A new species of the fossil murine rodent from the Pinza-Abu Cave, the Miyako Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan-香川大学学術情報リポジトリ

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(1)群馬県立自然史博物館研究報告(13 ) :15 -28,2009. 15. Bu l l . Gun maMu s . Na t u. Hi s t (1 .3 ) :15 -28,2009 軸宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍雫. Ori gi nalArt i cl e 軸宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍宍雫. An e ws p e c i e so ft h ef o s s i lmu r i n er o d e n t f r o mt h ePi n z a Ab uCa v e ,t h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n 1 2 3 KAWAGUCHISa t o s h i ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mi a n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. 1. 9 9 4 6 ,Ka mo s h o ,S a n u k i s h i ,Ka g a waPr e f e c t u r e ,7 6 9 2 1 0 2 ,J a p a n 5 0 2 4 ,T a k a y a c h o ,S a k a i d e s h i ,Ka g a waPr e f e c t u r e ,7 6 2 0 0 1 7 ,J a p a n 3 Gu n maMu s e u mo fNa t u r a lHi s o t r y :1 6 7 4 1 ,Ka mi k u r o i wa , T o mi o k a s h i ,Gu n maPr e f e c t u r e ,3 7 0 2 3 4 5 ,J a p a n 2. Abst r act : An e ws p e c i e so ft h ef o s s i lmu r i n er o d e n to ft h eg e n u sRa t t u si sd e s c r i b e db yc omp a r i n g wi t ht h el i v i n ge n d e mi cs p e c i e so fDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t ao nt h ei s l a n d so fOk i n a waa n dAma mi o s h i ma .Th e mu r i n ef o s s i ls p e c i me n sa g e da st h el a t e rp a r to fPl e i s t o c e n ewe r ee x c a v a t e df r om t h ePi n z a Av ec a v e , t h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a ni n1 9 8 3 . KeyWords : Mu r i n a e ,Ra t t u s mi y a k o e n s i s ,Mi y a k oa n c i e n tr a t ,Di p l o t h r i xl e g a t a,Pi n z a Ab u , l i me s t o n ec a v ed e p o s i t s ,Mi y a k oI s l a n d ,t h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,l a t ePl e i s t o c e n e. I nt r oduct i on Fr o mt h ePi n z a Ab uCa v e ,t h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y u Ar c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n ,al a r g en umb e ro fmu r i n er o d e n t so ff o s s i l ma x i l l a e ,ma n d i b l e s ,i n c i s o r s ,h ume r i ,u l n a e ,p e l v e s ,f e mu r s , a n dt i b i a s ,a swe l la so n ec r o wna r e ab e t we e np a r i e t a lr i d g e s a n do n ei n c omp l e t en a s a l sa n dp r e ma x i l l a ewi t hi n c i s o r swe r e e x c a v a t e di n1 9 8 0 8 4 (Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5).Th ed e p o s i t si nt h e c a v ewe r ee s t i ma t e da s2 5 , 8 0 0± 9 0 0 y .B.P .a n d2 6 , 8 0 0± t h o ( dHa ma d a ,1 9 8 5)o rt h ef o s s i l 1 , 3 0 0 y .B. P .b yt h e14C me d e e ro fCa p r e o l u smi y a k o e n s i sh a v eb e e nf o r me di nt h el a t e r p a r to fPl e i s t o c e n eb yt h eFc o n t e n t (Ma s t s u u r a ,1 9 8 5) .Ho w,t h e s emu r i n ef o s s i l sh a v eb e e ni d e n t i f i e dp r o v i s i o n a l l ya s e v e r Di p l o t h r i xc f .l e g a t a (Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5 a ) . Th ep u r p o s eo ft h i sp a p e ri st or e e x a mi n et h ef o s s i lmu r i n e s pe c i me nsr e c ove r e df r om t hePi nz a AbuCa ve ,t heMi ya koI s l a nd (Ha s e ga wa ,1985a ),a ndt ode s c r i beane ws pe c i e sbyc ompa r i ng wi t hDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a,whi c hi sal a r gel i vi nge nde mi cmur i dr ode nt o c c u r r i n go nt h ei s l a n d so fAma mi o s h i ma ,To k u n o s h i maa n d Ok i n a wa ,t h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n (Mu s s e ra n dCa r l e t o n , 2 0 0 5 ;Ka n e k o ,2 0 0 8) .. Mat er i al sandMet hods Thef os s i ls pe c i me nse xa mi ne di nt hi ss t udywe r e60ofi s ol a t e d i n c omp l e t ema x i l l a ewi t hmo l a rt e e t h ,1 2o fi s o l a t e di n c omp l e t e ma xi l l a ewi t houtmol a rt e e t h,60ofi s ol a t e di nc ompl e t ema ndi bl e s wi t hmo l a rt e e t h ,2 2o fi s o l a t e di n c omp l e t ema n d i b l e swi t h o u t mol a rt e e t h,onei nc ompl e t ena s a l sa ndpr e ma xi l l a ewi t hi nc i s or s , a ndonei nc ompl e t ec r ownpa r toft hes kul lc ompos e dofi nc ompl e t e p a r i e t a l ,f r o n t a la n di n t e r p a r i e t a lb o n e s .Th e s es p e c i me n swe r e c o l l e c t e df r om t h ePi n z a Av eCa v e ,t h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h e Ry u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n ,i n1 9 8 0 8 4 (Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5 a )a n d we r eh o u s e di nt h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r eMu s e u m & Ar tMu s e u m (s e eAp p e n d i x). 受付:2 0 0 9 年2 月3 日,受理:2 0 0 9 年3 月1 4 日. Sp e c i me n so fl i v i n gs p e c i e sf o rc omp a r i s o n swe r ea sf o l l o ws . Te ns kul l soft hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a:s e ve ns kul l swe r ec ol l e c t e d f r om t heAma mi os hi maI s l a nd;a ndt hr e es kul l sf r om t heOki na wa I s l a n d .Th e s es k u l l so fDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t awe r eh o u s e di nt h eNa t i o n a lSc i e n c eMu s e u m,To k y o (NSMT),a n dt h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r e Mu s e um & Ar tMu s e u m (OPM) (s e e Ap p e n d i x). Th e h o l o t y p e so fLe n o t h r i xl e g a t a (BM 5 . 1 1 . 3 . 4 2 :Th oma s ,1 9 0 6) a n d Mu sb o we r s i iv a r .o k i n a v e n s i (N s SMTM3 4 3 2 5 :Na mi e , 1 9 0 9)we r ee x a mi n e di nt h e Na t u r a lHi s t o r y ,Lo n d o n ,UK s e u m, To k y o ,J a p a n (BM)a n dt h e Na t i o n a l Sc i e n c e Mu (NSMT)r e s p e c t i v e l y . We f o l l o we d Mu s s e ra n d Ca r l e t o n (2 0 0 5)wh oc u r r e n t l yl i s t e dMu sb o we r s i iv a r .o k i n a v e n s i sa sa s ynonym ofDi pl ot hr i xl agat a.Ayoungs kul lofBandi c ot ai ndi c a l i v i n gi n Ta i wa ni st h eHa s e g a wa ’sp r i v a t ec o l l e c t i o n ,a n d s k u l l so fRa t t u sr a t t u sa n dR.n o r v e g i c u sc o l l e c t e df r o mJ a p a n a r et h eKa wa g u c h i ’ sp r i v a t ec o l l e c t i o n ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .Ac r o n yms u s e di nt h es t u d ya r e OPMFV (f o s s i lv e r t e b r a t es p e c i me n s h o u s e di nt h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r eMu s e u m & Ar tMu s e u m) a ndNSMTM (ma mma ls pe c i me nshous e di nt heNa t i ona lSc i e nc e Mu s e um,To k y o) . De n t a lt e r mi n o l o g ya d o p t e di nt h i ss t u d yi sd i a g r a me di nFi g . 1 ,f o l l o wi n gb yJ a c o b (1 s9 7 8 ) .I nd e s c r i b i n gt h ec h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o fmo l a rmo r p h o l o g ywen o t e dt h et e r mi n o l o g yt a k e nb yMu s s e r (1981).Theuppe rmol a r swe r ea bbr e vi a t e da sM,t hel owe rmol a r s we r em,a n dt h e1 s t ,2 n d ,a n d3 r dmo l a r swe r ewr i t t e na sM1o r m1 ,a n ds oo n . Fo l l o wi n g1 5d i me n s i o n swe r eme a s u r e da si l l u s t r a t e di n Fi g . 2 :l e n g t ho ft h eu p p e rf i r s tmo l a (L r M1 ) ,l e n g t ho ft h eu p p e r s e c o n dmo l a (L r M2 ) ,l e n g t ho ft h eu p p e rt h i r dmo l a (L r M3 ) , ) ,wi d t ho ft h eu p p e rs e c o n d wi d t ho ft h eu p p e rf i r s tmo l a (WM1 r ),wi d t ho ft h eu p p e rt h i r dmo l a (WM3 r );d i s t a n c e mo l a (WM2 r be t we e nt hepos t e r i ore dgeoft hea t t a c hme nta r e aoft hes upe r f i c i a l ma s t i c a t o r ymu s c l ea n dt h ea n t e r i o rma r g i no fa l v e o l io ft h e f i r s tu p p e rmo l a ro nt h ema x i l l a ( eASMM1 ) ;t o t a ll e n g t ho ft h e u p p e rmo l a r s (TLUM) ;l e n g t ho ft h el o we rf i r s tmo l a (L r m1 ) ,.

(2) 16. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. l e n g t ho ft h el o we rs e c o n dmo l a (L r m2 ),l e n g t ho ft h el o we r 1) ,wi d t h t h i r dmo l a (L r m3 ),wi d t ho ft h el o we rf i r s tmo l a (Wm r oft hel owe rs e c ondmol a (Wm r 2),wi dt hoft hel owe rt hi r dmol a r (Wm3 );a n dt o t a ll e n g t ho ft h el o we rmo l a r (T s LLm).Th e s e me a s u r e me n t swe r er e a dt ot h en e a r e s t0 . 0 1mi l l i me t e rwi t ha. Fi gure 1 Oc c l us a lvi e wsoft her i ghtma xi l l a r ymo l a rr o w (A)a ndt her i ghtma ndi bul a rmo l a rr ow(B)f r o mt hef o s s i l Rat t usmi y ak oe ns i si l l us t r a t i ngs t r uc t ur a lt e r ms .Te r mi no l o g y f ormo l a r swa sf ol l owe dbyJ a c obs (1978 ) .. d i a lc a l i p e (t rh emi n i mu ma c c u r a c y=0 . 0 5mm). Numb e ro fr o o t so fe a c hmo l a rwa sg i v e nb yt h eo b s e r v a t i o n o ft h ea l v e o l i .Th et e r mi n o l o g yo ft h ea l v e o l iwa sf o l l o we db y Mu s s e ra n dHo l d e n (1 9 9 1) . St a t i s t i c a lt e s t swe r ep e r f o r me df o l l o wi n gSo k a la n dRo h l f (1973).Thea na l ys i sofva r i a nc eoft heme a nsof15me a s ur e me nt s s h o wst h a tt h e r ea r en od i f f e r e n c e sb e t we e nt h eme a s u r e me n t s b e t we e nt h er i g h ta n dl e f ts i d e si nt h el i v i n gDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t a. Th u s ,me a s u r e me n t so nt h er i g h ts i d eo ft h eu p p e ra n dl o we r. Fi gure 2 Oc c l u s a lv i e wso fr i g h tma x i l l a(A)a n dr i ght ma x i l l a r ymo l a rr o w(B)o ft h ef o s s i lRa t t u smi y a k oe ns i s s h o wi n gl i mi t so f1 5me a s u r e me n t s .. Fi gure 3 Oc c l us a lvi e wsoft her i ghtma xi l l aoft h ef o s s i lRa t t u smi y a k o e n s i s (A,t h eh o l o t y p e ,OPMFV0 1 2 5 9 )a ndt h el i vi ng Di pl ot hr i xl e gat af r o m Oki na wa (B,OPM-nonu mb e r ).Ah o r i z o n t a ll i n ei n d i c a t e st h ep o s i t i o no ft h ea n t e r i o rp o i n to ft h ef i r s t uppe rmo l a r ,whe r et hemo l a rr oote nt e r si nt ot hea l v e o l a rc a n a l ..

(3) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. Fi gure 4 Dor s a l (A -B)a ndl a t e r a l (C-D)vi e wsoft hef os s i lRat t usmi y ak oe ns i s (A a ndC)a ndt hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a. (Ba ndD).Aa ndC:OPMFV02904a ndOPMFV02906,Ba ndD:OPMnonumbe r .I nc ,t hel e f ts i deoft hei nc i s e ri somi t t e d.. 17.

(4) 18. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. mo l a r sa r eu s e di nD.l a g a t ai nf u r t h e ra n a l y s i s .I nt h ef o s s i l n e ws p e c i e sd e s c r i b e db e l o w,me a s u r e me n t so nt h el e f ta n d r i g h ts i d e sa r ep o o l e d .. Resul t s Ta x o nomi cde s c r i pt i o n: Fa mi l yMu r i d a e Su b f a mi l yMu r i n a e Ra t t usmi y a k o e ns i ss p .n o v (P .l a t e1 ) [J a p a n e s en a me :Mi y a k oMu k a s h iNe z umi ,n e w] [En g l i s hn a me :Mi y a k oAn c i e n tRa t ,n e w] Ho l o t y pe :OPMFV0 1 2 5 9 ,t h er i g h tma x i l l awi t ht h ef i r s t , s e c o n da n dt h i r dmo l a r sr e c o v e r e df r om ad e p o s i ti nt h ePi n z a Ab uCa v e (2 4 ° 4 4′ 5 0 ″N,1 2 5 ° 2 0′ 0 8 ″E) ,Ue n oVi l l a g e ,Mi y a k o Count y (Mi ya koI s l a nd),Oki na waPr e f e c t ur ei n1983byYos hi ka z u Ha s e g a wa ,o n eo ft h ep r e s e n ta u t h o r s .Th eh o l o t y p ei sd e p o s i t e d i nt h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r eMu s e u m & Ar tMu s e u m (OPM), Ok i n a wa . Ag e :Wü r m:2 5 , 8 0 0±9 0 0 y .B.P .a n d2 6 , 8 0 0±1 , 3 0 0 y .B. P . byt he14Cme t ho( dHa ma da ,1985),ort hel a t e rpa r tofPl e i s t oc e ne b yt h eF-c o n t e n t (Ma s t s u u r a ,1 9 8 5) . Et y mo l o g y :Th i ss p e c i e si sn a me da “m s i y a k o e n s i s ”d u et o t h ee x c a v a t i o ns i t ei sl o c a t e do nt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h e Ry u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n . Di a g no s i s :Th ep o s t e r i o re d g eo ft h ei n c i s i v ef o r a me np a s s e s a tt h ef r o n tma r g i n so ft h emo l a rr o ws .Th emo s ta n t e r i o rp o i n t o ft h ep o s t e r i o ra r c ho ft h ea n t e r o o r b i t a lp l a t ea p p r o x i ma t e l y l i e sa tt h ea n t e r i o rma r g i nn e a rt h ea n t e r i o ra l v e o l u so fM1 (Fi g . 3 ) . Th ed i s t a n c eb e t we e nt h ep o s t e r i o re d g eo ft h ea t t a c hme n t a r e aoft hes upe r f i c i a lma s t i c a t or ymus c l ea ndt hea nt e r i orma r gi n o fa l v e o l io ft h ef i r s tu p p e rmo l a ro nt h ema x i l l a ( eASMM1 )i s s l i g h t l ys h o r t e (F ri g .3 ) . A s t r o n gs u p r a o r b i t a lr i d g eo nt h ec r o wni sa b o u t1 . 9mm i n wi d t h ,a n de x t e n d sb a c k wa r d so v e rt h eb r a i n c a s e ,wh e r et h e r i d g e so nb o t hs i d e sa r et h ewi d e s ti n1 7 . 6mm o nt h emi d d l e. p a r to ft h ep a r i e t a l sa n da r es l i g h t l yn a r r o wo nt h ea n t e r i o ra n d p o s t e r i o rp a r t so ft h es a meb o n e (F s i g .4 ) .Th er i d g ec o n n e c t e d wi t ht hef r ont a la ndpa r i e t a li ss moot hl yc ur ve dwi t houtpr ot r udi ng f o r wa r da n do u t wa r dd i r e c t i o n . Th eM1 ,M2 ,a n dM3h a v en op o s t e r o s t y l ( e= t 7 ;Mu s s e r , 1 9 8 1 ;t h er e f e r e n c ei st h es a mei nt h ef o l l o wi n gp a r e n t h e s e s ) (Fi g .5 ) .Th eM1h a sawe l l ma r k e dr e l a t i v e l yl o n gs l o p eo ft h e a n t e r i o rp a r tc omi n gu pt ot h eg r i n d i n gs u r f a c eo fM1 .Th et o t a l u p p e rmo l a rl e n g t ( hTLUM)i st h el a r g e s ta mo n gt h ea l ll i v i n g s p e c i e so ft h eg e n u sRa t t u s . De s c r i pt i o n: Th ef o s s i li sa l a r g e Mu r i n er o d e n twi t h b r a c h y o d o n t .Mo l a r sf o r mc h e v r o n s h a p e dl a mi n ( aFi g .3) .Th e c u s p so ft h eu p p e rmo l a r ss l a n tp o s t e r i o r l y ,a n dt h r e ec u s p sa r e we l lc o n n e c t e dwi t ht h ed e n t i ns p a c ei nt h ef o r mo fc h e v r o n s . Ont h ec o n t r a r y ,t h ec u s p so ft h el o we rmo l a r ss l a n ta n t e r i o r l y . To t a lmo l a rl e n g t hi sa b o u t1 1 . 4mm i nt h eu p p e ra n d1 0 . 5mm i nt h el o we (T ra b l e1 ). Th ep o s t e r i o re d g eo ft h ei n c i s i v ef o r a me np e n e t r a t e sa tt h e a nt e r i orpa r tofM1 (Fi g.3).Themos ta nt e r i orpoi ntoft hepos t e r i or a r c ho ft h ea n t e r o o r b i t a lp l a t el i e sa tt h ea n t e r i o rp a r to fM1 . A s t r o n gs u p r a o r b i t a lr i d g ei s1 . 9mm i nwi d t h ,a n de x t e n d s b a c k wa r d so v e rt h eb r a i n c a s e ,wh e r et h er i d g e so nb o t hs i d e s a r et h ewi d e s ti n1 7 . 6mm o nt h emi d d l ep a r to ft h ep a r i e t a l s a n da r es l i g h t l yn a r r o wo nt h ea n t e r i o ra n dp o s t e r i o rp a r t so ft h e s a meb o n e (F s i g .4 ) .Th er i d g ec o n n e c t e dwi t ht h ef r o n t a la n d p a r i e t a li sc u r v e ds mo o t h e dl i n e a r l ywi t h o u tp r o t r u d i n gf o r wa r d a n do u t wa r d . Th eM1 ,M2 ,a n dM3h a v en op o s t e r o s t y l e .Th eM1h a sa n a s y mme t r i c a lo c c l u s a lo u t l i n ( eFi g s .3a n d5) .Th eM1h a sa we l l ma r k e dr e l a t i v e l yl o n gs l o p eo ft h ea n t e r i o rp a r tc omi n gu p t ot h eg r i n d i n gs u r f a c eo fi t .I ti sc o mp o s e do ft h r e ec h e v r o n s ,i n wh i c ht h ea n t e r i o rt woc h e v r o n sh a v et h r e ec u s p sa n dt h et h i r d c he vr onha st woc us ps .Thef i r s tc he vr onc ompr i s e st hea nt e r os t yl e (=t 1 ) a n dl i n g u a (= l t 2 )a n dl a b i a la n t e r o c o n e (= s t 3 ) .Th ea nt e r os t yl e i ss l i ght l ypos t e r i ort ot hel i ngua la ndl a bi a la nt e r oc one s . t ht hepos Thea nt e r ol a bi a la r e aoft hea nt e r os t yl ei sc onne c t e dwi o s t e r i o r t e r ol i ngua la r e aoft hel i ngua la nt e r oc one .The r ei sap c o n n e c t i o nb e t we e nt h el i n g u a la n dl a b i a la n t e r o c o n e s .Th el a -.

(5) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. Fi gure 5 Oc c l us a lvi e wsoft her i ghtma xi l l a r ymol a rr ow of Rat t usmi y ak oe ns i s (A -D),t hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a (E), t hel i vi ngBandi c ot ai ndi c a (F),a ndt hel i vi ngRat t usr at t us (G). A:OPMFV01259,B:OPMFV00097,C:OPMFV01 108, D:OPMFV01252,E:OPM nonumbe r ,F:Ha s e ga wa ’spr i va t e c ol l e c t i on,G:Ka wa guc hi ’spr i va t ec ol l e c t i on (SK1 144).. 19. Fi gure 6 Oc c l us a lvi e wsoft her i ghtma ndi bul a rmol a rr ow of Rat t usmi y ak oe ns i s (AD),t hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a (E),t he l i vi ngBandi c ot ai ndi c a (F),a ndt hel i vi ngRat t usr at t us (G). A:OPMFV00283,B:OPMFV01 153,C:OPMFV00532, D:OPMFV02938,E:OPM nonumbe r ,F:Ha s e ga wa ’spr i va t e c ol l e c t i on,G:Ka wa guc hi ’spr i va t ec ol l e c t i on (SK1032).. b i a la n t e r o c o n ei ss l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o rr e l a t i v et ot h el i n g u a l Th eM2h a sar o u n d e do c c l u s a lo u t l i n ea n dc omp r i s e sf i v e a n t e r o c o n e .Th el i n g u a la n t e r o c o n ei st h el a r g e s tc u s pi nt h e ma j o rc u s p (p sa r a c o n e ,p r o t o c o n e ,e n t e r o s t y l e ,me t a c o n ea n d f i r s tc h e v r o n .Th es e c o n dc h e v r o nc omp r i s e st h ep a r a c o n ( e= h y p o c o n e )a r r a n g e di nt woc h e v r o n (F s i g s .3a n d5).Th ef i r s t t 6 ),p r o t o c o n ( e=t 5) ,a n de n t e r o s t y l ( e=t 4 ) .Th ep a r a c o n ea n d c h e v r o nc omp r i s e st h ee n t e r o s t y l e ,p r o t o c o n ea n dp a r a c o n e .Th e ot oc onei sl a r ge rt ha nt hepa r a c oneore nt e r os t yl e .Thepa r a c one t h ee n t e r o s t y l ea r ea ta b o u tt h es a mel e v e la n ds l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o r pr r e l a t i vet ot hepr ot oc one .The r ei sapos t e r i orc onne c t i onbe t we e n a ndt hee nt e r os t yl ea r ea ta boutt hes a mel e ve la nds l i ght l ypos t e r i or t h ep a r a c o n ea n dt h ep r o t o c o n e ,o rb e t we e nt h ep r o t o c o n ea n d r e l a t i vet ot hepr ot oc one .The r ei sapos t e r i orc onne c t i onbe t we e n t h ep a r a c o n ea n dt h ep r o t o c o n e ,o rb e t we e nt h ee n t e r o s t y l ea n d t h ee n t e r o s t y l e .Th ep r o t o c o n ei st h el a r g e s tc u s po ft h es e c o n d t h ep r o t o c o n e .Th eh y p o c o n ei sl a r g e rt h a nt h eme t a c o n e .Th e c h e v r o n .Th et h i r dc h e v r o nc omp r i s e st h eme t a c o n ( e=t 9 )a n d y p o c o n ec o n n e c t sp o s t e r i o r l ywi t ht h eme t a c o n e h y p o c o n ( e=t 8)j o i n e db yap o s t e r i o rc o n n e c t i o n .Th eh y p o c o n e h of o r mt h es e c o n dc h e v r o n .Th ea n t e r o s t y l ei sp r omi n e n ta n d i sl a r g e rt h a nt h eme t a c o n e .Th ep o s t e r i o rc i n g u l um s ome t i me s t pr e s e nti ns i xof60s pe c i me nsa sas ma l lnot c hbutmuc hr e duc e d c o n f l u e n twe a k l y wi t ht h el a b i a la n t e r o c o n e .A s ma l lr o u n d (s e eFi g.1).Thi spos t e r i orc i ngul um whe npr e s e ntha sas ha l l ow c u s po ft h el a b i a la n t e r o c o n ei sp r e s e n ti n4 0o f4 6s p e c i me n s v a l l e yb e t we e nt h eme t a c o n ea n dt h ec i n g u l um.Att h ea n t e r i o r wi t ha nu n wo r nmo l a (T ra b l e2) .Ne i t h e rl i n g u a la n t e r o c o n en o r ma r g i no fM1 ,o n eo rt womi n u t ep r e s t y l e si sr a r e l yp r e s e n to n a c c e s s o r yc u s pi sp r e s e n t . t h ep r e c i n g u l um a tt h eb a s eo fj u n c t u r eo ft h el i n g u a la n dl a b i a l Th eM3h a sat r a p e z o i do c c l u s a lo u t l i n et a p e r i n gp o s t e r i o r l y a n t e r o c o n e si nf o u ro f6 0s p e c i me n s :o n ep r e s t y l ei sp r e s e n ti n (Fi g s .3a n d5 ) .I th a st wowe l ld e f i n e dc h e v r o n s .Th ef i r s t OPMFV-0 0 1 1 8 ,0 0 4 4 1 ,a n d0 1 2 7 9 ,a n dt wop r e s t y l e si nOPM- c h e v r o ni sc omp o s e do fp a r a c o n e ,p r o t o c o n ea n de n t e r o s t y l e . FV0 2 8 7 8 .As ma l la c c e s s o r yc u s pi sf o u n do nt h el a b i a lb o r d e r Th ep a r a c o n ea n de n t e r o s t y l ea r ea ta b o u tt h es a mel e v e la n d o fM1b e t we e nt h ep a r a c o n ea n dme t a c o n ei nf o u rs p e c i me n s s l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o rr e l a t i v et ot h ep r o t o c o n e .Th ep r o t o c o n ei s c l os e rt ot hepa r a c onet ha nt hee nt e r os t yl e .Thes e c ondc he vr oni s a mo n g6 0o n e (O s PMFV-0 0 0 9 5 ,0 0 4 4 4 ,0 0 4 8 0 ,a n d0 1 0 5 6) ..

(6) 20. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. c ompos e doft heme t a c onea ndhypoc one .Thes i z eoft heme t a c one i ss ma l l e rt h a nt h a to ft h eh y p o c o n e .Th eme t a c o n ei sc l o s et o t h ee n t e r o s t y l e ,b u twe l ls e p a r a t e df r om t h ep a r a c o n e .Th ea n t e r o s t y l ei sal a r g ec u s pa tt h ea n t e r o l i n g u a lma r g i no ft h et o o t h . nTh el a b i a la n t e r o c o n ei sl o wa n dr a t h e rl i k eac i n g u l uma tt h ea t e r ol a bi a lbor de roft het oot h,i fi tpr e s e nt .Thel a bi a la nt e r oc one o c c u r si n1 3a mo n g2 4s p e c i me n swi t ha nu n wo r nmo l a (T ra b l e 2 ). Th em1i sr o u g h l yat r a p e z i f o r ma n dh a ss i xma j o rc u s p (p sr o t o c o n i d ,me t a c o n i d ,h y p o c o n i d ,e n t o c o n i d ,l a b i a la n t e r o c o n i d a n dl i n g u a la n t e r o c o n i d)f o r me di nt h r e ec h e v r o n (F s i g s .3a n d 6 ).Th e r ei sn ome d i a la n t e r o c o n i d (=a n t e r o c e n t r a lc u s p).Th e l i ngua la nt e r oc oni d (=a nt e r ol i ngua lc us p)a ndl a bi a la nt e r oc oni d (=a n t e r o l a b i a lc u s p)a r ec o n n e c t e dp o s t e r i o r l yt of o r mt h ef i r s t c he vr on.Thel a bi a la nt e r oc oni di ss ma l l e rt ha nt hel i ngua la nt e r oc o n i da n ds l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o rt oi t .Th eme t a c o n i da n dp r o t o c o n i d a r ec o n n e c t e da n t e r i o r l yt of o r mt h es e c o n dc h e v r o n .Th ep r o t o c o n i di ss l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o rr e l a t i v et ot h eme t a c o n i d .Th eh y p o c o n i da n de n t o c o n i da r ec o n n e c t e da n t e r i o r l yt of o r mt h et h i r d c h e v r o n .Th eh y p o c o n i di ss l i g h t l yp o s t e r i o rt ot h ee n t o c o n i d . Th ep o s t e r i o rc i n g u l um i sa ni s o l a t e df l a t t e n e do v a la tt h ep o s t e r i o rma r g i no ft h et e e t hb e t we e nt h eh y p o c o n i da n de nt o c o n i d . Ex c e p tf o r2 2s p e c i me n swi t hwe a r i n gmo l a r s ,o n ec i n g u l a r c u s p (C s 1=p o s t e r i o rl a b i a lc u s p l e t )i sn o tp r e s e n t ,t h eC1a n d C2 (=a n t e r i o rl a b i a lc u s p l e t )o c c u rt o g e t h e ri n1 9s p e c i me n s , a n dt h eC2a l o n ei sd e v e l o p e di n1 9s p e c i me n so nt h el a b i a lc i n g u l um a mo n g3 8s p e c i me n s . Th em2h a sat r a p e z o i d a lo c c l u s a lo u t l i n et a p e r i n gp o s t e r i o r l y (Fi g s .3a n d6) .I tc o mp r i s e sf o u rma j o rc u s p (m s e t a c o n i d ,p r o t o c o n i d ,e n t o c o n i da n dh y p o c o n i d)a r r a n g e di nt wot r a n s v e r s e c h e v r o n s .Th eme t a c o n i da n dp r o t o c o n i du n i t ea n t e r i o r l yt of o r m t h ef i r s tc h e v r o n .Th ee n t o c o n i da n dh y p o c o n i da r ec o n n e c t e d a n t e r i o r l yt of o r mt h es e c o n dc h e v r o n ,a n dt h el a t t e ri sp o s t e r i o r r e l a t i v et ot h ef o r me r .Th ep o s t e r i o rc i n g u l um i sa ni s o l a t e df l a t t e n e do v a la tt h ep o s t e r i o rma r g i no ft h et e e t hb e t we e nt h eh y p o c o n i da n de n t o c o n i d .A l a b i a la n t e r o c o n i d (=a n t e r o l a b i a lc u s p) i sd e v e l o p e da tt h ea n t e r o l a b i a lc o r n e ro ft h et o o t ha n di sc on n e c t e dt ot h ep r o t o c o n i d .Ex c e p tf o r3 6s p e c i me n swi t hwe a r i n g mo l a r s ,o n ec i n g u l a rc u s p (C1=p o s t e r i o rl a b i a lc u s p l e t )i sc o mp l e t e l yv i s i b l eo nt h el a b i a lc i n g u l um a mo n g2 4s p e c i me n s . Th em3i st r i a n g u l a ri no c c l u s a lo u t l i n ( eFi g s .3a n d6).I t c o mp r i s e sf o u rma j o rc u s p (m s e t a c o n i d ,p r o t o c o n i d ,e n t o c o n i d a n dh y p o c o n i d)a r r a n g e di nt wot r a n s v e r s ec h e v r o n s .Th eme t a c o n i da n dp r o t o c o n i da r ec o n n e c t e da n t e r i o r l yt of o r mt h ef i r s t c h e v r o n .Th eme t a c o n i da n dp r o t o c o n i da r ea ta b o u tt h es a me l e v e l .Th ee n t o c o n i da n dh y p o c o n i da r ej o i n e da n t e r i o r l yt o. Fi gure 7 Ve nt r a lvi e wsoft he uppe ra l ve ol i (AC)a nd dor s a l vi e wsoft hel owe ra l ve ol i (DF)i nt hef os s i lRat t usmi y ak oe ns i s (A,B,Da ndE)a ndt hel i vi ngRat t usr at t us (Ca ndF).Bot hAa nd Da r et hemos tf r e que ntpa t t e r ns ,r e s pe c t i ve l y .Bot hBa ndEa r ee xc e pt i ona lpa t t e r nswi t hs uppl e me nt a ls ma l l e rr oot l e t s ,r e s pe c t i ve l y . A:OPMFV01090,B:OPMFV01644,D:OPMFV02022,E: OPMFV02627,F:Ka wa guc hi ’spr i va t ec ol l e c t i on (SK1144).. f o r mt h es e c o n dc h e v r o n .A l a b i a la n t e r o c o n i di sd e v e l o p e da t t h ea n t e r o l a b i a lc o r n e ro ft h et o o t h .Ex c e p tf o r3 5s p e c i me n s wi t hwe a r i n gmo l a r s ,o n ec i n g u l a rc u s p (C1 )i sd e v e l o p e da l o n e o nt h el a b i a lc i n g u l um i ns i xa mo n g2 5s p e c i me n s . ve ol a rpa t t e r nsf oruppe ra ndl owe rmol a rr oot sa r ei l l us t r a t e d Al i nFi g .7 .Th eM1h a sal a r g ea n t e r i o r ,ame d i u ms i z e dl a b i a l ,a me d i u ms i z e dp o s t e r i o r ,a n dt wome d i u ms i z e dl i n g u a lr o o t so n.

(7) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. 21. b o t hs i d e swi t ho n ee x c e p t i o n ,wh i c hh a sab i f i dl a b i a lr o o (F ti g . c u s p (F s i g s .5a n d6),R.mi y a k o e n s i s i si sd i s t i n g u i s h e df r o m B. 7 -A a n d7 -B) .Th eM2h a sf o u rr o o t so fa b o u te q u a ls i z eo n i n d i c a . b o t hs i d e swi t ho n ee x c e p t i o n ,wh i c hh a st woa d d i t i o n a ls ma l l e r Th emo l a rme a s u r e me n t so fRa t t u smi y a k o e n s i si n d i c a t et h e r o o t (F s i g .7 B) .Th eM3h a st wos ma l la n t e r i o rr o o t sa l o n g r e s e mb l a n c et ot h a to fDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t awi t hs o mee x c e p t i o n s . Fi r s t ,e a c hr a ngeof15me a s ur e me nt soft heuppe ra ndl owe rmowi t hawi d ep o s t e r i o rr o o to nb o t hs i d e s .Ho we v e r ,t h e r ei sa n a r si sove r l a ppe dbe t we e nR.mi y ak oe ns i sa ndD.l e gat ( aTa bl e1). a d d i t i o n a ls ma l l e rr o o ti ns i xa mo n g1 2s p e c i me n sa n dt h e r ea r e l a nsa r es l i ght l yl a r ge ri nR.mi y ak oe ns i st ha ni nD.l e gat ae xc e pt t woa d d i t i o n a ls ma l lr o o t si no n ea mo n g1 2s p e c i me n (F s i g .7 - Me f o rASMM1 :t h eme a no fASMM1i ss h o r t e ri nR.mi y a k o e n s i s B). t h a ni nD.l e g a t a .I na d d i n gt ot h i s ,t h ea n a l y s i so fv a r i a n c e Th emlh a sal a r g ea n t e r i o ra n dp o s t e r i o rr o o t sj o i n e dwi t h s h o wss t a t i s t i c a l l yi n s i g n i f i c a n ti n1 2me a s u r e me n t se x c e p tf o r s ma l l e rl a b i a la n dl i n g u a lr o o t swi t h o u te x c e p t i o n (Fi g s .7 -D heLm2,Lm3,a ndWm2.Se c ond,s c a t t e rdi a gr a msoft her e l a a n d7 -E).Th em2h a sap a i ro fs ma l la n t e r i o rr o o t sa n dawi d e t i ons hi pbe t we e nt hel e ngt ha ndt hewi dt hoft heuppe ra ndl owe r p o s t e r i o rr o o twi t ho n ee x c e p t i o n ,wh i c hh a sa na d d i t i o n a ls ma l l t e s pe c t i vemol a r sa r eove r l a ppe dbe t we e nR.mi y ak oe ns i sa ndD. r o o (F ti g .7 E).Th em3h a sap a i ro fs ma l la n t e r i o rr o o t sa n da r e gat ae xc e ptf ort her e l a t i ons hi pbe t we e nt hel e ngt ha ndt he l a r g ep o s t e r i o rr o o t .Ho we v e r ,s e v e r a ls p e c i me n so ft h em3h a v e l ndbe t we e n dt hi nt hef i r s tuppe rmol a (L r M1a ndWM1)a a na d d i t i o n a ls ma l l e rr o o t ,r e s p e c t i v e l y (Fi g .7 -E:OPMFV- wi M1a ndLM1 (Fi gs .8a nd9):i nt he s et wor e l a t i ons hi ps 0 1 4 7 5a n d0 2 6 2 7o nt h er i g h ts i d e ;OPMFV0 1 1 1 4 ,0 1 6 6 1 , ASMt he r ei sac l e a rt e nde nc yoft hes e pa r a t i onofR.mi y ak oe ns i s 0 2 8 2 9 ,0 2 8 3 2 ,a n d0 2 8 3 8o nt h el e f ts i d e ) . f r om D.l e gat ai nt woc l us t e r s .The r e f or e ,f r e que nc ypol ygonsof Co mpa r i s o n: Th es p e c i e so ft h i sn e wt a x o ni sr e f e r r e dt o M1 a nd LM1 s how bi moda l l y di s t r i but i ons wi t ht wo t h eg e n u sRa t t u s ,b e c a u s et h ea l v e o l a ra n do c c l u s a lp a t t e r n so f ASMa ks ,r e s pe c t i ve l y ,i ndi c a t i ngdi f f e r e nts pe c i e (F s i g.10). t h eu p p e ra n dl o we rmo l a r sa swe l la st h en u mb e ro fr o o t si nr e - pe s p e c t i v emo l a r si ss i mi l a rt oRa t t u ( sf o re x a mp l e ,R.r a t t u sa n d R.n o r v e g i c u s ). Di scussi on Th en e wf o s s i lRa t t u smi y a k o e n s i si sd i s t i n c tf r o mo t h e rl i v i n g e g a r d st h ed i s t r i b u t i o no fn a t i v er o d e n ts p e c i e so nt h ei s a n df o s s i ls p e c i e so fRa t t u si nh a v i n gt h el a r g e s ts i z eo fmo l a r Asr l a n d so ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,t h el i v i n ge n d e mi cs p e c i e so f l e n g t h .Ac c o r d i n gt ot h ec u r r e n tt a x o n omi cr e s u l t so ft h el i v i n g p l o t h r i xl e g a t awa sf o u n do nt h ei s l a n d so fAma mi o s h i ma , s p e c i e so fRa t t u (Mu s s s e ra n dCa r l e t o n ,2 0 0 5) ,6 6s p e c i e sa r e Di Oki na wa ,a ndTokunos hi m( aMus s e ra ndCa r l e t on,2005;Ka ne ko, l i s t e da n d1 3s p e c i e sg r o u ph a v en o tb e e nu n s o l v e da mo n g 2 0 0 8).Fu r t h e r mo r e ,T o k u d a i ao s i me n s i s ,T .mu e n n i n k i ,a n dT . t h e m.Th ec r o wno ra l v e o l a rmo l a rl e n g t hi st a b u l a t e da mo n g o k u n o s h i me n s i so c c u ro nt h e s et h r e ei s l a n d s ,r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e s e5 3l i v i n gs p e c i e sa swe l la sf i v ef o s s i ls p e c i e so fRa t t u s t (Ta bl e3).The s es pe c i e sofRat t usha s4. 39. 7mm i nt hea l ve ol a r (Ka o n e k o ,2 0 0 8) .Ont h eo t h e rh a n d ,t h e r ei sn ol i v i n gn a t i v er l e n g t ho fM1 M3 ,a n d3 . 9 9 . 3mm i nt h ec r o wnl e n g t ho fM1 - d e n to nt h eMi y a k oI s l a n d . M3 .Th e r e f o r e ,R.mi y a k o e n s i sh a st h el o n g e s tmo l a rs e r i e s St u d i e so n mo r p h o l o g i c a lc h a r a c t e r i s t i c so ft h el i v i n g a mo n gs p e c i e so fRa t t u s . Di p l o t h r i xl e g a t ap u b l i s h e du n t i ln o wh a v eb e e nv e r ys c a r c ee x h e l i v i n g Ra t t u s mi y a k o e n s i si sd i s t i n g u i s h e d f r om t c e p tf o rTh oma (1 s9 0 6 , 1 9 1 6) ,Ao k (1 i9 1 5) ,To k u d ( a1 9 4 1)a n d Di p l o t h r i xl a g a t ai nt h es h a p eo ft h et e mp o r a lr i d g e s ,t h er e l a t i v e Ka wa mu r ( a1 9 8 9) .Ac c o r d i n gt oTh oma (1 s9 0 6),D.l e g a t ah a s p o s i t i o n so ft h ea n t e r o o r b i t a lp l a t ea n dt h ei n c i s i v ef o r e me n , n o tami n u t es u p p l e me n t a r y me d i a nc u s p (= a n t e r i o rc e n t r a l a n dt h eo u t e rs h a p eo ft h eM1 .Fi r s t ,R.mi y a k o e n s i sh a sa c u s p)a tt h eo u t e re n do ft h em1 ,b u th a st h et womi n u t ea n t e r i o r s t r o n gs u p r a o r b i t a lr i d g e ,wh i c hi sa b o u t1 . 9mm i nwi d t h ,a n d me d i a nc u s p (= s C1a n dC2 ;a n t e r i o rl a b i a lc u s p l e ta n dp o s t e r i o r e x t e n d sb a c k wa r d so v e rt h eb r a i n c a s e ,wh e r et h er i d g e so nb o t h l a b i a lc u s p l e t )o nm2 .Hef u r t h e rn o t e dt h a tt h es u p p l e me n t a r y s i de sa r et hewi de s ti n17. 6mm ont hemi ddl epa r toft hepa r i e t a l s me d i a nc u s pi sn o tf o u n d .Th oma (1 s9 1 6)g a v ead e f i n i t i o no f a n da r es l i g h t l yn a r r o wo nt h ea n t e r i o ra n dp o s t e r i o rp a r t so ft h e t h eg e n u sDi p l o t h r i xs e p a r a t i n gf r o mt h eg e n u sLe n o t h r i xt h a t s a meb o n e (F s i g .4).Di p l o t h r i xl e g a t a ,o nt h eo t h e rh a n d ,h a sa t h eg r e a tb r e a d t ho ft h ec r o wna r e ab e t we e nt h ep a r i e t a lr i d g e s p r o mi n e n tu p t u r n e db l a d e l i k el e d g eo ne i t h e rs i d eo ft h ei n t e r o r - i sb r o a d e rt h a nt h el e n g t ha n dg i v e saq u i t ed i f f e r e n ta s p e c to f b i t a la n dt h i si sad i a g n o s t i cc h a r a c t e ro ft h eg e n u sDi p l o t h r i x t h eu p p e rv i e wo ft h es k u l ls u c ha st h eg r e a t e rp r o j e c t i o nf o r (Th oma s ,1 9 1 6 ;Fi g .4 ).Se c o n d a r y ,t h ep o s t e r i o re d g eo ft h ei n - wa r do ft h ez y g oma t i cp l a t e .Th o ma (1 s9 1 6)r e ma r k e du p o nt h e c i s i v ef o r a me np a s s e sa tt h ef r o n tma r g i n so ft h ef i r s tmo l a ri n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c so fM1a n dM2wi t h o u ta na n t e r o e x t e r n a ls u p p l e nt a r yc us pa ndt hos eonM3a sc ons i s t i ngofi nt e r na la ndme di a n R.mi y a k o e n s i s ,b u tt h ee d g ei sl o c a t e ds l i g h t l yi nf r o n to ft h e me u s p si nt h ep o s t e r i o rl a mi n ( a=weu s e “p o s t e r i o rc h e v r o n” )i n ma r g i n so fmo l a rr o wsi nDi p l o t h r i ( xFi g .3 ) .Th i r d l y ,t h emo s t c p l o t h r i x . a n t e r i o rp o i n to ft h ep o s t e r i o ra r c ho ft h ea n t e r o o r b i t a lp l a t e Di o mt h ep r e s e n ti n v e s t i g a t i o n ,Th oma (1 s9 1 6)’ sr e ma r ko n l i e sa tt h ea n t e r i o rp a r to fM1i nR.mi y a k o e n s i s ,a l t h o u g hi tp r e - Fr na n t e r o e x t e r n a ls u p p l e me n t a r yc u s po nM1a n dM2 ”me n s e n t sf o r wa r dt h ea n t e r i o rp a r to fM1i nD.l e g a t ( aFi g .3 ).Th e “a i o n e da b o v ewo u l db emi s t a k e nf o r “M2a n dM3 ”,b e c a u s et h e r e a s o ni st h a tt h es l o p eo ft h ea n t e r i o rp a r tc omi n gu pt ot h e t n t e r o e x t e r n a ls u p p l e me n t a r yc u s pi sn a me da st h el a b i a la n t e g r i n d i n gs u r f a c eo fM1i sr e l a t i v e l ye l o n g a t e df o r wa r d l yi nR. a r o c o n eonM2a n dM3 ,a n dM1h a sal a r g el a b i a la n t e r o c o n e mi y a k o e n s i st h a ni nD.l e g a t a . e eFi g . 5).I n1 0s p e c i me n so ft h el i v i n gDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t ae x Ra t t u smi y a k o e n s i s i swa sc omp a r e dwi t ht h el i v i n gBa n d i c o t a (s mi n e d ,t h eo c c u r r e n c eo rt h ea b s e n c eo ft h el a b i a la n t e r o c o n e i n d i c a .A l a r g emu r i n er o d e n to fB.i n d i c ai sd i s t r i b u t e di n a st h es a meb e t we e nb o t hs i d e so fM2o rM3 ,a n ds e v e no n e s So u t hEa s tAs i ai n c l u d i n gTa i wa n ,wh i c hi st h ec l o s et ot h eMi - i a v et h ea n t e r o c o n eo nM2a n de i g h to n e so nM3 .Nos t a t i s t i c a l y a k oI s l a n d ,wh e r et h en e wf o s s i l swe r ee x c a v a t e d .Be c a u s e h n d e p e n d e n c ywa sf o u n db e t we e nt h ef r e q u e n c i e so fRa t t u s e a c hmo l a ro fB.i n d i c ah a ss i mp l ewi d ec h e v r o n swi t hv a g u e i.

(8) 22. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u.

(9) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. 23. mi y a k o e n s i sa n dt h o s eo fD.l e g a t ab yt h eGt e s twi t ht h e Mi y a k o e n s i s y a k oI s l a n d ,o nt h eo t h e rh a n d , Ca p r e o l u smi Wi l l i a ms ’a d j u s t me n (S to k a la n dRo h l f ,1 9 7 3 :Ta b l e2). (Ar t i o d a c t y l a ,Ce r v i d a e )a n d Fe l i ss p (C . a r n i v o r a ,Fe l i d a e ) Th en umb e ro ft h e mo l a rr o o t s ma yb et a x o n omi c a l l y we r ee x c a v a t e d (Zh e na n dHa s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5 ;Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5 a ) s i gni f i c a nt .Howe ve r ,t henumbe rha snotbe e ni nve s t i ga t e de xc e pt i nt hel a t e rPl e i s t oc e n ( e25, 800±900y .B.P .a nd26, 800±1, 300y . P . :Ha ma d a ,1 9 8 5),a n dt h e r ei sn of o s s i lo fCe r v u sa s t y l o d o n f o rf i v er o o t si nM1 (To k u d a ,1 9 4 1) ,c o n f i r mi n gi nt h ep r e s e n t B. a n dDi c r o c e r u ss p .Ha s e g a w( a1 9 8 5 b)c o n s i d e r e dt h a tt h ef o s s i l s t u d y . mma l i a nf a u n ao ft h eMi y a k oI s l a n dwo u l db er e l a t e dt ot h e Se v e r a lf o s s i ls p e c i me n so fDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t ah a db e e ne x c a - ma ne s eCont i ne ntj us tbe f or et hepe r i odoft hel a t e rPl e i s t oc e ne , v a t e df r om t h ef o l l o wi n gl o c a l i t i e s :To k u n o s h i maI s l a n (To d - Chi e c a u s et h ef o s s i lCa p r e o l u smi y a k o e n s i sh a sas t r o n gr e s e mmi d ae ta l . ,1 9 9 0);Mi n a t o g a was i t e ,Ok i n a waI s l a n d ,a n dt h e b b l a n c et ot h ec o n t i n e n t a lf o r m (Zh e na n dHa s e g a wa ,1 9 8 5)a s Ta n a b a r u c a v ea n dAma g a wa d o ,Mi y a k oI s l a n d (Ko wa l s k ia n d l la st hepr e s e nc eofFe l i ss p. ,Mi c r ot usf or t i sa ndM.oe c onomus Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 7 6) ;a n dGa j a n b i r a ,Ok i n a waI s l a n d (Ka wa mu r a , we n e k oa n dHa s e g a wa ,1 9 9 5) . 1 9 8 9).Fo s s i l sf r om To k u n o s h i maI s l a n dwe r ea g e dp r o b a b l ya s (Ka e r eh a sb e e nmu c hc o n t r o v e r s yo nt h eg e o l o g i c a lf o r ma t i o n t h eEa r l yMo d e r nAg e (T s o mi d ae ta l . ,1 9 9 0) ,wh e r e a sf o s s i l s Th heRyukyuAr c hi pe l a go.Ac c or di ngt oOt ( a1998)a ndOt s uka f r o mt h es i t e so fOk i n a waa n dMi y a k oI s l a n d swe r ea g e da st h e oft n dTa k a h a s h (2 i0 0 0),t h e r ea r er e c e n t l yf i v eh y p o t h e s e so nt h e l a t e Pl e i s t o c e n ( eKo wa l s k ia n d Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 7 6 ;Ka wa mu r a , a Ce n o z o i cp a l e o g e o g r a p h i c a lma p so ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o . 1 9 8 9).I no r d e rt or e v i s et h e i ri d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,wea d o p tt h el e n g t h )o ft h ef i r s tu p p e rmo l a (F ri g s . 8a n d Ot ( a1 9 9 8)s h o we dt h r e eh y p o t h e s e sb a s e do ns e d i me n t a la n d (LM1 )a n dwi d t h (WM1 a t h y me t r i cd a t a (Ki z a k ia n dOs h i r o ,1 9 7 7 ) ,s e d i me n t a la n d 9 ):t h eme a s u r e me n t sg i v e nb yKa wa mu r ( a1 9 8 9)a n dt h ee s t i - b c r o f o s s i ld a t ( aUj i i é ,1 9 9 0 ;Uj i i ée ta l . ,1 9 9 1 )o rt h ed a t ao f ma t i o no ft h e me a s u r e me n t sf r o m ap i c t u r e wi t h as c a l e mi (LM1=4. 78mm a ndWM1=2. 96mm)duet ol a c ki ngt her e c or d s t r a t i g r a p h y ,t e c t o n o s t r u c t u r ea n dg e omo r p h ( yKi mu r a ,1 9 9 6) , i nTomi dae ta l (1 . 990).Fi g.8Ai ndi c a t e st ha tt het wor e s pe c t i ve r e s p e c t i v e l y ,a d d i n gt oamo d i f i e dh y p o t h e s i so fKi z a k ia n d f o s s i l sa r ei d e n t i f i e da sD.l e g a t a .Ont h ec o n t r a r y ,f o u rf o s s i l s Os h i r (1 o 9 7 7)b a s e do np h y o l o g e o g r a p h yo ft h el i v i n gr e p t i l e s o fl o we rmo l a r sf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n di d e n t i f i e da sD.l e g a t a a n da mp h i b i a n sa swe l la st h eg e o g r a p h i c a lp a t t e r n so ft h e s e (Ko wa l s k ia n dHa s e g a wa ,1 9 7 6)h a sb e e np o s t p o n e d ,b e c a u s e t a x a .Ont h ec o n t r a r y ,Ot s u k aa n dTa k a h a s h (2 i0 0 0)mo d i f i e da t hes i z ea nds ha peoft hel owe rmol a ra r ei mpos s i bl et odi s c r i mi na t e hypot he s i sofKi mur ( a1998)ba s e donf os s i lma mma l sa ndr e pt i l e s D.l e g a t af r o m Ra t t u smi y a k o e n s i (F s i g .9 ).Th e r e f o r e ,i nt h e e x c a v a t e df r om t h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o .Ho we v e r ,n o w wea r e l a t e rPl e i s t oc e ne ,D.l e gat awa sdi s t r i but e dont heOki na waI s l a nd, t o od i f f i c u l tt od i s c u s sh o wt h e s es p e c i e swe r ef o r me do nt h e wh i l eR.mi y a k o e n s i swa sf o u n do n l yo nt h eMi y a k oI s l a n d . Mi y a k oI s l a n di na c c o r d a n c e wi t hg e o h i s t o r i c a lc h a n g e so f Asf o rf o s s i lr o d e n t so fT o k u d a i a ,T .o s i me n s i swa se x c a v a t e d t h e s ep a l e o g e o g r a p h i c a lma psi nt h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,b e f r o mt h ei s l a n d so fOk i n a waa n dI ei nt h el a t ePl e i s t o c e n eo r c a u s ewea r ei n s u f f i c i e n to fd a t ai nd e t a i lo nt h er e l a t i o n s h i po f Ho l o c e n ( eKo wa l s k ia n d Ha s e g a wa ,1 9 7 6 ;Ha s e g a wa e ta l . , r e s p e c t i v ef o s s i la n dl i v i n gs p e c i e swi t ht h o s eo ft h eCo n t i n e n t 1 9 7 8 ;Ka wa mu r a ,1 9 8 9) ,t h o u g ht h ef o s s i l sh a db e e ni d e n t i f i e d a n da d j a c e n ti s l a n d s .Th u s ,t h ed i s c u s s i o nwi l lb el e f ti nf u t u r e . a sT .o s i me n s i sb e f o r emu e n n i n k ia n dt o k u n o s h i me n s i swe r ea s s i g n e da st wod i s t i n c ts p e c i e s .Th u s ,o nt h eOk i n a waI s l a n d , Acknowl edgement s t h e r ea r eDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t aa n dT o k u d a i as p .i nt h el i v i n ga n d r ep r o f o u n d l yi n d e b t e dt oGu yG.Mu s s e rf o rc r i t i c a lr e f o s s i l .Ont h eo t h e rh a n d ,o nt h eMi y a k oI s l a n d ,a swe l la sf o s s i l Wea i e wi n gt h ema n u s c r i p t .Wet h a n kt ot h ec u r a t o r so fSi n I c h i r o Ra t t u smi y a k o e n s i si nt h i ss t u d yf o s s i lMi c r o t u sf o r t i sa n dM. v wa da ,t heNa t i ona lSc i e nc eMus e um,Tokyo,J a pa n (NSM),a n d o e c o n o mu (R s o d e n t i a ,Ar v o c o l i n a e )we r ee x c a v a t e di nt h el a t e r Ka u l aJ e n k i n s ,t h eNa t u r a lHi s t o r yMu s e u mo fLo n d o n ,Lo n d o n , Pl e i s t o c e n ( e2 5 , 8 0 0±9 0 0 y .B.P .a n d2 6 , 8 0 0±1 , 3 0 0 y .B. P . : Pa Ka n e k oa n dHa s e g a wa ,1 9 9 5 ) .I tf o l l o wst h a tt h e r ei sac l e a r UK (BM)f o rp e r mi t t i n gt oe x a mi n emu s e u ms p e c i me n su n d e r d i f f e r e n c eb e t we e nt h ei s l a n d so fMi y a k oa n dOk i n a wai nt h e t h e i rc a r e .Wea l s ot h a n kt oOa r aMo l d o v a n ,I n s t i t u t u t i o no f Spe l e ol ogy “Emi lRa c ovi t a ”,Cl uj Na poc a ,Roma ni a ,f ors e ndi ng l i v i n ga n df o s s i lr o d e n t s . u sp d ff i l eo fs omep a p e r so nf o s s i lRa t t u si nRo ma n i a ;Ne dS. Sp e c i e sa s s e mb l a g e so ff o s s i lma mma l sa swe l lwe r ec l e a r l y l mo r e ,Co l l e c t i o n sMa n a g e r s ,t h eAc a d e myo fNa t u r a lSc i d i f f e r e n tb e t we e nt h ei s l a n d so fOk i n a waa n dMi y a k o ,e x c e p t Gi n c e s ,Ph i l a d e l p h i ( aANSP),USA,f o rme a s u r i n gt h el e n g t ho f f o rf o s s i l so fPr o b o s c i d a ea n dS u ss p . :b e c a u s et h es y s t e ms t i c e h emo l a rr o wo ft h eh o l o t y p es p e c i me no fRa t t u sb l a n g o r u m p o s i t i o no ft h e s ef o s s i l si ss t i l lu n d e a r .Ont h eOk i n a waI s l a n d , t o u s e di nt h eANSP .Wea r ea l s ov e r yg r a t e f u lt ot h ef o l l o wi n g Ce r v u sa s t y l o d o na n dDi c r o c e r u ss p (A . r t i o d a c t y l a ,Ce r v i d a e ) h p e r s o n sa n ds t a f f si np a r t i c u l a r :Sh i i c h iToma ,Sh i j y u nAs a t o we r ef o u n di nt h el a t e rPl e i s t o c e n ( e1 6 , 6 0 0±3 0 0 y .B.P . ,1 8 , 2 5 0 0 0 1 ) .Ont h e a n dYo s h i h i k oKi s h i mo t o ,t h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lBo a r do f ±6 5 0 y .B.P .a n d1 8 , 8 0 0±4 0 0 y . B.P . :Os h i r o ,2. Foot not e sf orTa bl e 3.

(10) 24. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. t t u smi y a k o e n Fi gure 8 Sc a t t e rdi a gr a msoft her e l a t i ons hi pbe t we e nt h el e n g t ha n dwi d t ho ft h eu p p e rmo l a r si nt h ef o s s i lRa s i sa ndt hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a .A:t her e l a t i ons h i pb e t we e nLM1a n dWM1 ,B:t h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t we e nLM2a n dWM2 ,C: t her e l a t i ons hi pbe t we e nLM3a ndWM3.Fr o m A,t h ef o s s i l se x c a v a t e df r o me i t h e rt h eTo k u n o s h i maI s l a n d (To mi d ae ta l . , 1990 )ort heOki na waI s l a nd (Ka wa mu r a ,1989 )we r ei d e n t i f i e da sD.l e g a t a .. Fi gure 9 Sc a t t e rdi a gr a msoft her e l a t i ons hi pbe t we e nt h el e n g t ha n dwi d t ho ft h el o we rmo l a r s (AC)a n dt h er e l a t i o n s h i pbe t we e nASMM1a ndLM1 (D)i nt hef os s i lRat t usmi y a k o e n s i sa n dt h el i v i n gDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t a .A:t h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t we e n Lm1a ndWm1,B:t her e l a t i ons hi pbe t we e nLm2a n dWm2 ,C:t h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t we e nLm3a n dWm3 .Fr o m AC,t h ef o s s i l s e xc a va t e df r o me i t he rt heTokunos hi maI s l a nd (To mi d ae ta l . ,1 9 9 0 )o rt h eOk i n a waI s l a n d (Ka wa mu r a ,1 9 8 9 )we r en o ta b l et o i de nt i f ya sD.l e gat aorR.mi y ak oe ns i s ..

(11) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. Fi gure 10 Fr e que nc ypol ygonsoft henu mb e rofs pe c i me n s e xa mi ne di nASMM1 (A)a ndLM1 (B)oft hef os s i lRa t t u s mi y ak oe ns i sa ndt hel i vi ngDi pl ot hr i xl e gat a.. Ed u c a t i o n ;I t s u r oOs h i r o ,t h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGe n e r a lEd u c a t i o nCe n t e r ;Yo s h i oSh i n g a k i ,Ne g i ,t h eFu t e nma g uSh r i n e ; He i z a b u r oYa ma u c h i ,t h eOk i n a wa wo r l d ,Gy o k u s e n d oCa v e ; a n dt h es t a f f so ft h eUe n o s o nBo a r do fEd u c a t i o n ,Mi y a k o Gu n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r e ,f o rt h e i rwo r k i n ga tt h ee x c a v a t i o n s i t e ;Ma n a b eMa k o t oa n do t h e r s ,St u d e n t so fI n s t i t u t eo fEa r t h Sc i e n c e s ,Fa c u l t yo fEd u c a t i o n ,Th eYo k o h a maNa t i o n a lUn i v e r s i t y ;Ts u t omu Se n a h a ,Ko s h o Ka mi y a ,Ya s u s h iZa h aa n d Ts ut omuMi ya gi ,t heOki na waPr e f e c t ur a lMus e um;a ndSa c hi ko Ch i n e n ,t h eOk i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lMu s e u ma n dAr tMu s e u m,f o r a r r a n g i n gf o s s i ls p e c i me n si np r o p r i e t y .Wea r ei n d e b t e dt of i n a n c i a ls u p p o r tf r om t h eNa n k a iSc h o l a r s h i pFu n d ,Ta k a ma t s u , J a p a n .. Ref er ences Ao k i ,B (1 .9 1 5 ):Mu r i dRo d e n t so fJ a p a n .Zo o l o g i c a lSo c i e t yo fJ a p a n ,8 8 p p (i .nJ a p a n e s e ) Ch a i ma n e e ,Y (1 .9 9 8 ):Pl i o Pl e i s t o c e n eRo d e n t so fTh a i l a n d .Th a iS t u d i e s i nBi o d i v e r s i t y ,3 :1 3 0 3 . El l e r ma n ,J .R (1 .9 61 ):Th eFa u n ao fI n d i ai n c l u d i n gPa k i s t a n ,Bu r ma ,a n d Ce y l o n .Ma mma l i ( a2 n dEd i t i o n).Vo l .3 ,Pa r t2 .Th eMa n a g e ro fPu b l i c a t i o n s ,De l h i ,p . 4 8 3 8 8 4 .. 25. g eo fc h a r c o a lf r om Pi n z a Ab uCa v e ,d e p o s i t s , Ha ma d a ,T (1 .9 8 5 ):14C a Mi y a k oI s l a n d ,Ok i n a wa ,J a p a n .I nDe p a r t me n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a wa Pr e f e c t ur a lGove r nme n (e t d. )Pi nz a Ab( uRe p.Exc a v .Pi nz a AbuCa ve . De p a r t ome n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n t ,p . 1 8 0 (i .n J a p a n e s e ) Ha s e g a wa ,Y (1 .9 8 5 a ):No t eo n Ca r n i v o r a ,Ch i r o p t e r aa n dl a r g e rr a t (Di p l o t h r i x )f r o m Pi n z a Ab uCa v e , Mi y a k oI s l a n d ,Ok i n a wa ,J a p a n . I nDe p a r t me n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n (e td . ) Pi n z a Ab u (Re p .Ex c a v .Pi n z a Ab uCa v e .De p a r t o me n to fEd u c a t i o n , Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n t ,p . 8 3 9 1 (i .nJ a p a n e s e ) Ha s e g a wa ,Y (1 .9 8 5 b ):Co n c l u s i o n .I nDe p a r t me n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a wa Pr e f e c t u r a l Go v e r nme n (e td . )Pi n z a Ab (Re u p . Ex c a v . Pi n z a Ab u Ca v e .De p a r t ome n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n t , p . 1 8 1 1 8 4 (i .nJ a p a n e s e ) Ha s e g a wa ,Y. ,No h a r a ,T. ,No k a r i y a ,H. ,a n dOn o ,K (1 .9 7 8 ):Pr e l i mi n a r y r e p o r t so nt h e2 n ds u r v e yo fPl e i s t o c e n ec a v ed e p o s i t sf r om Go h e z u l i me s t o n ec a v e ,I eI s l a n d ,Ok i n a wa ,J a p a n .Re p o r t so nt h ec u l t u r a l a s s e t so fI e s o n (Ed u c a t i o n a lCo mmi t t e eo fI e s o n)(5 , ):8 1 7 ,2 3 5 0 . (i nJ a p a n e s e ) Hu J i n Zh ua n d Wa n g Yo u z (e id s . (1 ) 9 8 4 ):Si c h u a n Fa u n aEc o n omi c a . Vo l .2 .Ma mma l s .Th eSi c h u a nSc i e n c ea n dTe c h n o l o g yPu b l i s h e r , Ch e n g d u (i .nCh i n e s e ) J a c obs ,L.L (1 . 978):Fos s i lr ode nt (R s hi z omyi da ea ndMur i da e )f r om Ne oge ne Si wa l i kDe p o s i t s ,Pa k i s t a n .Mu s e u mo fNo r t h e r nAr i z o n aPr e s s .Fl a g s t a f f ,Bu l l . ,5 2 :1 1 0 3 . Ka n e k o ,Y (2 .0 0 7 ):Mu r i d a e .I nAb e ,H (e .d . )A g u i d et ot h ema mma l so f J a p a n .2 n dr e v i s e de d .Th eTo k a iUn i v e r s i t yPr e s s ,Ha d a n o s h i ,,p . 1 1 5 1 1 7 ,1 2 5 1 4 6a n d1 7 0 1 8 9 . Ka n e k o ,Y.a n dHa s e g a wa ,Y (1 .9 9 5 ):Somef o s s i la r vi c o l i dr o d e n t sf r om t h ePi n z a Ab uCa v e ,Mi y a k oI s l a n d ,t h eRy u k y uI s l a n d s ,J a p a n .Bu l l . Bi o g e o g r .S o c .J a p a n,5 0 :2 3 3 7 . Ka wa mu r a ,Y (1 .9 8 9 ):Qu a t e r n a r yr o d e n tf a u n a si nt h eJ a p a n e s eI s l a n d s (Pa r t 2).Me m.Fac .Sc i . ,Ky ot oUni v e r s i t y .Se r .Ge ol ogyandMi ne r al ogy , 5 4 :1 2 3 5 ,p l s . 1 2 6 . Ki mur a ,M. (1996):Qua t e r na r ypa l e oge ogr a phyoft heRyukyuAr c .J . Ge ogr aphy , 1 0 5 :2 9 5 2 8 5 (i .nJ a p a n e s ewi t hEn g l i s ha b s t r a c t ) Ki mu r a ,M. (1 9 9 8 ):Pa l e o g e o g r a p h yo ft h eRy u k y uI s l a n d s .I nOt s u k a ,H. (e d . )Pr o g r a mmea n dAb s t r a c to fa nI n t e r n a t i o n a lSymp o s i um:Th e Ry u k y uI s l a n d s―Th eAr e n ao fAd a p t i v eRa d i a t i o no fI s l a n dFa u n a . Ka g o s h i maUn i v e r s i t y ,Ka g o s h i m( ac i t e db y Ot s u k aa n d Ta k a h a s h i , 20 0 0 ),p . 9 1 0 . Ki z a k i ,K.a n d Os h i r o ,I (1 .9 7 7 ):Pa l e o g e o g r a p h yo ft h eRy t k y u[s i c ] I s l a n d s .Ma r i n eS c i e n c eMo n t h l y ,9 :5 4 2 5 4 9 (i .nJ a p a n e s ewi t hEn g l i s h a b s t r a c t ) Ko wa l s k i ,K.a n dHa s e g a wa ,Y (1 .9 7 6 ):Qu a t e r n a r yr o d e n t sf r om J a p a n . Bu l l .Na t n .S c i .Mu s . ,S e r .C (Ge o l . ),( 21 ):3 1 6 6 . Ma t u u r a ,S (1 .9 8 5 ):Fl u o r i n ed e t e r mi n a t i o na n dr a c e mi z a t i o na n a l y s i so f f o s s i lb o n e sf r om Pi n z a Ab uCa v e ,Mi y a k oI s l a n d ,Ok i n a wa ,J a p a n .I n De p a r t me n to f Ed u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a wa Pr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n (e td . ) Pi n z a Ab u (Re p .Ex c a v .Pi n z a Ab uCa ve .De p a r t ome n to fEd u c a t i o n , Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r nme n t ,p . 1 7 7 1 7 9 . (i nJ a p a n e s e ) Mi l l e r ,G.S. ,J r . (1 9 1 2 ):Ca t a l o g u eo ft h eMa mma l so fWe s t e r nEu r o p e (Eu r o p ee x c l u s i v eo fRu s s i a )i nt h ec o l l e c t i o no ft h eBr i t i s hMu s e um. Th eBr i t i s hMu s e um(Na t u r a lHi s t o r y),Lo n d o n (Re p r i n t e di n1 9 6 6) . Th eJ o h n s o nRe p r i n tCompa n yLTD. ,Ne wYo r ka n dLo n d o n . Mi l l e r ,G.S. ,J r . (1942):Zool ogi c a lr e s ul t soft heGe or geVa nde r bi l tSuma t r a n Ex p e d i t i o n ,1 9 3 6 1 9 3 9 .Pa r tV.Ma mma l sc o l l e c t e db yFr e d e r i c kA. Ul me r ,J r .o nSuma t r aa n dNi a s .Pr o c .Ac a d e myNa t .S c i .Ph i l a d e l p h i a, 9 4 :1 0 7 1 6 5 . Mu s s e r ,G.G. (1 9 7 1 ):Th et a x o n omi cs t a t u so fRa t t u sd a mme r man iTh oma s a n d Ra t t u st o x iSo d y(Ro d e n t i a ,Mu r i d a e )o fCe l e b e s .Be a u f o r t i a , 2 4 2 :2 0 5 2 1 6 . Mu s s e r ,G.G. (19 7 2 ):I d e n t i t i e so ft a x aa s s o c i a t e dwi t hRa t t u sr a t t u s (Ro d e n t i a ,Mu r i d a e )o fSumb aI s l a n d ,I n d o n e s i a .J .Ma mm. ,5 3 :8 6 1 8 6 5 . Mu s s e r ,G.G. (1 9 8 1 ):Re s u l t so ft h eAr c h b o l dEx p e d i t i o n s .No .1 0 5 .No t e s o ns y s t e ma t i c so fI n d o Ma l a y a nMu r i dr o d e n t s ,a n dd e s c r i p t i o n so f.

(12) 26. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. n e wg e n e r aa n ds p e c i e sf r om Ce y l o n ,Su l a we s i ,a n dt h ePh i l i p p i n e s . Bu l l .Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,1 6 8 :2 25 3 3 4 . Mu s s e r , 0G.G. (1 9 8 2 ):Th eTr i n i lr a t s .Mo d .Qu a t e r n a r yRe s .S EAs i a ,7 : 6 5 8 5 . Mus s e r ,G.G. (1984):I de nt i t i e sofs ubf os s i lr a t sf r om c a ve si nSout hwe s t e r n Su l a we s i .Mo d .Qu a t e r n a r yRe s .S EAs i a ,8 :6 1 9 4 ,p l s . 1 1 2 . Mu s s e r ,G.G.a n dCa l i f i a ,D. (1 9 8 2 ):Re s u l t so ft h eAr c h b o l dEx p e d i t i o n s . No .1 0 6 .I d e n t i t i e so fr a t sf r om Pu l a uMa r a t u aa n do t h e ri s l a n d so f f Ea s tBo r n e o .Ame r .Mu s . No v i t a t e s ,2 7 2 6 :1 3 0 . Mus s e r .G.G.a ndCa r l e t on,M.D. (2005):Supe r f a mi l yMur oi de a .I nWi l s on, D.E.a n dRe e d e r ,D. A. M. (e d s . )Ma mma lSp e c i e so ft h eWo r l d :a Ta xonomi ca ndGe ogr a phi cRe f e r e nc e s .3r de d. ,Vol . 2.TheJ ohnsHopki ns Un i v e r s i t yPr e s s ,Ba l t i mo r e ,p . 8 9 4 1 5 3 1 . Mu s s e r ,G.G.a n dHe a n e y ,L.R. (1 9 8 5):Ph i l i p p i n eRa t t u s :ane ws p e c i e s f r om t h eSu l uAr c h i p e l a g o .Ame r .Mu s .No v i t a t e s ,2 8 1 8 :1 3 2 . Mu s s e r ,G.G.a n dHo l d e n ,M.E. (19 9 1 ):Su l a we s iRo d e n t s (Mu r i d a e : Mu r i n a e ):Mo r p h o l o g i c a la n dg e o g r a p h i c a lb o u n d a r i e so fs p e c i e si n t h eRa t t u sh o f f ma n n ig r o u pa n dan e ws p e c i e sf r om Pu l a uPe l e n g .Bu l l . Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,2 0 6 :3 2 2 4 1 3 . Mu s s e r ,G.G.a n dNe wc o mb ,C. (1 9 8 3 ):Ma l a y s i a nmu r i d sa n dt h eg i a n tr a t o fSuma t r a .Bu l l .Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,1 7 4 :3 2 7 5 9 8 . Mu s s e r ,G.G.a n dNe wc omb ,C. (1 9 8 5 ):De f i n i t i o n so fI n d o c h i n e s eRa t t u s l o s e aa n dane ws p e c i e sf r om Vi e t n a m.Ame r .Mu s .No v i t a t e s ,2 8 1 4 :1 3 2 . Na mi e ,M. (1 9 0 9 ):Sma l lma mma l sc o l l e c t e df r om t h ei s l a n d so fOk i n a wa a n dAma mi o s h i ma .Zo o l .Ma g . ,2 1 :4 5 2 4 5 7 . (i nJ a p a n e s e ) Os hi r o,I . (2001):Ge ol ogi cs t udyofQua t e r na r yt e r r e s t r i a lve r t e br a t er e ma i ns f r om t h eRy u k y uI s l a n d s .Me mo r i a lCo l l e c t i o n so ft h er e t i r e me n to f Pr o f e s s o rAs a h i d eNo h a r a:3 7 1 3 6 . (i nJ a p a n e s ewi t hEn g l i s ha b s t r a c t ) Ot a ,H. (1 9 9 8 ):Ge o g r a p h i cp a t t e r n so fe n d e mi s ma n ds p e c i a t i o ni na mph i b i a n sa n dr e p t i l e so ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n ,wi t hs p e c i a l r e f e r e n c et ot h e i rp a l e o g e o g r a p h i c a li mp l i c a t i o n s .Re s .Po p u l .Ec o l . , 4 0 :1 8 9 2 0 4 . Ot s u k a ,H.a n dTa k a h a s h i ,A. (2 0 0 0 ):Pl e i s t o c e n ev e r t e b r a t ef a u n a si nt h e Ry u k y uI s l a n d s :t h e i rmi g r a t i o na n de x t i n c t i o n .Tr o p i c s ,1 0 :2 5 4 0 . Ra d u l e s c o ,C.a n dSa ms o n ,P . (1 9 7 3 ):Su rl ad é c o u v e r t ed’u n ee s p è c en o u v e l l ed eMu r i d a é (Ro d e n t i a ,Ma mma l i a )d a n sl ePl é s i t o c è n emo y e n d eRo uma n i e .Re v u eRo u ma i n ed eBi o l o g i e ,S .d eZo o l o g i e ,1 8 :1 8 5 1 8 4 . (i nFr e n c h) So k a l ,R.R.a n dRo h l f ,F .J . (1 9 7 3 ):I n t r o d u c t i o nt oBi o s t a t i s t i c s .W.H. Fr e e ma na n dComp a n y ,Sa nFr a n c i s c oa n dLo n d o n (J a p a n e s ee d i t i o n wa st r a n s l a t e db yK.Fu j i ia n dwa sp u b l i s h e di n1 9 8 3b yt h eKy o r i t s u Pu bl i s h e r ,To k y o) So d y ,H.J .V. (1 9 4 1 ):Onac o l l e c t i o no fr a t sf r om t h eI n d o Ma l a y a na n d I n d o Au s t r a l i a nRe g i o n s .Tr e u b i a ,1 8 :2 5 5 3 2 5 . Ta t e ,G.H.H. (1 9 5 1 ):Re s u l t so ft h eAr c h b o l dEx p e d i t i o n s .No .6 5 .Th e Ro d e n t so fAu s t r a l i aa n dNe wGu i n e a .Bu l l .Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,9 7 : 1 8 3 4 3 0 . Ta t e ,G.H.H.a n d Ar c hb o l d ,R. (1 9 3 5 ):Re s u l t so ft h e Ar c h b o l d Ex p e d i t i o n s .No .2 .Twe l v ea p p a r e n t l yn e wf o r mso fRa t t u sf r om t h e I n d o Au s t r a l i a nRe g i o n .Ame r .Mu s .No v i t a t e s ,8 0 2 :1 1 0 . Ta y l o r ,J .M. ,Ca l a b y ,J .H.a n dv a nDe u s e n ,H.M. (1 9 8 2 ):A r e v i s i o no f t h eg e n u sRa t t u s (Ro d e n t i a ,Mu r i d a e )i nt h eNe w Gu i n e a nRe g i o n . Bu l l .Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,1 7 3 :1 7 7 3 3 6 . Ta yl or ,J .M.a ndHor ne r ,B.E. (1973):Re s ul t soft heAr c hbol dExpe di t i ons , No .9 8Sy s t e ma t i c so fn a t i v eAu s t r a l i a nRa t t u s (Ro d e n t i a ,Mu r i d a e ). Bu l l .Ame r .Mu s .Na t .Hi s t . ,1 5 0 :11 3 0 . Tc he r nov ,E. (1968):Suc c e s s i onofr ode ntf a una sdur i ngt heUppe rPl e i s t oc e ne o fI s r a e l .Ma mma l i aDe p i c t a,3 :1 5 2 p p . Te r z e a ,E. (1 9 7 3 ):Le sg e n r e sRa t t u se tLe mmu s (Ro d e n t i a ,Ma mma l i a ) d a n sl ePl é i s t o c è n ed eRo uma n i e .Li v r ed uc i n q u e n t e n a i r ed el ’I n s t i t u t d eS p é l é o l o g i e“Emi l eRa c o v i t z a ”:4 2 7 4 3 6 . Thoma s ,O. (1898):Ont hema mma l sobt a i ne dbyMr .J ohnWhi t e he a ddur i ng. h i sr e c e n te x p e d i t i o nt ot h ePh i l i p p i n e s .Tr a n s .Zo o l .S o c .Lo n d o n ,1 4 : 3 7 7 4 1 2 . Th o ma s ,O. (1 9 0 6 ):Onas e c o n ds p e c i e so fLe n o t h r i xf r o mt h eLi uKi u I s l a n d s .An n .Ma g .Na t .Hi s t . ,Se r .7 ,1 7 :8 8 8 9 . Th o ma s ,O. (1 9 1 6 ):Sc i e n t i f i cr e s u l t sf r om t h eMa mma lSu r v e y .No .XI I I . OnMu r i d a ef r om Da r j i l i n ga n dt h eCh i nHi l l s .J .Bo mb e yNa t .Hi s t . S o c . ,2 4 (3 ):4 0 4 4 1 5 . To k u d a ,M. (1 9 4 1 ):A r e v i s e dmo n o g r a p ho ft h eJ a p a n e s ea n dMa n c h o u Ko r e a nMu r i d a e .Tr a n s .Bi o g e o g r a p h i c a lS o c .J a p a n ,4 : 1 1 5 5 . To mi d a ,Y. ,Ot s u k aH. ,Uy e n o ,T.a n dSa k u r a ,H. (1 9 9 0):Ano u t l i n eo f v e r t e b r a t ep a l e o n t o l o g i c a la n dp a l e o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a ls u r v e yi nTo k u n o s h i maa n dAma mi o s h i maI s l a n d s ,So u t h we s t e r nJ a p a n .Me m.Na t . S c i .Mu s . ,2 3 :1 7 3 1 8 3 . (i nJ a p a n e s ewi t hEn g l i s ha b s t r a c t ) Uj i i é ,H. (1 9 9 0 ):Ge o l o g i c a lh i s t o r yo ft h eRy u k y ui s l a n dAr c .I nUj i i é ,H. (e d . )Na t u r eo fOk i n a wa :Ge omo r p h o l o g ya n dGe o l o g y .Hi r u g i s h a , Na h a . (i nJ a p a n e s e ) Uj i i é ,H. ,Ta n a k a ,Y.a n dOn o ,T. (1 9 9 1 ):La t eQu a r t e r n a r yp a l e o c e a n o g r a p h i cr e c o r df r om t h e mi d d l e Ry u k y u Tr e n c hs l o p e ,no r t h we s t Pa c i f i c .Ma r i n eMi c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y ,1 8 :1 1 5 1 2 8 . Zh e nBa i wua n dHa s e g a wa ,Y. (1 9 8 5):Th ed i s c o ve r yo fCa p r e o l u s mi y a k o e n s i so nt h eMi y a k oI s l a n d .I nDe p a r t me n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo ve r nme n t (e d . )Pi n z a Ab u (Re p .Ex c a v .Pi n z a Ab uCa v e .De p a r t o me n to fEd u c a t i o n ,Ok i n a waPr e f e c t u r a lGo v e r n me n t ,p . 3 3 4 5 (i .nJ a p a n e s e ). Appe ndi x Re g i s t r a t i o nn umb e ro ft h es p e c i me n se x a mi n e di nt h i ss t u d y Fo s s i ls p e c i me n s Ra t t usmi y a k o e ns i ss p .n o v . Le f tma x i l l awi t h mo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 1 1 8 ,0 0 2 6 1 ,0 0 3 1 9 ,0 04 4 1 , 0 0 4 4 4 ,0 0 4 5 3 ,0 0 4 6 2 ,0 0 4 6 5 ,0 0 6 0 1 ,0 0 6 4 4 ,0 0 6 5 1 ,0 1 0 0 2 ,0 1 0 5 6 , 0 1 2 6 3 ,0 1 2 7 9 ,0 1 2 8 3 ,0 1 5 7 6 ,0 1 5 8 0,0 1 5 8 4 ,0 2 2 1 2 ,0 2 2 5 4 ,0 2 2 6 1 , 0 2 2 6 7 ,0 2 3 3 0 ,0 2 4 1 9 ,0 2 4 2 3 ,0 2 6 6 6 ,0 2 8 8 5 ,0 2 8 8 6 ,0 2 9 2 9 . Le f tma x i l l awi t ho u tmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 4 3 6 ,0 2 2 7 6 . Ri g h tma x i l l awi t hmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 0 9 1 ,0 0 0 9 2 ,0 0 0 9 5 ,0 0 0 9 7 , 0 0 0 9 8 ,0 0 0 9 9 ,0 0 2 5 3 ,0 0 4 8 0 ,0 0 4 9 3 ,0 0 5 9 2 ,0 1 0 2 3 ,0 1 0 2 4 ,0 1 0 5 0 , 0 1 0 9 6 ,0 1 1 0 2 ,0 1 1 0 8 ,0 1 1 1 0 ,0 1 1 1 3 ,0 1 22 6 ,0 1 2 5 2 ,0 1 2 5 9 (t h eh o l o t y p e ),0 1 2 6 1 ,0 1 6 3 6 ,0 1 6 4 1 ,0 2 3 3 5 ,0 2 6 5 8 ,0 2 8 7 6 ,0 2 8 7 8 ,0 2 9 3 5 , 0 2 9 3 7 Ri g h tma x i l l awi t h o u tmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 3 5 3 ,0 0 4 8 5 ,0 0 4 9 2 ,0 1 0 9 0 , 0 1 6 4 4 ,0 2 1 8 5 ,0 2 1 9 7 ,0 2 1 9 9 ,0 2 2 1 9 ,0 2 2 80 . Le f tma n d i b l ewi t hmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 1 0 4 ,0 0 1 1 2 ,0 0 1 1 3 ,0 0 5 0 5 , 0 0 5 1 6 ,0 0 5 1 7 ,0 0 5 2 0 ,0 0 5 8 9 ,0 0 5 9 0 ,0 0 6 3 5 ,0 1 0 1 6 ,0 1 0 1 9 ,0 1 1 1 9 , 0 1 1 3 9 ,0 1 3 3 5 ,0 1 3 3 7 ,0 1 3 3 8 ,0 1 3 4 1 ,0 1 3 6 9 ,0 2 6 3 2 ,0 2 6 8 0 ,0 2 6 8 4 , 0 2 6 8 5 ,0 26 8 6 ,0 2 6 8 9 ,0 2 6 9 2 ,0 2 8 7 9 ,0 2 8 8 0 ,0 2 8 8 2 ,0 2 9 1 3 . Le f tma n d i b l ewi t h o u tmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 5 2 3 ,0 1 0 5 9 ,01 1 1 4 ,0 1 6 6 1 , 0 1 6 6 5 ,0 2 2 1 0 ,0 2 3 8 6 ,0 2 6 2 0 ,0 2 8 2 9 ,0 2 8 3 2 ,0 2 8 3 8 . Ri g h tma n d i b l ewi t hmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 00 7 8 ,0 0 0 8 3 ,0 0 0 8 6 ,0 0 0 9 3 , 0 0 2 7 8 ,0 0 2 7 9 ,0 0 2 8 3 ,0 0 2 8 6 ,0 0 4 3 1 ,0 0 5 3 2 ,0 0 6 1 4 ,0 0 6 1 6 ,0 0 6 2 3 , 0 1 1 5 3 ,0 1 4 5 1,0 1 4 9 7 ,0 1 5 0 0 ,0 1 5 0 1 ,0 1 5 1 5 ,0 1 6 1 1 ,0 2 0 0 4 ,0 2 0 0 7 , 0 2 3 0 3 ,0 2 3 0 5 ,0 2 4 6 3 ,0 2 6 8 7 ,0 2 8 5 5 ,0 2 9 0 1 ,0 2 9 3 8 ,02 9 3 9 . Ri g h tma n d i b l e wi t h o u tmo l a rt e e t h :OPMFV-0 0 3 3 3 ,0 1 2 9 9 ,0 1 3 0 5 , 0 1 4 5 0 ,0 1 4 5 2 ,0 1 4 7 5 ,0 2 0 2 2 ,0 2 0 3 8,0 2 4 7 2 ,0 2 5 0 1 ,0 2 6 2 7 . Pa r i e t a lb o n e s ,f r o n t a lb o n e s ,a n di n t e r p a r i e t a lb o n e :OPMFV-0 2 9 0 4 Li v i n gs p e c i me n s Di p l o t hr i xl e g a t a Sk u l l :NSMTM8 4 2 6 ,8 8 1 5 ,9 2 1 8 ,9 5 3 9 ,1 0 1 9 8 ,1 1 4 5 9 ,1 4 3 7 6 ,2 8 6 6 6 , 3 4 3 2 5 (t h eh o l ot y p eo fMu sb o we r s i iv a r .o k i n a v e n s i sNa mi e ,1 9 0 9); OPM n on umb e r ;BM 5 . 1 1 . 3 . 4 1 (t h eh o l o t y p eo fLe n o t h r i xl e g a t aTh o ma s ,1 9 0 6 .Th eme a s u r e me n t so ft h i sh o l o t y p ei sn o ti n c l u d e di nt a b l e s 1 3 ..

(13) Ane wf os s i lmu r i ner ode ntf r o mt h eMi y a k oI s l a n do ft h eRy u k y uAr c h i p e l a g o ,J a p a n. 27. Pl at e1 Oc c l us a lvi e ws (AB)oft her i ghtma xi l l a ewi t hamo l a rr ow (A),o c c l u s a lv i e wso ft h ea l v e o l io ft h er i g h tma x i l l a e ,l a t e r a lv i e ws (CD)oft he r i g h tma ndi bl ewi t hamo l a rr ow (C)a ndwi t houtmo l a r s (D),ado r s a lv i e wo ft h ec r a n i u mp a r t (E)a n dal a t e r a lv i e wo fn a s a la n dp r e ma xi l l a e wi t ht hei nc i s or s (F)oft hef os s i lRat t usmi y ak oe ns i s .Oc c l u s a lp a t t e r n so ft h er i g h tu p p e rmo l a r s (G)a n dt h er i g h tl o we rmo l a r s (H) oft hef os s i lRat t usmi y ak oe ns i s .A:OPMFV01259 (t hehol ot ype ),B:OPMFV0 1 0 9 0 ,C:OPMFV0 1 1 5 3 ,D:OPMFV0 2 0 2 2 ,E:OPMFV02904,F: OPMFV02906. G:OPMFV01259 (t hehol ot ype ),H:OPMFV0 1 1 5 3 .. 琉球列島宮古島ピンザアブ洞窟で発掘された新種のネズミ亜科化石 川口 敏1・金子之史2・長谷川善和3 1. 香川県さぬき市鴨庄9 9 4 6. 2. 香川県坂出市高屋町5 0 2 -4 3 群馬県立自然史博物館. 要旨:齧歯目ネズミ科ネズミ亜科のRa t t u s 属の化石新種を記載した.記載に当たっては沖縄島 と奄美大島産の現生固有種であるケナガネズミDi p l o t h r i xl e g a t aと比較した.このネズミ亜科化 石は1983年に琉球列島宮古島のピンザアブ洞窟から発掘され,更新世後期とされるものであ る. キーワード:ネズミ亜科,ミヤコムカシネズミ,ケナガネズミ,ピンザアブ洞,洞窟堆積物,宮古島,琉球列島,後期更新世.

(14) 28. KAWAGUCHISa t os hi ,KANEKO Yu k i b u mia n dHASEGAWA Yo s h i k a z u. Pl at e1.

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