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シェア "湿原植生の復元に関する総説"


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(1)Title. 湿原植生の復元に関する総説. Author(s). 橘, ヒサ子; 周, 進. Citation. 北海道教育大学紀要. 自然科学編, 52(2): 55-78. Issue Date. 2002-02. URL. http://s-ir.sap.hokkyodai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/578. Rights. Hokkaido University of Education.

(2) . 北海道教育大学紀要 (自然科学編) 第52巻 第2号. 平 成 14 年 2 月. ) Vo i l 52 i i Jowmalof Ho l由aido Uhi ty of Educat ences vers on (NatwaI Sc . .2 , No. Feb lmazy ,. 2002. Restorat ion and Reconstruction of Di sturbed. .and vegetation : an 。ver.iew Wr et. ’2 TACHIBANA Hisad;ol and ZHOU J立}1. 1De amヒment of Bi i iぢ of Educa t kawa Campus l由aido UDivers d i l on ‐8621 o o ーけ, As司b p , 出 国脳霊awa 070 , Ho 2 i 1 7 ▽uhan 主 l i st i i tute ofB ences ot a に ny ,V▽uhan 430074 , Ch山口a , Cm眼ese Academy ofSc. 湿原植生の復元に関する総説. 橘. ヒ サ 子1・ 周. ’2 進1. 10 7 0 8 6 21 旭川市 北海道教育大学旭川校生物学教室 ‐ 2 日本学術振興会特別研究員 430074 中国武漢市 中国科学院武漢植物研究所 .. Abst・act. land vegetat ion has i l Resea ion and reconstruct ion of 盃stu工bed wet r creased ch on the restorat u 〔 h b i , Pdodt izat ion of s i tes i l l s ce the l99os ‐ Using numerous re発rences , , we summ無傷ed t e o jectves l l ) l i HP , and evaluat ion of wet a立 ld strate淳es a1 ・d approaches , theories , tech唖ques , ongterm mo to g ion‐ Th l ; i扇山g and restorat ed. Repa a じ nds were e ] m L Qiques of bog and fen peat e restoration tech1 Phas観. laα i ind無g were the two maim strate淳es 云or wet on, and key theo質es of secondazy 1d restorat rebl successlon,. ー駈け se賎-desigm and plamt 化lvaslon g 日 直ded the restoration practice‐ The mai血 commロ. j b og of s L iques 館r restor i j qg &i l tech1 i Q stu工bed peat a じ nd vegeta飼 on were seed so訳なロg p顔2gれ“加 , spread ) i l l 登agments i ゴ ロg of 超gher plants t 1spl a Q 1 g ofpeatblocks . Seed (or propag可e ,etc ,tramsplam七 , andtra1 ion‐ Nu iロg a ignorable role in vegetat ion restorat baロk 褒I = ヒ tqr E nd management at S0 played an U L I 1 land restorat i ly stages of res ion were necessaZy t torat ・ ] ℃五est case of we on ea ー r ・ Japan proddes the ea in the wor ion i D ozegahaia M[oor has been ld: 額朝版c ial restorat ion of the di stu ; rbed vegetat 1 i 1 l conducted s ce 1967 ‐ TWO Proble立Is. m. land restoration that need uこ ion were 疑 i rgent a枕ent wet gh‐. l i ghted at the end ofthe paper. Key words: Dis訳立bed wet i ion; Restoration; Theo land vegeta錠on; Evaluat on; Recons観戦ct i コ ア and i ique techn .. 55.

(3) . 日.Tachi ba E 1 Qa and J .zhou. 1 i ; Kus1er & mas Pub shed (Kentma , 1989. lntroduct ion. Kentma 1 0 ;Sewen & Hi ;Kent司L a gg匝s , 99 ,1991 A ion i l 〕売hl s the ea s POPulat creased and 1 L. 1993; Ga lato▽ ▽ i l tsch t a ; Thunh。rst e ・ , , 1993. ion deve loPed a large nu庄ー ber of ci口山i zat ,. & va ] u k 1994 ler & Shaw, ; ▽▽hee じ n der va ,. lands were damaged or even destroyed wet. 1995a l imty & Roche恥靴, t 山,1995 ; Wbee ;Qu ere. dqr i口g Past centUdies l n 貴) rms of . The mai. 1997a; Hayes 1998; M[al 998 terer et al ; Hey . ,1 ,. large- lands are s蟹江e damage m 1owland wet. & PI “Q 1999; Streever 1999). Recent ly ipPi , , ,. ( ) peat cutting, (u) draaPage 危r ag直culture i. i i land two research centers 節r stud es of wet. ] 匝cat b2 ) i i and hus I ndry op on v , (m) eutr ,and (. ion havebeen 長) restorat rmed:oneis 聡uroPean. 蝕ood j鴎g i L n a . The mL. iぬc lud i 止 i center ( g northern Canada), mai口1y. 貴〉 ] m ー rms of da age in. lamds are (i)suPe l弱 ial damage upland wet , c ,. i口g concentrat. 副ぼect i口gthegener i頭1 “ i face l l l iPg t res山ヒ 1 じ ndres ,a. ion of nut ) dent res友) rat ‐Poor bogs (Meade ,. 云 , iberate or acc identalbu工ni L iP om del p g ,graz g ,. 1992 l ; S副L ; ; Egge onen, 1992 sman , 1994 , 1995. i=g (par tramp1 i 」 1 t ths), aエr cu1 8my a ong Pa. la & Lindho He ikk i lm, 1995a , 1995b , 1998a ,. lut i ion wo )i i i =c i i ;( on a皿d construct rk s 。n Pol. ihauer 1998b ; ▽▽heeler & Shaw, 1995b; Pfadet. damL I U Qg local removal 。f the Peat age VOIV , 如I. 1997 1996 & K1 i ; LeQuere & tzh ; S1 o va et al ‐ , ,. b &i i 土 1 l tchi mLass by Peat cutt t L nd g a g , or y. Samson 998 iva, 1998a; Vasander et al ; S1 . , ,1. ) ma 1 1voM 血g i i i gも¥”damage ;and( u r y も Q g q 」 1 l g ,i. 1998 ; wi chtmann &. loc副 or more catastrophi bance at the c 雨stu 〕 r. i i l l lud jmg 〕唾h Amer other i s N。 can ( c .southern. l l l t ofsheeP edgesofthe peatblanket , as a res. Canada), ma iねg on restoration t i dy concentrat. ) 1 i s 鱒ビazmg or mass movement (Ta1 , 1995 ・. 1 ゴ 6 。f ri ch fens (Dor1 1eld &. AL s far as we kno -w, JaPan Pro晒des the. the鱈. work. on. Koppi sch,. M[adsen l tslag ; Ho , 1988. ion vegetat. 99 8); 1. the. 1988 w 鑓rhmrst ; ,. &. 1998 Stewar t ; ,. landrest。rat l ies ion tandl ear ongestcaseofwet. M[al terer & Johnson, 1998 i l bau t ; Rubec & Th ,. in the world : altぜi ial restorat ion of the c. 1998 ) .. αi ion in ozegahara M[oor sturbed vegetat , an. i Lna, to ln deve lop団L i H L es such as Ch g count. 1a 1y by human up1and Peat じ nd di stuヱbed mL a”1. lds to od夢中al wet laぽ rett刀cn Paddy 負e ・ds has. i 1 l 口r j鴎g ead ce as early , has been conducted s. become. d long- term moni i ゴ ロg has been tor as l967 , an. loPment i ロ Dab1e deve reconstruc悦on a [ nd susta. done ever s ince then (Fukushima Pre発ctu1 re ,. i l l s cethelatel99os ,duetothefastdevelopment. 2000 h l 1970 ) i 血ce the l99os ‐ .S , as t e wor dWide. lut ion of the 。f the economy a L nd severe Pol. i ion amd ty conservat awareness of bio山[ vers. ronαー ent en彰i ・. ion 。f the extreme in〕Portance the recog ) : dt. iques a ly needed to guide the tec加Q 1 ご eu ゴ ビgent. .andvegetat ldl t g ionto wi 〕 ヒ メ ofwet ehasi creased,. i i ion ofαi cesofvegetat on restorat stu 二 rbed pract. i J og pro -L ded to more and more 負匡ロds are be. lands ly there have been wet . Though recent. i ion supportpr叫ectsofc。nsewat 。nal ldrestorat. .a the toPi じ nd several redews c of、 wet , on. 19 ; Mal .amds qもヴt terer of endangered wet , 95 ,. ion (Joosten 1992 dbauer & ; Pfade士 restorat ,. 1998). Stud i es on vegetation restoration and. 黙口ot l i ; Roos ; xu & Huang, 1998; z , 1996 , 1996. ion ヒuct rec。nst. have. Cui & Li ; Lode ;Zhang & ▽rang, u ,1999 ,1999. lyi ; [ i vast creasedフand monographsa じ nd selected. 2001 land restorat ion ) ther wet ,theyfocus。n ei. l lect ions on th 」 i s toPi c have been paper co. in Eu land ecosystem i roPe or restoration of wet. 6 5. of di stu こ rbed. l wet a E nd. a. key. l i cy po. There長) re. 食 ) r. au. en西士onment. the. leva re E nt.

(4) . i land Vege tat t i on:am over vqew t i tnl t立bed 汎r et Res torat s c on of Di on a1 ・d Recons. (inc lud血 g sal ty marshes 組Id mangrove. ion pro 免r restorat jects (Tab1e l), though. (Cu i&. l l 1999). h]the present paper Li - α ,t e ,. i i t s the expected ca1 one i perhaps the ぱーost ch. i i l l the techn authors try to sum malize a ques. iat ive “Mhee 1er 毛 iveness of the mユ t t -ef cos ect ,. deve loped. 角r. di t l rbed st. 6 r esh. ion vegetat water. ion restorat. of. h h lands wet , t oug. f お L 1and restorad erent on may occur at di wet ion to .amdscape 1 rom populat ・eve s rangも曜 f ‐. )・ J 1995 ;vrhee1er et a ・ ,1998 lenge im chal The ma. 無. ion land restorat wet. i ゴ ー ご i c副 ophys s overco口辻口g the che血ical and hyd raaPage changesthathaveoccu・redduetothed ive cover of the bog and the loss of vegetat. f 1. Purposes ,strategies and approaches or. ) (McCue ‐There 猛re two main strateg延es ,1999 l ion:repa1 land restorat in wet l lng and rebui - r. wetland restoration. 995‐ Restorat ion by repaIJコ 面ロg (Whee ler Lng ,1 ) v▽et .and. ion restorat. . s. the. managed. te 1 m L at pts. to. restore. l l i te req si. ions t condi. lands to the立 ion of di stu工bed wet restorat. ) 山i ly.l tis pa靴icularly approp声Late 長 rthe rect. i ion and 免nct 1and vegetat r igもba 1 wet ona1 o. l reparation ofsm -scale da1mLage and has the L al. terer & Johnson, 1998)‐ land status (Mal wet. i 匡ableoutcomei sachieved advantagethata des. ion has thlee land restorat The goal of wet. img is to take ion by rebuad ldy‐ Restorat c qui. ion, ion of a species populat torat aspects : res. 1 ier devel 1and back to an ear the wet opーmental. f of whole ecosystems or 1andscapes , and o. is lopment low natu l i i ral redeve stage and a ‐ 1l. ld ser▽ices (1 hr ehf e , 2000)‐ 1n. i tes 口cularly sui table 貴) l r s s par approach i. ecosystem. iderat ion cons. to. ion vegetat. type c , trophi. have. that. been. severely. damL ts aged‐ l. d land i dii コ ro logy status , hyd , sol con tons an. disadvantages 印rethati t may demand 負=電her. h コ ヒ i L a n targets use in 発n ecosystems , t ee mL. ion 金r demo l i ion to produce a 6rm 街undat t. iPguished 免n restorat ion can be dist. ime 角r jmg t 皿ay take a long t rebt通d , thus i. 1999): (i) consewat ion and main- (贋r l epe , i ] u an 加 i th st tenance of 危n ecosys te ]m Wi gh. ies to redevelop and that ial com mu1 late-ser t ni. f () l ih t lue ecolo淳cal va , 亘 estab s ment o a pea‐. stages may be such that these become the. 角r. sawng. ag〆ic山七ure on. deep. dra山ed. and. “i ” l ier seaal the perceived i lterest of the ear. 免cus. ion l『at of conse. interest , and 丑om. the. ig無al i ts or. 云e 〕叱辻i zed 免ns to avoid nutrient losses due. ion is deaected restorat. ion izat ion, and (筑) restorat to peat mineral. ives ject ob ‐ There 細Fe vadous approaches to. i l hc頭 画 degenerated wet lands by a をas se of. i口g 1and, をom thes云mp1eeng torea wet i = deer res. i the water table in order to establ sh the. logi c副 approach approach to a complex eco. logi ions云 th‐ hy(bo t or a new peat grow1 calcondi. (Middleton, 1999), though approaches are. The pd i tes to be restored, scale onty of si. 1 deterロI i=ed by di 1 stu工bi g factors and the. ion ofthe pr ec ti s always 旗嘘t and d・北at ed. land・ levelat whi ch one wantstorestorethe wet. byava i labi 1 i tyofatarget wet1a [ nd ent ,govern賎ー. Nr o. a枕er mL. s taken, a what approach i. 口d i鴎g i = L d h l l f fu l 覇 i tude 1 at g ・ Fac , an t e eve o 1. ion” pr lowed iねcipleshomーdbe 節1 iロtervent non‐ ,. large a lands to be imounts of damaged wet. ize the use ofthe natuヱalba℃ i ー k 1直立l ‐e . ,to ma ,. j山g and o o dtat ion of fund restored and a la. d d loc副 sUばface water , undergroun water an. rces, some considerations other resoui. were. i land species i i st c wet ons of characted pop司lat. ion of si tes i ion and select t迄at rai sed 角r Pdoご. ) l as sowr ce (Vたheeler et a yin tbis ‐ onl り 1998 57.

(5) . 日.Tac脳i bana and J .zhou. Tabl i but t i i i i e I At ing ma1 t r es to be considered 館r pr or zat on ofsites 免r 鏡nd ・agement action (a総er Whee l er et m. . Mod近ed). , 1998 i but At t r e. Descz i i on pt. Need and Urgency. Conservat ion s be 登別me i tatus ; Ti ; Contdbut l on to conservation. Feas i b辻i ty a1 1d reqαbements. 0wner / i ○ccuPi er Permi s s on; L辿; e丘hood of success; Level and sowrces of / 鍋中山ng i I t ;Khowl c副 he edge ofrestoration requitements; Subsequent Prac P te s ia l 的r pub巨c accessand en ;Potent l si t source; ecW1ty ; Reco joyment oni s. Waterreg ime ; Water qu副ity; Vegetation management 凸ごac i t c副 constra鱈lts. Land use co口 ]版ct i F ai i l ; Conservat t te secu ; Si ty ; vehi s on co= c s こ r c e access. に i way can we ach th eve the1argest progress wi. 1 1 1 o鋲ca y. 〕 舘ort and not over di the least e st t 1 エb the to- ,. ] ば‐design a diverse assemblage of species se ,. be ‐restored ecosyste] ロ ユ ・. even. 1a t 士 に rough open we u ユd can deve1op, t. ore 1 キ ーes eぬsted there be云 no propag. (M5tsch et a 1998)‐ lt i l s proved by the . , 2. Theor ies of wet land restoration. f Eh f re‐appearance o i oぬれの一 賜創 2 qgすれαZ秘伽 com- ies m mLany rewetted peat t lands mu口i 胃cut wet. Three mam theo士 ies a ied t u re app1 l コ l ide og. ( Joos ) ten ・ 劉he theoリア ofinvasion deaユs ,1995. 1and restorat ion:the theo コ des ofsecond鑓ご wet y. ] 様ectsofexot i wi 1and ththee cp1antsornon‐wet. f succession, of sel ‐design, and of 加l vas・on.. land vegetat ion. lt can be also plantson wet. Accor (五ngtothetheoryofsecondarysuccession ,. iedto desch [ beestab1 i app1 shぱー entand 浅i spersa1. . the wet ion (or even biocoenosi amd vegetat s). i 墜 r 仇′ ゴ ロed plants of des ed plants , undes , an or. ly recover to the succession can auto1 m ーatical. i bed wet lands exot cplants 無 雨stu i r ‐ln Bngland ,. t was be金re be比1 stage ch i stuヱbed g di ,in whi ,. co口述er P1anta恒ons have caused 餐or司 changes. 免1 1O桝珪ロg a, smooth path of deve lopment. inblanketbogs di j f b pg zmg .P1oughipg , tch , e鴫辻i ,. ( d ・ed a tra ) せthe habi tati ca jecto 猪 sreturned ,. ) ion have caused turnover of etc r a鐘orestat .貴. to the preVious stage (so-ca1 .ed tra dectoヱ コ マ. land dominants (由Dderson et 鑓. 199 5 ). wet ,. l)‐ T1 he p山中oses of intervepd ヒ ロg in the mode process are to ensure the recovery of the. 3. Techniques of wetland restoration. habi tat s process sa L ‐A , and to accelerate thi key theory 賞) land restorat ion, i t was r wet. The prospects 角r successf山 restorat ion of. ・ ly chal lenged by Zedler & Cal laway recent s. lamd depend on sa i t any wet 〆 i bg two ma魚 sも. (19 99). ) re‐estab亙s崩じ ions:( i ロg en~竜onmental t condi. research in Sweetwater Marsh, St ,. Diego: h } i i L ter ion and lack 1 ‐annual va櫛 at gh i. ions t condi. j E rect ional changes 貴) of d r up to ten years. hy(bolo l立table to te topo-窺aphy) s ・d si き謬 a1. ion si te indi at a 12‐yea ‐old restorat こ r cated. i j u og a the des red ecosystem, 叙Id (旦) prodd. l i le chance that targets wo司Ld be reached tt. f sowrce o. 山 the near 負itu; re .. species (Roos , 1996)‐. Accord j山g to the se ] ば-des ig口 theory wet land ,. (inc lud山g. i re‐establ shlog. te si. lde material of the desired propag. 3.I P1anning. ion can automat i vegetat cany regenerate under. Func ional wet land restorat t i t on is theresul. =”=or or extens ive di s七qrbance ‐ A hydro一. ion of a pro ofthe success飽limplementat ject. 5 8.

(6) . i 「 new on:an ovel rbed 頓r i l ld Vegetat t e槌a tn・ i s訳l Res t t c on of Di l ld B 図ons ora on a. plan that has been desigped to optね-dze the ions 節r a i 直 r ed 狗Lnct s of des or 1mance level PedB. l. 1. l p療rmine P 一 鴫 Goa s. ore 1994)‐ Be賃 )aVis ion (1 1 1 a 淳ven 1ocat te i si , a. ion i t of wetland restorat s o dec pr. Locate A1ternate Sites. executed,. j鴎g a lud i l l led plan sho l “ L d be mLade,i1 tai c a de t h t steps to be taken, e .g . , approac es o res ore. l,etc d tat cal モ ヨ ばchi the habi er ・ A bi ,expecte goa s. l Hydro ogy. so i I. 十 十 ← ▼ 丁. ion is suggested by van plan of restorat level (l紅・dscape or w立du um (1995) : macro‐ f ield level ‐ oglcaJ ecol. ies to the whi ch appl. Topo淳aphy. Select S i tes for Restoration. i ion ofbracki t じ i red a]mounts and co sh ] m L requ pos ; mesひlevel @code汎celeveD, orbase‐ ri ch water. ia ign Cr i ldent i fy Des ter. i鴎s to the gra南i ent ofbase supply ch pe光a whi. i l So. 日y (妻o l oE穿. Energy. i i inthe mL コ ヒ t ofthe root zone;and 立l cro- n pa ai ),which 1and mal ion,so i level(vegetat lagement i l ief and loc鴎 北・easu工es, 1 l cro‐re considers the1 i口g t i l lg such as harvest ,sod cut ,scrub removal. 1. ig警固g and pool d ‐ Pr ect plans are based on. 1 De▽幽p p画ed P an. l. Develop Managemen t&. l isions that i 〕 d L l corporate desigb es of dec a se. Monitoring P1an. i th ecolo淳c鑓, iai弧d si techi江acteri ter st cs Wi cri d i=g eng l q Deer , an. ions econo ]mi c considerat .. i i There are threech t sion c須 phasesin the deci sequence. m. whi ch the. i l l 免ab L i res 副ぼect g. i i te land お騨 ion mー 1 corporated : s ust be i ct wet 1 i. 1. C 鵬t t tp-ec ruc. 1. i land i t Fig. 1 コ ヒ t of dec s on 節r we O冨丘Pg cha . FI ). i ( P l 9 a 品 1 9 2 t t t jec er aermo res ora on pr o ,. i コ da deve1opment 1ect ion, design ch te se , and plan development (Fig ‐ 1). Q山腹ty. &. 997a) sugges Roche和rt (1 ted. land in a ion of the peat iPg a sec t l v preser. ion and topographical 2 Si 3. te select m ー odification. face x s麓” conserve the s山ご 1 natur副 state , to e. The si te selec檀on should be made at tw ○ 一. layer (acrotelm) in wet, or to have access. .and, lect ion ofthe target wet l leve s se s ‐ one i. i ipat ion of to a souヱce of plants in ant c. ly deter 1 1江口ed by the v頭ue of the mai 1 1. ion. Atleast one tenth ofthe natu こ ral restorat. パー 1 i f &i bed extend ・and wet st t l j ヒ , W ngQess o ,. land should beconserved 恥rthi s pu土pose. peat. ・and ty of the wet 〕売ers suppo , and avaaabni. The conservat ion of a peat 1ayer of はー ore. ) (Whee ler et a l tis lmowledge ofthe .l . ,1998. ))thi tham 50 cm (or loo cm (McCue ck ,1999. land status be貴) re 山i stu工bance wet , the way. ion process i fac i l tates the regenerat ‐ VVard. f /occupier i t tude i t was distu s at 二 rbed,theowner. 1995 )sugges 1992 ) amd wa l ( t ta ed plams u rd e ‐(. l じ r i ion prd to the restorat dect Q qd sect t d 〆 of- , a. ) 長 ) r birds. r the restoration of wetlands 量. i i口g restorat ion whi i i te dur the s ch a ゴ ー F e ma n l hon‐ factors to be considered in si te selec 1 )oyle (1997 ) sugges t ed an. “f 二si te re▽iew“ o王 59.

(7) . 日‐Tachi ba 1 Qa and J ・zhou. l i ial in L t igat ions 量) method 貴増 thi s :i l vest r. to use 1 1y occu)〆iねg species that to lerate oca1. ialsi ioni l tes賞) . 晒 i i rrestorat 7 1 cludere e次 l lg Potent. ions a1 te condi t ・d P1anned si. コ daI PhotograPhs and regulator maps ー マ , ae. ives ive i ject ject object ob s to ‐ lf the Pro. メ顕 ial records ion ofthe l c s select ‐ The other i. ies ma文i lロi ze spec. habi tat i l l o o淳ca , mainly determined by the b. マ i th each moistuヱe zone shou1d be se1ected マ. i i characted st cs of the target plants , such as. i considerat on. the轡 adaPt i \ Z i ty to water level l コ r s ate , subs ,. i i=g l b r reproduct atum; lf ma*”ねiz on, and s. t is to be restored at biocoenosls PH, etc . 1fi. b l 数uctural 薫versi L i tyisthe Pd ty s od , her aceous. leve l ti s the speci es that ca I ュ adapt to the ,i. idsto 1 l plants and l 1 : - コ ア tree sPecies should. .and habi tats tats wet , rather than the habi ,. コ dty ofthe se lected species compri se the majo. that shou1d be se 1ected (Ga1atowi tsch, 1993).. (Dads ) ‐ ,1994. of. meet Pr ect. 雨vers i ies Wi ty th土P , spec. P1ant. 節r im,. 立・ ode. of. 〇nce the s lected the 6士st step to i te i s se ,. ln restoration pract i ce , 0り潟α 粥締めogひれ (0.. l iminate the causes of take is to stoP or e. 1 ) RQれ化賜m ;Zhou et al pg惚れれ1の) (oka ‐) , ,1984. di ion to the wet land. The second steP srupt. 力8 i恥虎口 (Pezesmk i 7噛 め;明oれ ands咽ば坊α“α 卿7 z c. is to restore the 角r tat i m ・ er habi erent . D正負. 2000) etc have been used to restore et al . , , ,. ied in restor ing l I L easu 二 res should be aPpl. ions of ra ; re or endangered species populat .. lamd habi tats di I E G wet stu ; rbedby di erentcauses .. Many dom 節ant mosses ( E e P為蛸すれ錫徹 夫2数郷 ‐g. S. For exa ti 1mple s necessa ] : y to recreate or ,i. i t is reco・mmended and S .Pの秘めs錫m), reed (. -淀uct an acrotel in L i t recons tes 1n at Peat ‐ cut gs ,. due to i i ion rate whi ts slow decomL t ch pos. to rewet at dra j鴎age si tes cate , to de-eu拙oPhi. leasedi l to the atmosphere reduces the C02re 1. l luted si tes at eutroPhi cated and Po ]m , to da. (Ha E1 )) l tmann , 7 噂髭om m ,1998 , many sedges. l “ Lng si jmg and di tc tes uP at 畳ood , to con鍔ol. 2mm oreven dwaifsl立ubs o 」 4e ldl の聡 関≠のもZ ees ,. 行土e ,. 5 ) ; Ferlamd & Roche館光,1997 et al ch . ,199 , whi. graz棚1 g. Pressure. and. に直sts toU. at. ial ly damaged si tes supedac , and so on. U r ly no toPol享aphi i sual cal m1 odi五cat on ・s. lands ly used a ; re dominants of wet , are usual land vegetat ion‐ E“ E to restore wet 「 z z欄 oぬれoγ. land restorat ion, except 五山嵐g needed in wet. ieshavethebestres l i l i tin re spec ‐establ shment. dra i腹age di tches to r司i se the water tab1e ・. L 一 隣d i鴎g Protection to the di and in pr asPores o ‐. AP uneven s印ヒ face o先en leads to g eater 〕 ご. The 負brous root system ofthese sPecies 鑓ー so. i tyin restored wet lands (Davi sPecies divers s ,. heIPs to reduce son eros 9 ion (MCCue , 199 ).. 1994)・ Wたhen restor i 〕 qg bogs i ter to s bet , ti. 1 t should. i f y the toPo尊ごaPhy of dome shaped 6elds mod. i at ons of the same species (e Pop司ー ‐g ‐ reed). by pro艇iぬg to あri蝕 a depression (sl ight ly. land mi t ira1 ・ces in we ght have di様erent appeを. concave) in the center to keeP water (Qu無 げ. ion (Gensior et 鑓. tz et ; KOPpi restorat , 1998. & &o ] 恥光,1997 … “.Bi 1997 士血 ( )summad吃ed che e. l ) a ‐ っ 1998. be. ; e ・ 凹 L ed that Phas錠. d“駈erent. d”様erent water control sb tucかqres used m land restora恒on. wet. 3 3 M[aterial choice . M[ate コ d L lands are als used to restore wet. 1)zhou J G 日 Liu J K chen & G z Su n. . . 二 , . , . . , ‐ Popu1at ion restorat ion of co立江non W丑d. determi l ion‐ The 1 ed by the goals of restorat. 0 laぽ ri ce st t U由ed wet ・d , 7yzα 粥締めogoれ,in a di. ies select i standard guidance 品r sPec onS 1 s. i 血a of Southern Ch ‐. 60.

(8) . )ver i 1and vege tat もed v▽e ) i t i tur v lew on:a U Q( i truc t Res torat s on ofl u Qd Recons on a. 95), to 6 1o f雛m. Ri ‐ α離郷 鱒がoZ chmrds et al . , 19 1 } ‐ 2 1ou et al (α夢zα 粥方Pogoれ. ZI shoots m . )‐. 3.4 Techniques of transplanting/ introduction re- i ; 1g / re Di l 羊erent tech 一睡ques of transP1ant -. v▽eshould atte] ess m L akethe most pro淳ご ptto mL. ion loped in vegetat were deve. ing densi i ty (wh Wi th the lowest transplant ch. i l i ion of seed‐plant -dom鱈lat restorat g 免ns and. d i l l abor also means sad誼gl o o淳ca , money an b. iPg bogs sやれαgれ““z -doロロnat ‐. reso t u r ces)‐ ln. introduction 3.4.I Seed plant re-. l i l l P P ight ions exi 山中i tat st , patcb transp ant g. i l i troduct 1 on. i So r l lg →wing method The cost of the so病. t resul. the. 血 relatively. case. where. resowrce. 魚st restorat ion (Zhou et. t ca lat ive ly low, there長) にn be re i I E ・ ethod i s re. ) 1 ible t womd be better to al . )‐ lf poss , i. i ts 増 done on a large sc副l sk of r ever e ‐ How ,i. i=g to ensuヱe bjme so病な口g and transplant comL. o i tsch d i lu工e is also h 云ai sky & G副atoo gh. Budel. a. ( 1999 )s i tud edthe e甜ects ofstorage. moisture,. ) 亙 i gh success rate (Yosmoka et al . . ,1975 Peat block/turf transplanting. method. i i temperatu工e and t on e on seed ger口”pat ヱ 力 L. Thi sturbed si s a method to transp1ant un&i. d 危und that Cα“@% land calices of 丘ve wet , an. land‐ 工t i on to the &i sturbed bare peat vegetat. ions t ‐coldcondi seedssho副Ldbestoredunderwet. 〕 ば i c副 echa canbere謎超edbyboth manualand 肥・. i l i i i ty over t to mL taao high seed v lne abi aol ,. (競o rd methods (Brown & Be , , 1997)‐ ln 鎗ns. ies sho司Ld though seeds of many other spec. ion the thi ck1 1ess of the transplanted vegetat. oor al so be studied. ln ozegahara M[ , Japan,. / blocks t tばf sho副Ld be thi cker than the depth. i ty of cの花拐 sowing dens. 伽fc九α綿劣ねれα was. of the rhizome layer ofthe dominants (丑om. 2 430 seeds m-2 (Tachibana, 1976)‐ Yoshioka , まod 1 et a . (1975) 免und that the sowiぬg metま. ieters to 40 cm), and should sever頭 cent士d ound water reach the depth of the under淳F. g ects and thi ckpess of cover soa had great ea. ‘ [ ize of the table oor ‐ ln ozegahara D , the s. ival ion and see証釦1g s口かv 1m立l at on seed ger. transplanted blocks were about 30 cm × 30. face ion by s山ヒ land in 歳i stu こ rbed bare peat . Eros. i ty of two blocks cm X 30 cm, at a・dens. j L d great i l lg the seed d rds eat runo性, and bi. -2 立・ . VVb en ‐. 1 ) ion‐ Zhou et al har at 1遊 to the seed pop司L ‐. i bonr ter transplanted. l t l ‐ owed blocks were i. ion 免und that deep water and dense vegetat. te to i医 years f took about s ; rce si or the sou. ival of ful to s口r ies was har口l l v of other sPec. ion coverage (Yoshioka regain loo% vegetat. ion‐ the re‐無 償oduced oり庭α seed populat. 9 ) b ds method i s the most nat皿al et al . , 1 75‐ Tq. host and transplan錠ng , the. dual trans- method 工ndi覇L. land at stu・bed wet way to restore the di. i i エ ー th a bご ethod wi s a good m・ gh success gi p1ant. i biocoenos ch leads to rapid resto- s level , whi. ies whi r those spec ch can reproduce rate 量). ty ion to the later stage of conl lnu1 Qi rat. l l ds et a themselves by c ; opmg (Ri chmr ‐ , 1995. l llees et 可. 1 t s sho靴- succession (Mer , 995).l. ior et 頭‐ Quimty & Roche恥沈, 199勘; Gens ,. l ive and i t ti tens 1 co1 1 1 1ng i s that i s labor i. 1998 パ ア i tsch, 1998 tzetal ;Yetka & Galatot ;Koppi ・ ,. ion to the neigh- causes secondagy destruct. 1 ) 1999 th ; Zhou et al s bo ‐ ). But this method i. ion. bor i ゴ ロg natu 二 ral vegetat. Transplanting. l i * 〕 De and labor i ty 貴) ti tensive r trans‐ 1 ‐ Dens. 叢erent opmuons l D辻野 erent authors have di. r lant i口g is a key parameter o 1m p . lt ranged 6. i口g ) l 墓 i tabl about the s e season 賞 r transP1ant .. lshoot m-2 (P乾期淳 一 解s α“材プロZ禽. Schi蛸er &. h q1 ival For seed plants as the souice 7 ,t e s r. ‐2 (E7 1叫)れo Wi 7似m chtmann, 1998), 6 shoots m. i口g ln sprlng i s 超i rate of transplant gher 61.

(9) . 日‐Tach d i ba に ・ Qa and J .zhou. than thatin autumLn;the transplanted plants. lat ively 甑 i pαめ秘めs“伽 have re gh regeneration. i ive to changesin waterlevel t are more sens s. rates. m the early stage than m the late stage. ize) and stem s. (Ye la ) t 帝 i tka & Ga t to sch . For blocks , 1999. as. 触sc le have low regenerat i 6) ion rates (1 c .2-1 . ,. 1 iぬg sho司 the sou L d be conducted ; rce ,transP ant. le api whi cal buds and stem sections between. m. autumn be貴) re. ( 2 3 times), capi tu.um bramches (sho“ ‐ ions between branch sect. 登eez i韻g to anow the. t副ーum and 6ばst branch fasc i le can not caPi c. transplanted peat blocks enough t ime to. 995 ) regenerate (Roche角rt et 副‐ ‐A 3‐month ,1. th the substrate peat connect Wi , so that the. L house expeビロロent ivat i口g capihaa t 1 g ごeeP , cul ,. 鱒ound water can reach the blocks (Yoshioka. l 刀 la 十 stems branches and branches 十 t caPi , ,. le /diaspore badks et al . , 1975). For propa罫ロ. stems of 角ur sp殻増加 (S .m鍍形“αれた賜m, S ‐. inat i i r ce as the sou on rate , the outdoor gerロl. αれg 7 汝材新oZ卿 m, S ・d s .元裕 伽 m, a1 .”gmの吃“m),. decrease. 昼o i = L ]m autumm, 次ほ口ter g to , spr. t山la十stems have the 超i showed capi ghest. ing i t ton summer (Brock & Br , 1995),indicat. iPg rate t is 引田ected by regenerat , though i. iねg season shou1d thatthe sui table transplant. the waterlevel andthe species l . A waterleve. be autumln.. face of the peat substratum close to the s山ヒ. 3.4.2 S introduct ion E P九α9履“肌 moss re-. favored the regenerat ion of nea ly al l the ; r. lndividualだragment dispersing method. ies al spec ・d t }やes of 食agments (Roche角rt et. Though they produce large amounts of. ) l a ‐ リ ー995. l it le i ion spores s kl l0wn about the propagat , t. Q山嵐ty. &. Rocheあrt (1997a) suggested. ly produced spores 2α by sexual of Sのれαg7. l lect ion be done (by a rot ivator) that moss co. (Bugon et a ), and no paper mentions ユリ ー997. early. usmg. spores, as. a. restoration. somrce.. iねg when ground thaw m spr. was about. 〕 d L locm 最r om the su・face al s should . The mate. lndi西dual s or even をagments of s l p兎雑ざれ“伽. be sh士edded i l to 丑ag 1 1 肥 l ents and be spread. ( they aure also diaspores) a u re Widely used. as. ible to the bare peat land to as soon as poss. ion restorat ion (E1 1 i 1 1g a source おor vegetat. be restored at an area rat io of l:15 and , ,. & Kq 1986 i ; ; C1ymo & Duckett ghton , 1984 ,. i tisessenti副 to cover them With straw mロl ch. ・ POSc l立od & P危de避〕auer 1989 ; Campeau & ,. (Qu i 血ty & Hood, 1998)‐ln ozeg… 1h鑓「 a Moor ,. Rocheあrt 1996 ; Bu≦;]on et a l ; Ferlaは・d . , , 1997. the. &. l-1 5 cm, and the di io was l:25 spersion rat .. Roche和rt 1997 ; Roche節rt & ,. Campeau ,. 1997 1 7 ; Roche角rt et al aly, . , 99 ; Jotmson & M[. moss thi ckl 1ess. 長) r. harvest i口g. was. (Yoshi ) oka et m. . , 1975. 1998 1 ; Johnson et al i ) l ce et a . . , 998; Pr ‐ ,1998. B1ock/Turf transP1ant ing method .リ b匡ee. SPんαgれ“加 fragments have ・a s l i は r ty ong abi ・ l. f6 cm ter patches of 免ur spた s af ye劉r (増 加 o. to regenerate vegetat i on, much stronger than. diameter were tramspl l l ‐ amted 丑om ,a we. SP九雄加隙間. 無 毒viduals (Money ,. 1 995).. ln. developed Cα焔% mZ Z“箱畝 欄 com muni ty 魚 c′”. Ly extreme cases, even a ste】m section of ol“. ozeg≧山 鑓「a M[ oor , the patches 魚creased 丑om. 1-2 mm long can regenerate 識er 50 days ・ AI. 5 8 t imes 無 .2 to 17 .. l i l ivat ion in non‐ster i le c l ヱ l t tu ter of c ; re on 行l. 1975 l”mwa & Tachi bana ; Kas , 1982). The. ted wet. With. t 濁 L me um,. 数ea (Yoshioka et m‐ ,. tulum capi. l道table season 免r tramspl ing i ly amt s s e を lr. bra long and me (近um s i u Iches ( zes) and stem. i ゴ ロg when 淳ご spr ot口1d thaw sta光s (Qumty. ions Wi i le of branches of s th a fasc sect c .. Roche角鷲, 1997a), or Au圭犯st (Yoshi oka et. papers. 62.



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部分品の所属に関する一般的規定(16 部の総説参照)によりその所属を決定する場合を除くほ か、この項には、84.07 項又は

哲学(philosophy の原意は「愛知」)は知が到 達するすべてに関心を持つ総合学であり、総合政

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Statistical timing − Exports : Entry is made in the month within which falls the date when a ship or aircr

Statistical timing − Exports : Entry is made in the month within which falls the date when a ship or aircr