈎䇹㒰䈒䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 9଀ ߤ߁ߒߡߢߔ߆ ૗ߢߔ߆ ኾ᡹ߪޔኾ᡹ߢߔ߆ ⚳ࠊࠅߢߔ߆ ޽࡯ߣ ࠰ޔ޽ޔ࠰࠙࡞ߩਛᔃߪࡒ࡚ࡦ࠼ࡦ⍮ߞߡ߹ߔ߆ ߤߎߦ޽ࠆߣ⍮ߞߡ߹ߔ߆ ߤ߁ߒߡޔߤ߁ޔޔࠎߥޔ޽ޔߤ߁ߒߡޔޔ⸒޿߹ߔ߆ หߓ୯Ბߢߎߩ᝹㒰ᯏࠍ⾈߁ߎߣ߇ߢ߈߹ߔ߆ ޽ߣߘߩᣣᧄੱߩળ޿ޔળ߁ߎߣ߇ߢ߈߹ߔ߆ ඨᐕᓟ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ 5଀ ߥࠎߣ޿߁ࠎߢߔ߆ ⍮ࠄߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ⵣ⷗ߡ߽޿޿ߢߔ߆ ߎࠎߥ⴫⃻ߪ޽ࠅ߹ߔ߆ ߘࠎߥන⺆߇޽ࠅ߹ߖࠎ߆ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 17଀ ߘ߁ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߅޿߃ߣ߆⚿᭴વ⛔⊛ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ౉ቇߩࠝ࡝ࠛࡦ࠹࡯࡚ࠪࡦߣ߆޽ࠆߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 㜞ᩞߦߪߖ޿ߖ޿ߣ߆⚿᭴޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ᱜߒ޿ᣇะ߇޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߘࠇޔ߹ߚ޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ᣏⴕߣߪ㆑ߞߡޔ⦡ޘ໧㗴߇޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࠃޔࠃߍࠎ㧫ޔߞߡ޿߁ߎߣ޽ߞߚࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߅㊄ࠍ߆ߗ߉ߚ޿ੱ߇޿ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߹޼ޔ૗ߢ߽޿޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߹޼ޔ޽ࠇ߫޿޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߜ߾ࠎߣⷡ߃ߡ߹ߔޔߢޔ߿ߔ޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߺࠎߥീᒝߒߥ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ Უߐࠎߞߡ⸒ߞߡ߽޿޿ߢߔ߆ ޿߿ޔ࿖⾌ߢޔ࿖⾌ߢߔ߆ ޽ޔߏሽ⍮ߢߔ߆ ߥࠎߡ޿߁ߩޔ߭ߠ߈㧫ޔߟ߈ߣ޿޿߹ߔ߆ 䋭㪉㪈䋭

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2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 12଀ ࡑ࠶ࠢߞߡߥࠎ߆࿖㓙⊛ߥડᬺߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ᮮᵿߞߡ⚿᭴ޔᄖ࿖ੱ߇⚿᭴ᄙ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ⚻㛎߇ߥࠎ߆޽ࠆߣޔޛߪ޿ޜᔺ޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ൻว‛ߣ߆޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ⚿ᇕߞߡޔ޿ࠈ޿ࠈ⠨߃੐߇޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ታ㛎ߣ޿߁߆ޔᚻ㗅ߣ߆޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ⇼໧ࠍᜬߞߡࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ᗲߣ߆ޔᧄᒰߦ᳞߼ߡࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࡃࠗ࠻వߩߢߔ߆ ᧄߢߔ߆ ޿޿ߢߔ߆ ޽ޔߘ߁ߢߔ߆ ቇ⠌⠪B㧔⴫6-2㧕ߩ႐วޔޟ㧔ࠎ㧕ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߪ᧪ᣣᤨߦ߽㧞଀޽ ࠅޔඨᐕᓟߦߪ㧥଀ߦߥࠆޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߩޟ㧔ࠎ㧕ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߪ㧤଀ ߣᢙ୯ߦ߶߷ᄌൻߪߥ޿߇ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߪ㧞଀ߦᷫߞ ߡ޿ࠆޕ ⴫㪍㪄㪉㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪙䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈎䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䊨䊷䊦䊒䊧䉟ਛ䈱䇸䈎䇹㒰䈒䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ 4଀ ߥࠎ߆ޔᄖ࿖ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߥࠎ߆ߔߏߊ㧫㧫߇޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ Ἣࠍߟߊࠎߢߔ߆ ࠴࡚ࡦ࡚ࠡޔ࠴࡚ࡦ࡚ࠡߢߔ߆ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 11଀ ࠼࡜ࡓ޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߥࠎ߆ATM߽޽ࠅ߹ޔޔ޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ৻✜ߦޔ᧪ߚ෹㆐߇ޔޔ޿ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ໡ຠ߇ޔߥߊߥࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ੹޽߹ࠅߥ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ⴕ߆ߥ޿ࠃ߁ߦߔࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߒߚࠅߔࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߪߓ߼ߡߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߽߁߉ࠅ߉ࠅߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ᵹⴕߞߡ޿ࠆߩ߆ޔߞߣ޿߁ߎߣߢߔ߆ 䋭㪉㪉䋭

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ᐢ๔ߺߚ޿ߥ߽ߩߢߔ߆ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 9଀ ㆏ߣ߆ޔ↸޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࡑ࡯࠻ߣ߆޽ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ㅢᏭࠍ૞ߞߚࠅߔࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ޿޿ὐߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ޿޿ޔ߅ᆫߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ⥄↱ߦᦠ߈ㄟ߼ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࠾ࡘ࡯ࠬ಴ߡߊࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ޿ࠊࠇߡࠆߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ኅᐸ⵬⛎₸ߣ޿߁ࠎߢߔ߆ 2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 4଀ ޿߿ߦߥࠆੱ߽޿ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࠃߊ⸒ࠊࠇࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߘ߁ߢߔ߆ ᧄᒰߦ෹㆐ห჻ߢ޿޿ࠎߢߔ߆ ቇ⠌⠪O㧔ቇ⠌⠪6-3㧕ߩ႐วޔޟ㧔ࠎ㧕ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪ߪޔඨ ᐕᓟ㧡଀ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟ㧞଀ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ㧟଀ޔ⷗ࠄࠇߚޕ ⴫㪍㪄㪊㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪦䈮䉋䉎⚳ഥ⹖䇸䈎䇹䈱ᢥ଀䋨䊨䊷䊦䊒䊧䉟ਛ䈱䇸䈎䇹㒰䈒䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ್ቯ࡟ࡌ࡞ ↪଀ᢙ ᢥ  ଀ ᧪ᣣᤨ ޣਛ⚖࡮਄ޤ 5଀ ޽ޔ㔓࿐᳇ߢߔ߆ ޽ޔ߰ߚߏߢߔ߆ ߃ޔߘࠇߥࠎߢߔ߆ ߥࠎߢߔ߆ ߪ޿ޔ߃࡯ޔࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗߢߔ߆ ඨᐕᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ 5଀ ᤄߩޔ,4ߞߡ࿖㋕ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ੹ޔ⺕߽ߒߚߊߥ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ╙৻↥ᬺߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࠹࡟ࡆߢ⷗ߚࠄ޿޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߚߛޔ㕙⊕޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 1ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 4଀ ࠨࠗ࠻ߪ૞ࠇߥ޿ࠃ߁ߦޔߒߚࠄ޿޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ࠦࡒࡘ࠾࠹ࠖߣ߆૞ߞߚࠄޔߣޔ޿޿ࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߘࠎߥᷓೞߥࠎߢߔ߆ ࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗߢߔ߆ 䋭㪉㪊䋭

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2ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ 6଀ ᥉ㅢߦ⹤ߖࠆߎߣ߇޽ࠎ߹ޔߥ޿ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 㖧࿖ߪ߹ޔભᚢ࿖ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ޽ࠇ✵⠌߿ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ ߘ߁ߢߔ߆ ⸥⠪ߢߔ߆ ࿖㓙ൻߔࠆߎߣߦߟ޿ߡߢߔ߆ 㪊㪄㪋㪄㪌㩷 ⺞ᩏ⚿ᨐ䋲䈱䉁䈫䉄㩷  ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔO߇૶↪ߒߚ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽߻⴫⃻ߢࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇ ࠆ⴫⃻ࠍ⴫㧣ߦ߹ߣ߼ߚޕ ߘߩ⚿ᨐޔએਅߩὐ߇ࠊ߆ߞߚޕ 㧝㧕ߤߩቇ⠌⠪ߦ߽ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆޕ 㧞㧕ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇ᄙߊ⷗ࠄࠇࠆߩߪޔ਄⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ߣ್ቯߐࠇߡ߆ࠄ ߢ޽ࠆޕ 㧟㧕ቇ⠌⠪ߦࠃߞߡࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะ߇ᄙߊ⷗ࠄࠇࠆቇ⠌⠪ߣߘ߁ߢߪߥ ޿ቇ⠌⠪߇ሽ࿷ߔࠆޕ⚳ഥ⹖ߩ૶↪߇ᦨ߽ᄙ߆ߞߚቇ⠌⠪Bߪࡄ ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߚ⴫⃻߇ᢙ⒳㘃⷗ࠄࠇޔ૶↪௑ะ߽ᄌൻߒߡ޿ߊޕ৻ᣇޔ ⚳ഥ⹖ߩ૶↪߇ዋߥ߆ߞߚቇ⠌⠪Oߪ㓙┙ߞߚࡄ࠲࡯ࡦ߇⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿ޕ 㧠㧕ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔOߦ౒ㅢߒߡ⷗ࠄࠇߚ⴫⃻ߪޟࠎߢߔࠃޠߣޟ㧔ࠎ㧕 ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߢ޽ߞߚޕ 㧡㧕ࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߚ⴫⃻ߪޔቇ⠌⠪Nߣቇ⠌⠪Bߪޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߦ㓸ਛ⊛ ߦ↪޿ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߪᷫዋߦォߓߡ޿ࠆޕ ⴫䋷㩷 䊌䉺䊷䊮ൻ௑ะ䈏⷗䉌䉏䉎⴫⃻䋨䋳଀એ਄⷗䉌䉏䈢䉅䈱䋩㩷 ᤨᦼ ቇ⠌⠪N ቇ⠌⠪B ቇ⠌⠪O ᧪ᣣᤨ ̆ ̆ ̆ ඨᐕᓟ ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ ࠎߢߔߨ 7 ߹ߒߡߢߔߨ 4 ̆ ߨ 㧝ᐕඨᓟ ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔߨ 4 ߣᕁ߁㘃㧗ߨ 5 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔߨ 3 䋭㪉㪋䋭

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㧞ᐕඨᓟ ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ߣᕁ߁㘃㧗ߨ 8 ࠊߌߢߔߨ 7 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ᗵߓߢߔߨ 4 ᧪ᣣᤨ ̆ 㵪 ̆ ඨᐕᓟ ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ ࠎߢߔࠃ 5 ̆ 㧝ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃ 19 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ߣᕁ߁㘃㧗ࠃ 3 ࠎߢߔࠃ 15 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃ 3 ࠃ 㧞ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃ 5 ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃ 3 ᧪ᣣᤨ ̆ ޣਛ⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃߨ 3 ̆ ඨᐕᓟ ̆ ̆ ̆ 㧝ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠰♽ޔࠕ♽㧗ࠃߨ 6 ߥ޿ࠎߢߔࠃߨ 5 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ ࠎߢߔࠃߨ 7 ̆ ࠃ ߨ 㧞ᐕඨᓟ ̆ ̆ ̆ ᧪ᣣᤨ ̆ ̆ ̆ ඨᐕᓟ 㵪 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 9 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਅޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 5 㧝ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 13 ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 8 ̆ ߆ 㧞ᐕඨᓟ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 8 ̆ ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤ (ࠎ)ߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ 3 䋭㪉㪌䋭

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䋳䋭䋵㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥䈮ኻ䈜䉎䊐䉤䊨䊷䉝䉾䊒䉟䊮䉺䊎䊠䊷㩷  ቇ⠌⠪Nߦኻߒࡈࠜࡠ࡯ࠕ࠶ࡊࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ࠍⴕߞߚޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߩᤨὐߢ ߪޔ⊒⹤ࠍ⛯ߌࠆߩ߇ਇ቟ߢޔ⹤ߒߡ޿ࠆㅜਛ૗ᐲ߽⋧ᚻߦ⏕⹺ߒߥ߇ࠄ ⊒⹤ࠍ⛯ߌߡ޿ߚ߇ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪ⥄ಽߩ⹤ߒߡ޿ࠆౝኈ߇⥄ಽߢࠃߊ⡞ ߎ߃ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥࠅޔ⥄ಽߩ⊒⹤߇᳇ߦߥࠅߛߒߚߣ޿߁ޕ ․ߦޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪ߦߟ޿ߡ዆ߨߚߣߎࠈޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ ߆ޠߪ⋧ᚻߦ࠲࡯ࡦࠍᷰߔߎߣߦߥࠅޔ⥄ಽ߇⽿છࠍᜬߚߥ޿ࠃ߁ߥශ⽎ ࠍਈ߃ࠆߩߢޔ⋡਄ߩੱߦኻߒߡᄬ␞ߛߣᕁ޿ޔޟᕁ޿߹ߔߌߤޠ╬ࠍ↪ ޿ߡޔ⥄ಽߩᗧ⷗ߣߒߡㅀߴࠆࠃ߁ߦߥߞߚߣ޿߁ߎߣߢ޽ߞߚޕ

㧠㧚⠨ኤ

 એ਄ߩߎߣ߆ࠄޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩ૶↪ᢙߦߪޔ୘ੱᏅ߇޽ࠆߎߣ߇ࠊ߆ߞߚޕ ߒ߆ߒޔᢙ୯ߩჇᷫߩ௑ะߪޔቇ⠌⠪Nߣቇ⠌⠪Bߪޔ㘃ૃߒߡ޿ߚޕߐࠄ ߦޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߚ⴫⃻ᒻᑼߪߤߩቇ⠌⠪ߦ߽૶↪ߐࠇߡ޿ࠆ௑ะ߇⷗ࠄ ࠇޔ⺞ᩏᤨᦼߦࠃߞߡᄌൻߒߡ޿ࠆߎߣ߽ࠊ߆ߞߚޕ  ᧄ࠺࡯࠲ߩ⚿ᨐ߆ࠄޔޟ⚳ഥ⹖ߩᯏ⢻ߩ⠌ᓧޠߣޟࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߩ޽ ࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼߣⶄᲑ⪭ߩᒻᚑޠߦߟ޿ߡ⠨߃ߡߺߚ޿ޕ 䋴䋭䋱㩷 ⚳ഥ⹖䈱ᯏ⢻䈱⠌ᓧ ቇ⠌⠪N,B,Oߪޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟ߽㧞ᐕඨᓟ߽ޣ਄⚖࡮ਛޤߦ್ቯߐࠇߚ߇ޔห ߓ࡟ࡌ࡞ౝߢ߽ޟߨޠޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆㧔ߢߪߥ޿߆㧕ޠ ߩ૶↪ᢙߦᄌൻ߇⷗ࠄࠇߚޕߎࠇߦߟ޿ߡޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩᯏ⢻ߩ⠌ᓧߦ㑐ଥ߇ ޽ࠆߎߣ߇⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ ㊁↰(2002)ߪ⚳ഥ⹖ߩᯏ⢻ߣߒߡޔޟࠃޠߪޟߘߩᢥߩౝኈ߇⹺⼂ߐࠇࠆ ߴ߈ߛߣ⹤ߒᚻ߇⠨߃ߡ޿ࠆߎߣࠍ⴫ޠߒޔޟࠃߨޠߪޟᢥߩౝኈࠍᒰὼ ߘ߁޽ࠆߪߕߩߎߣޔᱜᒰߥߎߣߣߒߡ␜ߒߚ߁߃ߢޔߘࠇߣ⡞߈ᚻߩ⍮ ⼂ߣߩ৻⥌ࠍ໧޿߆ߌࠆߣ߈ޠߥߤߦ↪޿ࠄࠇࠆߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆޕߎࠇࠄߪ ⹤ߒᚻఝ૏ߩ⴫⃻ߦߥࠆߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ৻ᣇޟߨޠߪޟ⡞߈ᚻߩ⍮⼂߿ᗧ ะߣߩ৻⥌ࠍ໧߁↪ᴺޠߛߣㅀߴߡ߅ࠅޔ⡞߈ᚻߦ㈩ᘦߒߡ↪޿ࠄࠇࠆ߽ ߩ߇ᄙ޿ߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ 䋭㪉㪍䋭

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ቇ⠌⠪NޔBޔOߩ㧝ᐕඨᓟߦᄙ߆ߞߚޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠߩ૶↪ߪ㧞ᐕඨᓟ ߦ෼᧤ߒޟߨޠߩ૶↪߇Ⴧ߃ߡ޿ࠆޕߎࠇߪޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߢߪ⹤ߒߚ޿ౝኈ ࠍવ߃ࠆߎߣߪߢ߈ߡ߽ޔ⡞߈ᚻ㧔࠹ࠬ࠲࡯㧕ߦኻߒߡ㈩ᘦߔࠆ߶ߤߩ૛ ⵨ߪߥ߆ߞߚ߆ࠄߛߣᕁࠊࠇࠆޕቇㇱ㧞ᐕᰴࠍ⚳߃ޔ૛⵨߽಴ߡ߈ߚ㧞ᐕ ඨᓟߦߪޔ⹤ߒᚻఝ૏ߩޟࠃޠޟࠃߨޠࠍㆱߌޔ⡞߈ᚻߦኻߔࠆ㈩ᘦߩޟߨޠ ࠍ૶↪ߢ߈ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥߞߚߩߢߪߥ޿ߛࠈ߁߆ޕጊౝ(2004)ߢߪޟߨޠߩ႐ ว⿥⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ߢ㘧べ⊛ߦߘߩ૶↪߇Ⴧ߃ࠆߎߣࠍㅀߴߡ޿ࠆ߇ޔ⿥⚖⹤⠪ ߦߥࠆߣޔޟߨޠߩ⋧ᚻ㈩ᘦߣ޿߁ᯏ⢻ࠍ⠌ᓧߒޔ⡞߈ᚻߦ㈩ᘦߒޟߨޠ ࠍ↪޿ߡ౞Ṗߦࠦࡒࡘ࠾ࠤ࡯࡚ࠪࡦ߇ⴕ߃ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥࠆߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ ߐࠄߦޔࡔࠗ࠽࡯࠼(2005)ߪޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߪ⥄ಽߩ┙႐ࠍᒝⷐߔࠆ ࠃ߁ߥ⴫⃻ߣߥࠅޔ⋡਄ߦኻߒߡߪᄬ␞ߥ⴫⃻ߢ޽ࠆߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆޕߎߩ ߎߣ߆ࠄޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠ߽⹤ߒᚻఝ૏ߩ⴫⃻ߛߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆ߇ޔᣣ ᧄ⺆ߦᲧߴߡ㖧࿖⺆ߩޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߦ⋧ᒰߔࠆޟޟ㧬㞚㣪ޠ㧔㨪࠴ ࠕ࠽࡛㧕ޠߩ૶↪⸵ኈᐲߪ㜞޿ߣ⸒ࠊࠇߡ޿ࠆޕߘߩߚ߼ᣣᧄ⺆ߩޟߓ߾ ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪೙㒢ࠍ⍮ࠄߕޔ⸒޿ಾࠆࠃࠅ߻ߒࠈৼካߛߣᕁ޿ㄟࠎ ߢ૶↪ߔࠆߚ߼ޔ৻ᤨ⊛ߦჇ߃ࠆน⢻ᕈ߇᜼ߍࠄࠇࠆޕ ߒ߆ߒߥ߇ࠄޔࡈࠜࡠ࡯ࠕ࠶ࡊࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߢቇ⠌⠪N⥄り߇ޟߓ߾ߥ޿ ߢߔ߆ޠߣ዆ߨࠆߎߣ߇⋡਄ߩੱߦኻߒߡᄬ␞ߛߣᕁߞߚߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆࠃ ߁ߦޔ࡟ࡌ࡞߿ṛᣣᱧ߇਄߇ࠆߦߟࠇޔߘߩ૶↪೙㒢߳ߩ᳇ߠ߈ߣ⡞߈ᚻ ߳ߩ㈩ᘦ߇↢ߓߡ⹤ߒᚻఝ૏ߩ⴫⃻ߩ૶↪ߪᷫዋߒߡ޿ߞߚߩߢߪߥ޿߆ ߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ 䋴䋭䋲㩷 䊌䉺䊷䊮ൻ௑ะ䈱䈅䉎⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼ䈫ⶄᲑ⪭䈱ᒻᚑ ⬒ᴧ(1995)ߪޔޟኻ⹤ߦ߅ߌࠆ⏕⹺ⴕὑޠߩ⴫⃻ߣߒߡޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ߾ ߥ޿߆ޠޟࠃߨޠࠍ᜼ߍߡ޿ࠆޕޟߓ߾ߥ޿߆ޠޟࠃߨޠߦߪޟ౒ㅢ⹺⼂ ߩ༐⿠ޠޔޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ߾ߥ޿߆ޠߦߪޟ⹺⼂ᒻᚑߩⷐ⺧ޠޔޟߛࠈ߁ޠ ޟࠃߨޠߦߪޟផ㊂⏕⹺ޠޔߐࠄߦޟࠃߨޠߦߪޟ⋧੕ੌ⸃ߩᒻᚑ⏕⹺ޠ ߩ↪ᴺ߇޽ࠆߣㅀߴߡ޿ࠆޕ ࡈࠜࡠ࡯ࠕ࠶ࡊࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߩ⚿ᨐޔቇ⠌⠪Nߪޔޟ㧝ᐕඨᓟߩᤨὐߢߪޔ ⊒⹤ࠍ⛯ߌࠆߩ߇ਇ቟ߢ⹤ߒߡ޿ࠆㅜਛޔ૗ᐲ߽⋧ᚻߦ⏕⹺ߒߥ߇ࠄ⊒⹤ ࠍ⛯ߌߡ޿ߚ߇ޠߣㅀߴߡ߅ࠅޔ਄⸥ߦ␜ߒߚࠃ߁ߥޟ౒ㅢ⹺⼂ߩ༐⿠ޠ 䋭㪉㪎䋭

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ޟផ㊂⏕⹺ޠޟ⋧੕ੌ⸃ߩᒻᚑ⏕⹺ޠߥߤߩᯏ⢻ࠍᜬߟ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼࠍ↪ ޿ߡ޿ߚߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆޕ ታ㓙ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߩ࠺࡯࠲ࠍ⷗ࠆߣޔቇ⠌⠪N߇⸒߁ㅢࠅޔߘߩᤨᦼߩ⏕⹺ ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼߪઁߩᤨᦼࠃࠅ߽ᄙߊޔޟ࠰♽ޔࠕ♽㧗ࠃߨޠ(㧢଀)ޔޟߥ޿ࠎߢ ߔࠃߨޠ㧔㧡଀㧕ޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠ(13଀)ߢޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߚᒻᑼߢ૶ ↪ߒߡ޿ࠆߎߣ߇ࠊ߆ࠆޕ ቇ⠌⠪ߩࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߦߟ޿ߡߪޔEllis, N. (2003)╬߇ޔࠗࡦࡊ࠶࠻߆ ࠄᓧࠄࠇ⸥ᙘߐࠇߚޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠߩ૶↪ߣೋ⚖ᢥᴺ⠌ᓧߩ㑐ଥࠍขࠅ਄ߍޔ ᜰ៰ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ਄⚖ቇ⠌⠪ࠍኻ⽎ߣߒߚᧄ⎇ⓥߦ߅޿ߡ߽ޔቇ⠌⠪Nߛߌߢ ߥߊޔ㧟ฬߩቇ⠌⠪ߦ౒ߦ޿ߊߟ߆ߩࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻߒߡ޿ࠆߣᕁࠊࠇࠆ⴫⃻ ᒻᑼ߇⹺߼ࠄࠇߚޕቇ⠌⠪߇ࠗࡦࡊ࠶࠻ߥߤ߆ࠄޟ૶߃ࠆޠߣ⹺⼂ߒߚ⴫ ⃻ࠍ߆ߚ߹ࠅߣߒߡಣℂߒޔ૶↪ߒߡ޿ࠆน⢻ᕈ߇ુ߃ࠆޕ ߐࠄߦޔߎߩࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߩ޽ࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼߩ૶↪ߦߟ޿ߡޔⶄᲑ⪭ ߩᒻᚑߩⷰὐ߆ࠄ߽⠨߃ߡߺߚ޿ޕ OPIߢߪⵍ㛎⠪ߩ⊒⹤ߩ⺣⹤ߩဳࠍ㊀ⷞߒޔ࡟ࡌ࡞್ቯߩᚻ߇߆ࠅߩ৻ߟ ߣߒߡ޿ࠆޕ․ߦ਄⚖⹤⠪߇⿥⚖࡟ࡌ࡞ߦߥࠆߚ߼ߦߪޟⶄᲑ⪭ޠߩ⊒⹤ ߇ⷐ᳞ߐࠇࠆޕޟⶄᲑ⪭ޠߣ޿߁ߩߪޟ⛔⺆ߩ㕙߆ࠄ߽࠹࡯ࡑߣ޿߁ὐ߆ ࠄࠄ߽㑐ㅪઃߌࠄࠇߚⶄว⊛ߦ⚵ߺวࠊߐࠇߚ⊒⹤ޠ㧔ޡACTFL-OPI⹜㛎 ቭ㙃ᚑࡑ࠾ࡘࠕ࡞ޢp.39㧕ߩߎߣߢ޽ࠆޕ ᅏ㊁ઁ(2010)ߢߪޔᧄ⎇ⓥߣหߓቇ⠌⠪Nߩ࠺࡯࠲ࠍ↪޿ޔ⺣⹤ߩဳߩᄌ ൻࠍ␜ߒߚ߇ޔ㧝ᐕඨᓟߪޔ␠ળ໧㗴ߦߟ޿ߡᗧ⷗ࠍㅀߴࠆߎߣ߇ߢ߈ޔ 㧞ᐕඨᓟߦߪ⥄ಽ߆ࠄ᛽⽎⊛ߥ⹤㗴ࠍឭ␜ߒ⤘ࠄ߹ߖޔⶄᲑ⪭ࠍ߶߷ᒻᚑ ߢ߈ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥߞߡ޿ࠆߎߣࠍᜰ៰ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ ቇ⠌⠪Nߩ႐วޔࡈࠜࡠ࡯ࠕ࠶ࡊࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ߦ߅޿ߡޟ૗ᐲ߽⋧ᚻߦ⏕ ⹺ߒߥ߇ࠄ⊒⹤ࠍ⛯ߌߡ޿ߚޠߣ⹤ߒߡ޿ߚ߇ޔ⏕߆ߦቇ⠌⠪Nߩ㧝ᐕඨᓟ ߩ⊒⹤ߢ޽ࠆ⾗ᢱ㧝߆ࠄߪޔ৻ੱߢ㐳ߊ⹤ߒߡߪ޿ࠆ߽ߩߩ߹ߣ߹ࠅ߇ߥ ߊޔ⡞߈ᚻߦ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ࠍⴕ޿⹤ࠍ᛼ߒㅴ߼ࠆߚ߼ߩᚻᲑߣߒߡޟߓ߾ߥ޿ ߢߔ߆ޠࠍ૶↪ߒߡ޿ࠆߎߣ߇┍߃ࠆޕ㧝ᐕඨᓟߢߪ߹ߛⶄᲑ⪭ߩᒻᚑ߇ ߢ߈ߕޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߩ޽ࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼࠍ↪޿ߡޔ⡞߈ᚻ㧔࠹ࠬ࠲࡯㧕 ߩ෻ᔕࠍ⏕⹺ߒߥ߇ࠄ⊒⹤ࠍ⛽ᜬߒߡ޿ߚߣ⠨߃ࠄࠇࠃ߁ޕ ৻ᣇޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩ⾗ᢱ㧞ߢ߽ޔޟᗲߣ߆ޔᧄᒰߦ᳞߼ߡࠆߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠ ߩࠃ߁ߦޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆ߇ޔ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ߒߚߎߣߦ㑐 䋭㪉㪏䋭

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ߒߡޟᚒޘߘࠎߥߦᗲߦߟ޿ߡ᳞߼ߡࠆߩߦޠߩࠃ߁ߦޔౣᐲᜰ␜⺆ࠍ↪ ޿ߥ߇ࠄขࠅ਄ߍߡޔ⚿᧤ᕈߩ޽ࠆ⹤ߒᣇࠍߒߡ޿ࠆߎߣ߇ࠊ߆ࠆޕߟ߹ ࠅޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠࠍലᨐ⊛ߦᝌ౉ߒߥ߇ࠄޔ⚿᧤ᕈࠍ㜞߼ޔ࠹࡯ࡑ ࠍᷓ߼ߡⶄᲑ⪭ࠍᒻᚑߒߡ޿ߊࠃ߁ߦߥߞߡ޿ࠆߣᕁࠊࠇࠆޕ ⾗ᢱ䋱㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥㩷 䋱ᐕඨᓟ㩿ᅏ㊁ઁ㩿㪉㪇㪈㪇㪀䉋䉍㪀㩷 T:㧔ዋሶൻ߿㜞㦂ൻ␠ળߢߩࡠࡏ࠶࠻ߩ૶↪߽⠨߃ࠄࠇࠆߩߢߪߥ޿߆㧕 N:߹޼ޔ⏕߆ߦߘࠇߪߘ߁ߢߔࠃߨޔߢ߽ޔ߿ߞ߬ࠅߘࠎߥ߈ߒࠀߟ࡯ޔᣂ ߒ޿߈ߒࠀߟ߇㐿⊒ߐࠇࠆߣޔ௢߇⍮ߞߡࠆߩߪޔ⍮ߞߡࠆ㒢ࠅޔᣂߒ޿߈ ߓࠀߟ߇ޔߥࠎ߆ޔᱜߒ޿ᣇะߦޔᱜߒ޿㆏ࠍޔ㆏ߛޔ㆏ߩߺⴕߞߡߎߣ߇ ోὼߥ߆ߞߚޛT:㆏ߩߺ㧫ޔޜޔ߃ޔߛ߆ࠄޔ߃ޔᱜߒ޿ޔᱜߒ޿ᣇะ߇޽ ࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޛT:߁࡯ࠎޜޔ޽ޔ੹ߩࠈ࡯߷ߞߣ߽ޔ߹޼ޔᱜߒ޿ᣇ ะߢޔߚߛޔߥࠎ߆ޔੱ㑆߇ߢ߈ߥ޿઀੐ߣ߆ޔߘࠇߛߌࠍ߿ࠆޔߔࠆޔߐ ߖࠆߩߪޔ߹޼ޔᱜߒ޿ߞߡ޿߁߆ޔ߹޼ޔ޿޿ᣇะߛߣᕁ޿߹ߔߌߤޔ ⾗ᢱ䋲㩷 ቇ⠌⠪㪥㩷 䋲ᐕඨᓟ㩿ᅏ㊁ઁ㩿㪉㪇㪈㪇㪀䉋䉍㪀㩷 T:㧔⺒ࠎߛᧄߩౝኈࠍ⹦ߒߊ⹤ߒߡ߶ߒ޿㧕 N:ߘߩᧄߩਛߢ৻⇟ශ⽎⊛ߛߞߚᢥ┨߇ޔޛT:߁ࠎޜ߹ޔ⚿᭴ߪߓ߼ߦޔᆎ߼ ߩߣߎࠈߦ޽ࠆᢥ┨ߥࠎߢߔߌߤޔޔߘ߁ߘ߁ߘ߁ޔ⃻ઍੱߞߡޔᧄᒰߦޔ ߥࠎ߆ޔᗲߣ߆ޔᧄᒰߦ᳞߼ߡࠆࠎߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޛT:߁ࠎޜߥࠎ߆ᤋ↹ߣ ߆ޔ߹ޔ᱌ߣ߆ޔዊ⺑ߣ߆ߢޔޛT:߁ࠎޜߢޔ௢ߚߜޔᚒޘߘࠎߥߦᗲߦߟ޿ ߡ᳞߼ߡࠆߩߦޔޛT:߁ࠎޜߓ߾ޔᗲߞߡ৻૕ߥࠎߛࠈ߁ߣ߆ޔޔߘߜޔߘߎ ߆ࠄᆎ߼ࠆࠎߢߔߌߤޔߘߩᗲߞߡᧄᒰߦᄢ੐ߛߒޔߘ߁ߛߞߚࠄޔ߽ߞߣ ᗲߦߟ޿ߡಽᨆߒߚࠅޔ⠨߃ߚࠅߒߡޔ߽ߞߣޔߥࠎ߆ޔ߁߹ߊᗲߔࠆߩ߇ ߢ߈ࠆࠃ߁ߦ㧔⇛㧕 ߎߩࠃ߁ߦޔࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߩ޽ࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼߪޔ૶↪㐿ᆎᤨᦼߦߪ⚿ ᧤ᕈߩലᨐߪ⷗ࠄࠇߥ޿߇ޔᰴ╙ߦ೨ᓟߩ࠹࡯ࡑࠍ߁߹ߊ㑐ㅪઃߌࠆ૶޿ ᣇߦߥࠅޔⶄᲑ⪭ߩᒻᚑߦ߽㑐ਈߒߡ޿ߊߩߢߪߥ޿߆ߣᕁࠊࠇࠆޕߘߩ ⚿ᨐޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩ૶޿ᣇߦᢙ⊛ߥᄌൻ߇⷗ࠄࠇࠆߩߢߪߥ޿ߛࠈ߁߆ޕⶄᲑ 䋭㪉㪐䋭

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⪭ߩᒻᚑߦߟ޿ߡߪߐࠄߦ⹦⚦ߥ࠺࡯࠲ߩ⏕⹺߇ᔅⷐߢ޽ࠅޔ੹ᓟߩ⺖㗴 ߣߒߚ޿ޕ

㧡㧚߹ߣ߼

 ᧄ⎇ⓥߢߪޔ㧞ᐕඨߦࠊߚࠆOPI࠺࡯࠲ߩ❑ᢿ⊛ߥ⺞ᩏ߆ࠄޔ⚳ഥ⹖ࠍ฽ ߻⴫⃻ߩᄌൻߦߟ޿ߡ⷗ߚޕߘߩ⚿ᨐޔ࡟ࡌ࡞߿ṛᣣᱧ߇਄߇ࠆߦߟࠇޔ ⡞߈ᚻ߳ߩ㈩ᘦ߇↢ߓߡ⚳ഥ⹖ޟߨޠߩ૶↪߇Ⴧ߃ߚࠅޔ⹤ߒᚻఝ૏ߩ⴫ ⃻ߢ޽ࠆޟࠃߨޠޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠߩ૶↪೙㒢ߦ᳇ߠ޿ߡޔߎࠇࠄߩ૶ ↪߇ᷫߞߚࠅߒߡ޿ߊߎߣࠍᜰ៰ߒߚޕ߹ߚޔޟߓ߾ߥ޿ߢߔ߆ޠޟࠎߢ ߔࠃߨޠߩࠃ߁ߥࡄ࠲࡯ࡦൻ௑ะߩ޽ࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞ᒻᑼ߇ⶄᲑ⪭ߩᒻᚑೋᦼ ߦ৻ᤨ⊛ߦᄙߊ૶↪ߐࠇࠆᤨᦼ߇޽ࠅޔߎߩࠃ߁ߥޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠߣߒߡ૶ ↪ߔࠆᒻᑼ߇ⶄᲑ⪭ߩᒻᚑߦ߽㑐ਈߒߡ޿ࠆߎߣࠍᜰ៰ߒߚޕ ᧄ⎇ⓥߩᗧ⟵ߪޔ㧟ฬߩ❑ᢿ⊛࠺࡯࠲߆ࠄޔ⚳ഥ⹖ߩߺߛߌߢߥߊޔ⚳ഥ ⹖ߩ㓞ធㇱ߽วࠊߖߡⷰኤߒߚߎߣߦࠃࠅޔⶄᲑ⪭ࠍᒻᚑߔࠆߚ߼ߦりߦ ߟߌߚޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠߩ૶↪߆ࠄޔ⋧ᚻࠍ㈩ᘦߔࠆ⸒޿ᣇߩࡃ࡝ࠛ࡯࡚ࠪࡦ ࠍჇ߿ߒߡޔޟ߆ߚ߹ࠅޠࠍᷫࠄߒޔㆡಾߥ⴫⃻ࠍ↪޿ࠆࠃ߁ߦߥߞߡ޿ ߊㆊ⒟ߩሽ࿷ࠍᜰ៰ߒߚߎߣߦ޽ࠆߣ⸒߃ࠃ߁ޕ

(1) ACTFL-OPIߪ ޔ The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages(ACTFL) ߦࠃࠆOral Proficiency Interviewߩߎߣޕ

(2)ᢎᏧߢߪߥ޿Უ⺆⹤⠪㧟ฬࠍኻ⽎ߦ㧝ᐕඨᓟߣ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩቇ⠌⠪Nޔ BޔOߩ࠺࡯࠲ࠍ⡞޿ߡ߽ࠄߞߚߣߎࠈޔ޿ߕࠇ߽㧞ᐕඨᓟߩᣇ߇਄ᚻ ߦߥߞߚߣᗵߓࠄࠇࠆߣ޿߁ߎߣߢ޽ߞߚޕ߹ߚߘߩශ⽎ߩ㆑޿ߦߟ ޿ߡ዆ߨߚߣߎࠈޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩᣇ߇ޟ⡞޿ߡ޿ߡ቟ᔃߢ߈ࠆޕ߹ߚᣣ ᧄੱߩ⧯⠪ߩ⹤ߒᣇߦૃߡ޿ࠆޠޟ⥄ାࠍᜬߞߡ⹤ߒߡ޿ࠆࠃ߁ߦ⡞ ߎ߃ޔ⹤ߒᘠࠇߡ޿ࠆᗵߓ߇ߔࠆޠޟᄌߥ㑆߇ߥߊߡࡀࠗ࠹ࠖࡉߩ⹤ ߔㅦߐߦߥߞߡ޿ߡ⡞߈߿ߔ޿ޠߣ޿߁ߎߣߢ޽ߞߚޕ 䋭㪊㪇䋭

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(3) KYࠦ࡯ࡄࠬߪޔ㎨↰ୃ᳁㧔K㧕ߣጊౝඳਯ᳁㧔Y㧕߇૞ᚑߒߚ90ੱಽ ߩOPIߩࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯࠺࡯࠲ࠍᢥሼൻߒߚ⸒⺆⾗ᢱߢ޽ࠆޕ (4)⨥⨮ߪ࠹ࠠࠬ࠻ߦ࠲ࠣࠍߟߌߡ⸃ᨆߔࠆᣣᧄ⺆ᒻᘒ⚛⸃ᨆࠪࠬ࠹ࡓޔN ࠣ࡜ࡓ⛔⸘ߪ಴⃻㗫ᐲߩ㜞޿ᢥሼ೉ࠍ⥄േ⊛ߦ᛽಴ߔࠆ⛔⸘ࠪࠬ࠹ࡓ ߢ޽ࠆޕ⹦⚦ߦߟ޿ߡߪጊౝ(2004)ࠍෳᾖߩߎߣޕ (5)਄᧛ࠦ࡯ࡄࠬߪޟࠗࡦ࠲ࡆࡘ࡯ᒻᑼߦࠃࠆᣣᧄ⺆ળ⹤࠺࡯࠲ࡌ࡯ࠬޠ http://www.env.kitakyu-u.ac.jp/corpus/ ࠍෳᾖߩߎߣޕ (6)ㄼ↰(2001)ߢߪޔቇ⠌⠪߇ޟ૏⟎ࠍ␜ߔฬ⹖㧔଀㧦ਛޔ೨㧕㧗ߦޠ߿ޟ࿾ ฬ߿ᑪ‛ࠍ␜ߔฬ⹖㧔଀㧦᧲੩ޔ㘩ၴ㧕㧗ߢޠߩቇ⠌⠪⁛⥄ߩࡄ࠲࡯ ࡦ㧔࡙࠾࠶࠻㧕ࠍᒻᚑߒޔᓟ⛯ߩേ⹖ߦ㑐ଥߥߊഥ⹖ࠍㆬᛯߔࠆߣ޿ ߁ቇ⠌⠪⁛⥄ߩ࡞࡯࡞ࠍ⚫੺ߒߡ޿ࠆޕ (7)ᧄ⎇ⓥߩಽᨆኻ⽎ߣߒߚ㧝ᐕඨᓟߣ㧞ᐕඨᓟߩ࠺࡯࠲ᤨ㑆ߪޔቇ⠌⠪N ߪ㧝ᐕඨᓟ31’05ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ29'27ޔቇ⠌⠪Bߪ㧝ᐕඨᓟ31'14ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ 29'34ޔቇ⠌⠪Oߪ㧝ᐕඨᓟ29'11ޔ㧞ᐕඨᓟ25'22ߢ޽ࠆޕ (8)ⵍ⺞ᩏ⠪ߦߪ෼㓸࠺࡯࠲ࠍ⎇ⓥ࡮ᢎ⢒⋡⊛ߢ૶↪ߔࠆߎߣߦߟ޿ߡో ߡᢥᦠߢหᗧࠍᓧߡ޿ࠆޕ߹ߚޔⵍ⺞ᩏ⠪ߦߪޔ࠹ࠬ࠲࡯ߦࠃࠆ࡟ࡌ ࡞್ቯᓟޔᲤ࿁ᢎ⢒⊛ࡈࠖ࡯࠼ࡃ࠶ࠢࠍਈ߃ߡ޿ࠆޕ (9) ࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗߢߪⵍ㛎⠪ߪਈ߃ࠄࠇߚᓎഀߦᓥߞߡ࠹ࠬ࠲࡯ߦ໧޿ ߆ߌࠆߎߣ߇޽ࠆ߇ޔߘࠇߪࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗએᄖߢ⊒⹤ߒߚ⇼໧ᢥߣߪ ⇣ߥࠅޔࡠ࡯࡞ࡊ࡟ࠗߢߩᓎࠍᨐߚߔߚ߼ߩ߽ߩߢ޽ࠆߚ߼ޔ඙೎ߒ ߚޕ

ෳ⠨ᢥ₂

ᅏ㊁↱♿ሶ࡮㊄ᐸਭ⟤ሶ࡮ጊ᫪ℂᕺ(2010) ޟᣣ㖧౒หℂᎿ♽ቇㇱ⇐ቇ↢ ߩ❑ᢿ⊛ߥ⊒⹤ಽᨆ̆➅ࠅ㄰ߒ࡮⸒޿឵߃ߦᵈ⋡ߒߡ̆ޠޡᣣᧄ⺆ OPI⎇ⓥળ20๟ᐕ⸥ᔨ⺰ᢥ㓸࡮ႎ๔ᦠޢᣣᧄ⺆OPI⎇ⓥળ 148-159. ㊄੩ታ(2000)ޟਛ㑆⸒⺆ߣߒߡߩ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞⴫⃻ޟࠃߨޠޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ߾ ߥ޿߆ޠʊ㖧࿖ੱᣣᧄ⺆ቇ⠌⠪ࠍਛᔃߣߒߡޠޡੱ㑆ᢥൻቇ⎇ⓥ㓸 ㍳ޢ10, 47-58. 䋭㪊㪈䋭

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ㄼ↰ਭ⟤ሶ(2001)ޟ╙㧝┨ ቇ⠌⠪⁛⥄ߩᢥᴺޠޟ╙㧞┨ ቇ⠌⠪ߩᢥᴺ ಣℂᣇᴺޠ㊁↰ዏผઁޡᣣᧄ⺆ቇ⠌⠪ߩᢥᴺ⠌ᓧޢᄢୃ㙚ᦠᐫ, 3-43. ↢ᄤ⋡⍮⟤(2009)ޟᣣᧄ⺆ቇ⠌⠪ߦࠃࠆ⏕⹺ⷐ᳞⴫⃻ߩ․ᓽ̆OPI࠺࡯࠲ ߦ߅ߌࠆᲣ⺆⹤⠪ߣߩᲧセ̆ޠޡ᧲੩ᄢቇ⇐ቇ↢࠮ࡦ࠲࡯ᢎ⢒⎇ⓥ ⺰㓸ޢ15, 59-74. ㊁↰ᤐ⟤(2002)ޟ╙㧤┨⚳ഥ⹖ߩᯏ⢻ޠޡࡕ࠳࡝࠹ࠖޢߊࠈߒ߅಴ , 261-288 ’㊁ᚑ৻⋙ୃ㨯ᣣᧄ⺆OPI⎇ⓥળ⠡⸶ࡊࡠࠫࠚࠢ࠻࠴࡯ࡓ⠡⸶(1999) ޡACTFL-OPI⹜㛎ቭ㙃ᚑࡑ࠾ࡘࠕ࡞(1999ᐕᡷ⸓ )ޢࠕ࡞ࠢ. ⬒ᴧᤘሶ(1995)ޟኻ⹤ߦ߅ߌࠆ⏕⹺ⴕὑ-ޟߛࠈ߁ޠޟߓ߾ߥ޿߆ޠޟࠃߨޠ ߩ⏕⹺↪ᴺޠޡⶄᢥߩ⎇ⓥ(ਅ)ޢߊࠈߒ߅಴ , 389-419. ࡔࠗ࠽࡯࠼࡮ᴰሶ࡮K (2005) ޡᣣᧄ⺆ᢎ⢒ߩ⃻႐ߢ૶߃ࠆ⺣⹤⴫⃻ࡂࡦ ࠼ࡉ࠶ࠢޢߊࠈߒ߅಴ . ጊౝඳਯ(2004)ޟ⺆ᒵ⠌ᓧ⎇ⓥߩᣇᴺ̆⨥╮ߣNࠣ࡜ࡓ⛔⸘ޠޡ╙ੑ⸒⺆ ߣߒߡߩᣣᧄ⺆⠌ᓧ⎇ⓥޢ7, 141-161.

Ellis, N. C. (1996). Sequencing in SLA: Phonological memory, chunking, and points of order. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(1). 91-126. Ellis, N. C. (2003). Constructions, chunking, and connectionism: The emergence

of second language structure. In C. Doughty & M.H. Long (eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition, 3-68.

Oxford: Blackwell.

ઃ⸥ ᧄⓂߪޔᣣᧄ⺆ࡊࡠࡈࠖࠪࠚࡦࠪ࡯⎇ⓥળ࿖㓙ࠪࡦࡐࠫ࠙ࡓ㧔2010 ᐕ㧣᦬18ᣣޔᣈವ㙚࿖㓙ࡎ࠹࡞㧕ߦ߅ߌࠆญ㗡⊒⴫ߩౝኈࠍୃᱜ࡮ ട╩ߒߚ߽ߩߢ޽ࠆޕ

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Longitudinal analysis of utterance by Japan-Korea

Join Exchange Program for Science and Engineering

Students

㪄㩷Focusing on the expressions with sentence-ending particles 㪄

KANENIWA Kumiko, OKUNO Yukiko, and YAMAMORI Michie

Key words: Longitudinal analysis,

Expressions with sentence-ending particle, Chunk, Consideration to the listener, Complex paragraphs

Yokohama National University has had many Korean students who came to Japan as a member of the "Japan-Korea Join Exchange Program for Science and Engineering Student" program.

We conducted ACTFL-OPI Interviews four times in the past two and half years to three students of the program. As time passed, even though they remained the same level, we got a better impression of their Japanese utterances. They seemed to have improved.

We think this is because the expressions the students used including sentence-ending particle changed at each interview. Therefore the focus of our analysis became the expressions with sentence-ending particle.

The data shows that the use of the sentence-ending particle "NE" increased with the speaker’s increased consideration to the listener. The use of expressions such as "YONE" and " janaidesu-KA ", which show the speaker searching to confirmation of shared knowledge from the listener, decreased once the students became aware of the negative impact of their over-use. At the early stages of framing complex paragraphs, confimation seeking phrases such as

“janaidesu-KA” and “n-desu-YONE” were used very often but gradually decreased. This shows that the use of such phrases is the step in becoming able to

develop more complex paragraphs. These results show that consideration to the listener was developed in Korean learners as their level improved and as time passed.

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