June 8–13, 2007, Varna, Bulgaria Ivaïlo M. Mladenov, Editor SOFTEX, Sofia 2008, pp 36–65
Integrability and
Quantization^{IX}
ON MULTICOMPONENT MKDV EQUATIONS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES OF DIIITYPE AND THEIR REDUCTIONS
VLADIMIR S. GERDJIKOV and NIKOLAY A. KOSTOV Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
Abstract. New reductions for the multicomponent modified Korteveg de Vries (MMKdV) equations on the symmetric spaces ofDIIItype are derived using the approach based on the reduction group introduced by A. Mikhailov.
The relevant inverse scattering problem is studied and reduced to a Riemann Hilbert problem. The minimal sets of scattering dataTi,i= 1,2which allow one to reconstruct uniquely both the scattering matrix and the potential of the Lax operator are defined. The effect of the new reductions on the hierarchy of Hamiltonian structures of MMKdV and onT_{i} are studied. We illustrate our results by the MMKdV equations related to the algebrag'so(8)and derive several new MMKdVtype equations using group of reductions isomorphic toZ^{2},Z^{3},Z^{4}.
1. Introduction
Themodified Korteweg deVries equation(MKdV) [27]
qt+qxxx+ 6qxq^{2}(x, t) = 0, =±1 (1) has natural multicomponent generalizations (MMKdV) related to the symmetric spaces [3]. They can be integrated by the ISM using the fact that they allow the following Lax representation
Lψ≡
i d
dx +Q(x, t)−λJ
ψ(x, t, λ) = 0 (2)
Q(x, t) = 0 q
p 0
, σ3 =
1 0 0 −1
(3) M ψ ≡
id
dt +V_{0}(x, t) +λV_{1}(x, t) +λ^{2}V_{2}(x, t)−4λ^{3}J
ψ(x, t, λ)
=ψ(x, t, λ)C(λ) (4) 36
V_{2}(x, t) = 4Q(x, t), V_{1}(x, t) = 2iJ Q_{x}+ 2J Q^{2} (5)
V0(x, t) =−Q_{xx}−2Q^{3}. (6)
The corresponding MMKdV equations take the form
∂Q
∂t +∂^{3}Q
∂x^{3} + 3^{}QxQ^{2}+Q^{2}Qx
= 0. (7)
The analysis in [2, 3, 11] reveals a number of important results. These include the corresponding multicomponent generalizations of KdV equations and the gen eralized Miura transformations interrelating them with the generalized MMKdV equations, two of their most important reductions as well as their Hamiltonians.
Our aim in this paper is to explore new types of reductions of the MMKdV equa tions. To this end we make use of the reduction group introduced by Mikhailov [22, 24] which allows one to impose algebraic reductions on the coefficients of Q(x, t) which will be automatically compatible with the evolution of MMKdV.
Similar problems have been analyzed for theNwave type equations related to the simple Lie algebras of rank 2 and 3 [16, 17] and the multicomponent NLS equa tions [18, 19]. Here we illustrate our analysis by the MMKdV equations related to the algebrasg ' so(2r)which are linked to theDIIItype symmetric spaces se ries. Due to the fact that the dispersion law for MNLS is proportional toλ^{2} while for MMKdV it is proportional toλ^{3}the sets of admissible reductions for these two NLEE equations differ substantially.
In the next Section 2 we give some preliminaries on the scattering theory forL, the reduction group and graded Lie algebras. In Section 3 we construct the fundamen tal analytic solutions ofL, formulate the corresponding RiemannHilbert problem and introduce the minimal sets of scattering dataT_{i},i= 1,2which define uniquely both the scattering matrix and the solution of the MMKdVQ(x, t). Some of these facts have been discussed in more details in [18], others had to be modified and extended so that they adequately take into account the peculiarities of the DIII type symmetric spaces. In particular we modified the definition of the fundamental analytic solution which lead to changes in the formulation of the RiemannHilbert problem. In Section 4 we first briefly outline the hierarchy of Hamiltonian struc tures for the generic MMKdV equations. Next we list nontrivial examples of two classes of reductions of the MMKdV equations related to the algebraso(8). The first class is performed with automorphisms ofso(8)that preserveJand the second class uses automorphisms that mapJ into−J. While the reductions of first type can be applied both to MNLS and MMKdV equations, the reductions of second type can be applied only to MMKdV equations. Under them “half” of the mem bers of the Hamiltonian hierarchy become degenerated [3, 9]. For both classes of reductions we find examples with groups of reductions isomorphic toZ2, Z3
andZ4. We also provide the corresponding reduced Hamiltonians and symplectic
forms and Poisson brackets. At the end of Section 4 we derive the effects of these reductions on the scattering matrix and on the minimal sets of scattering data. The last section contains some conclusions.
2. Preliminaries
In this section we outline some of the well known facts about the spectral theory of the Lax operators of the type (2).
2.1. The Scattering Problem forL
Here we briefly outline the basic facts about the direct and the inverse scattering problems [4,5,7,8,10,15,25,26,28,29] for the system (2) for the class of potentials Q(x, t)that are smooth enough and fall off to zero fast enough forx→ ±∞for all t. In what follows we treatDIIItype symmetric spaces which means thatQ(x, t) is an element of the algebraso(2r). In the examples below we take r = 4and g'so(8). For convenience we choose the following definition for the orthogonal algebras and groups
X ∈so(2r)−→X+S0X^{T}Sˆ0 = 0, T ∈SO(2r)−→S0T^{T}Sˆ0 = ˆT (8) where the “hat” denotes the inverse matrixTˆ≡T^{−1} and
S_{0} ≡
r
X
k=1
(−1)^{k+1}^{}E_{k,}¯k+E¯k,k
=
0 s_{0} ˆ s0 0
, ¯k= 2r+ 1−k. (9) Here and below byE_{jk} we denote a2r×2r matrix with just one nonvanishing and equal to 1 matrix element atj, kth position: (Ejk)mn =δjmδkn. Obviously S_{0}^{2}=11.
The main tool for solving the direct and inverse scattering problems are the Jost solutions which are fundamental solutions defined by their asymptotics atx →
±∞
x→∞lim ψ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}=11, lim
x→−∞φ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}=11. (10) Along with the Jost solutions we introduce
ξ(x, λ) =ψ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}, ϕ(x, λ) =φ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x} (11) which satisfy the following linear integral equations
ξ(x, λ) =11+ i Z x
∞
dye^{−iλJ(x−y)}Q(y)ξ(y, λ)e^{iλJ(x−y)} (12) ϕ(x, λ) =11+ i
Z x
−∞
dye^{−iλJ}^{(x−y)}Q(y)ϕ(y, λ)e^{iλJ}^{(x−y)}. (13) These are Volterra type equations which, have solutions providing one can ensure the convergence of the integrals in the right hand side. Forλreal the exponential
factors in (12) and (13) are just oscillating and the convergence is ensured by the fact thatQ(x, t)is rapidly vanishing forx→ ∞.
Remark 1. It is an well known fact that if the potential Q(x, t) ∈ so(2r) then the corresponding Jost solutions of equation (2) take values in the corresponding group, i.e.,ψ(x, λ), φ(x, λ)∈SO(2r).
The Jost solutions as whole can not be extended forimλ6= 0. However, some of their columns can be extended forλ∈ C+, others – forλ∈ C−. More precisely we can write down the Jost solutionsψ(x, λ) andφ(x, λ)in the following block matrix form
ψ(x, λ) = ψ^{−}(x, λ)i,ψ^{+}(x, λ)i^{}, φ(x, λ) = φ^{+}(x, λ)i,φ^{−}(x, λ)i^{} (14)
ψ^{±}(x, λ)i= ψ^{±}_{1}(x, λ) ψ^{±}_{2}(x, λ)
!
, φ^{±}(x, λ)i= φ^{±}_{1}(x, λ) φ^{±}_{2}(x, λ)
!
where the superscript+and (respectively−) shows that the correspondingr×r blockmatrices allow analytic extension forλ∈C+(respectivelyλ∈C−).
Solving the direct scattering problem means given the potentialQ(x)to find the scattering matrixT(λ). By definitionT(λ)relates the two Jost solutions
φ(x, λ) =ψ(x, λ)T(λ), T(λ) =
a^{+}(λ) −b^{−}(λ) b^{+}(λ) a^{−}(λ)
(15) and has compatible blockmatrix structure. In what follows we will need also the inverse of the scattering matrix
ψ(x, λ) =φ(x, λ) ˆT(λ), T(λ)ˆ ≡
c^{−}(λ) d^{−}(λ)
−d^{+}(λ) c^{+}(λ)
(16) where
c^{−}(λ) = ˆa^{+}(λ)(11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+})^{−1}= (11+τ^{+}τ^{−})^{−1}aˆ^{+}(λ) (17a) d^{−}(λ) = ˆa^{+}(λ)ρ^{−}(λ)(11+ρ^{+}ρ^{−})^{−1} = (11+τ^{+}τ^{−})^{−1}τ^{+}(λ)ˆa^{−}(λ) (17b) c^{+}(λ) = ˆa^{−}(λ)(11+ρ^{+}ρ^{−})^{−1}= (11+τ^{−}τ^{+})^{−1}aˆ^{−}(λ) (17c) d^{+}(λ) = ˆa^{−}(λ)ρ^{+}(λ)(11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+})^{−1} = (11+τ^{−}τ^{+})^{−1}τ^{−}(λ)ˆa^{+}(λ). (17d) The diagonal blocks ofT(λ)andTˆ(λ)allow analytic continuation off the real axis, namelya^{+}(λ),c^{+}(λ)are analytic functions ofλforλ∈C+, whilea^{−}(λ),c^{−}(λ) are analytic functions ofλforλ∈ C−. We introduced alsoρ^{±}(λ)andτ^{±}(λ)the multicomponent generalizations of the reflection coefficients (for the scalar case, see [1, 6, 21])
ρ^{±}(λ) =b^{±}aˆ^{±}(λ) = ˆc^{±}d^{±}(λ), τ^{±}(λ) = ˆa^{±}b^{∓}(λ) =d^{∓}ˆc^{±}(λ). (18)
The reflection coefficients do not have analyticity properties and are defined only forλ∈R.
From Remark 1 one concludes thatT(λ) ∈ SO(2r), therefore it must satisfy the second of the equations in (8). As a result we get the following relations between c^{±},d^{±}anda^{±},b^{±}
c^{+}(λ) = ˆs_{0}a^{+,T}(λ)s_{0}, c^{−}(λ) =s_{0}a^{−,T}(λ)ˆs_{0}
d^{+}(λ) =−sˆ_{0}b^{+,T}(λ)s_{0}, d^{−}(λ) =−s_{0}b^{−,T}(λ)ˆs_{0} (19) and in addition we have
ρ^{+}(λ) =−ˆs_{0}ρ^{+,T}(λ)s_{0}, ρ^{−}(λ) =−s_{0}ρ^{−,T}(λ)ˆs_{0}
τ^{+}(λ) =−s_{0}τ^{+,T}(λ)ˆs0, τ^{−}(λ) =−ˆs0τ^{−,T}(λ)s0. (20) Next we need also the asymptotics of the Jost solutions and the scattering matrix forλ→ ∞
λ→−∞lim φ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}= lim
λ→∞ψ(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}=11, lim
λ→∞T(λ) =11
λ→∞lim a^{+}(λ) = lim
λ→∞c^{−}(λ) =11, lim
λ→∞a^{−}(λ) = lim
λ→∞c^{+}(λ) =11. (21) The inverse to the Jost solutionsψ(x, λ)ˆ andφ(x, λ)ˆ are solutions to
id ˆψ
dx −ψ(x, λ)(Q(x)ˆ −λJ) = 0 (22) satisfying the conditions
x→∞lim e^{−iλJ x}ψ(x, λ) =ˆ 11, lim
x→−∞e^{−iλJ x}φ(x, λ) =ˆ 11. (23) Now it is the collections of rows ofψ(x, λ)ˆ andφ(x, λ)ˆ that possess analytic prop erties inλ
ψ(x, λ) =ˆ hψˆ^{+}(x, λ)
hψˆ^{−}(x, λ)
!
, φ(x, λ) =ˆ hφˆ^{−}(x, λ)
hφˆ^{+}(x, λ)
!
(24) hψˆ^{±}(x, λ)= (s^{±1}_{0} ψ^{±}_{2},s^{±1}_{0} ψ^{±}_{1})(x, λ), hφˆ^{±}(x, λ)= (s^{∓1}_{0} ψ^{±}_{2},s^{∓1}_{0} ψ^{±}_{1})(x, λ).
Just like the Jost solutions, their inverse (24) are solutions to linear equations (22) with regular boundary conditions (23) and therefore they have no singularities on the real axisλ ∈ R. The same holds true also for the scattering matrix T(λ) = ψ(x, λ)φ(x, λ)ˆ and its inverseTˆ(λ) = ˆφ(x, λ)ψ(x, λ), i.e.,
a^{+}(λ) =hψˆ^{+}(x, λ)φ^{+}(x, λ)i, a^{−}(λ) =hψˆ^{−}(x, λ)φ^{−}(x, λ)i (25) as well as
c^{+}(λ) =hφˆ^{+}(x, λ)ψ^{+}(x, λ)i, c^{−}(λ) =hφˆ^{−}(x, λ)ψ^{−}(x, λ)i (26)
are analytic forλ∈ C±and have no singularities forλ ∈ R. However they may become degenerate (i.e., their determinants may vanish) for some valuesλ^{±}_{j} ∈C±
ofλ. Below we briefly analyze the structure of these degeneracies and show that they are related to discrete spectrum ofL.
2.2. The Reduction Group of Mikhailov
The reduction group GR is a finite group which preserves the Lax representa tion (2), i.e., it ensures that the reduction constraints are automatically compati ble with the evolution. G_{R} must have two realizations: i) G_{R} ⊂ Autg and ii) G_{R} ⊂ ConfC, i.e., as conformal mappings of the complex λplane. To each gk∈GRwe relate a reduction condition for the Lax pair as follows [24]
Ck(L(Γk(λ))) =ηkL(λ), Ck(M(Γk(λ))) =ηkM(λ) (27) whereC_{k} ∈ AutgandΓ_{k}(λ) ∈ ConfCare the images of g_{k} andη_{k} = 1or−1 depending on the choice ofC_{k}. SinceG_{R}is a finite group then for eachg_{k}there exist an integerN_{k}such thatg^{N}_{k}^{k} =11.
More specifically the automorphisms Ck, k = 1, . . . ,4 listed above lead to the following reductions for the potentialsU(x, t, λ)andV(x, t, λ)of the Lax pair
U(x, t, λ) =Q(x, t)−λJ, V(x, t, λ) =
2
X
k=0
λ^{k}V_{k}(x, t)−4λ^{3}J (28) of the Lax representation
1) C_{1}(U^{†}(κ_{1}(λ))) =U(λ), C_{1}(V^{†}(κ_{1}(λ))) =V(λ) (29) 2)C_{2}(U^{T}(κ_{2}(λ))) =−U(λ), C_{2}(V^{T}(κ_{2}(λ))) =−V(λ) (30) 3) C3(U^{∗}(κ1(λ))) =−U(λ), C3(V^{∗}(κ1(λ))) =−V(λ) (31) 4) C_{4}(U(κ_{2}(λ))) =U(λ), C_{4}(V(κ_{2}(λ))) =V(λ). (32) The condition (27) is obviously compatible with the group action.
2.3. CartanWeyl Basis and Weyl Group forso(2r)
Here we fix the notations and the normalization conditions for the CartanWeyl generators of g ' so(2r), see e.g. [20]. The root system ∆ of this series of simple Lie algebras consists of the roots∆ ≡ {±(e_{i} −ej),±(e_{i} +ej)} where 1 ≤ i < j ≤ r. We introduce an ordering in∆by specifying the set of positive roots∆^{+} ≡ {e_{i} −e_{j}, e_{i}+e_{j}}for1 ≤ i < j ≤ r. Obviously all roots have the same length equal to 2.
We introduce the basis in the Cartan subalgebra byh_{k} ∈ h, k = 1, . . . , rwhere {h_{k}}are the Cartan elements dual to the orthonormal basis{e_{k}}in the root space E^{r}. Along withhkwe introduce also
H_{α}=
r
X
k=1
(α, e_{k})h_{k}, α∈∆ (33)
where(α, e_{k})is the scalar product in the root spaceE^{r}between the rootαande_{k}. The basis inso(2r)is completed by adding the Weyl generatorsE_{α},α∈∆.
The commutation relations for the elements of the CartanWeyl basis are given in [20]
[h_{k}, Eα] = (α, e_{k})Eα, [Eα, E−α] =Hα
[Eα, E_{β}] =
(Nα,βEα+β forα+β ∈∆ 0 forα+β /∈∆∪ {0}.
(34) We will need also the typical 2rdimensional representation ofso(2r). In order to have the Cartan generators represented by diagonal matrices we modified the definition of orthogonal matrix, see (8). Using the matricesEjkdefined after equa tion (9) we get
h_{k} =E_{kk}−E¯k¯k, E_{e}_{i}−e_{j} =E_{ij} −(−1)^{i+j}E¯j¯i
E_{e}_{i}_{+e}_{j} =E_{i}¯j−(−1)^{i+j}E¯j¯i, E−α =E_{α}^{T} (35) where¯k= 2r+ 1−k.
We will denote by~a = ^{P}^{r}_{k=1}e_{k} the rdimensional vector dual toJ ∈ hwhere J =^{P}^{r}_{k=1}hk. If the rootα∈∆+is positive (negative) then(α, ~a)≥0((α, ~a)<
0respectively). The normalization of the basis is determined by
E−α=E_{α}^{T}, hE_{−α}, E_{α}i= 2, N−α,−β =−N_{α,β}. (36) The root system∆ofgis invariant with respect to the Weyl reflectionsS_{α}which act on the vectors~y∈E^{r}specified by the formula
S_{α}~y =~y−2(α, ~y)
(α, α)α, α∈∆. (37)
All Weyl reflections S_{α} form a finite group W_{g} known as the Weyl group. On the root space this group is isomorphic toS_{r}⊗(Z2)^{r−1} whereS_{r} is the group of permutations of the basic vectorse_{j} ∈ E^{r}. Each of the Z2 groups acts onE^{r} by changing simultaneously the signs of two of the basic vectorsej.
One may introduce also an action of the Weyl group on the CartanWeyl basis, namely [20]
Sα(Hβ)≡AαHβA^{−1}_{α} =HSαβ
S_{α}(E_{β})≡A_{α}E_{β}A^{−1}_{α} =n_{α,β}E_{S}_{α}_{β}, n_{α,β} =±1. (38)
The matricesA_{α}are given (up to a factor from the Cartan subgroup) by
A_{α} = e^{E}^{α}e^{−E}^{−α}e^{E}^{α}H_{A} (39) whereH_{A}is a conveniently chosen element from the Cartan subgroup such that H_{A}^{2} = 11. The formula (39) and the explicit form of the CartanWeyl basis in the typical representation will be used in calculating the reduction condition following from (27).
2.4. Graded Lie Algebras
One of the important notions in constructing integrable equations and their reduc tions is the one of graded Lie algebra and KacMoody algebras [20]. The standard construction is based on a finite order automorphismC ∈ Autg,C^{N} = 11. The eigenvalues ofCareω^{k},k = 0,1, . . . , N −1, whereω = exp(2πi/N). To each eigenvalue there corresponds a linear subspaceg^{(k)}⊂gdetermined by
g^{(k)}≡^{n}X;X∈g, C(X) =ω^{k}X^{o}. (40) Theng=^{N−1}⊕
k=0
g^{(k)}and the grading condition holds
hg^{(k)},g^{(n)}^{i}⊂g^{(k+n)} (41)
wherek+nis taken moduloN. Thus to each pair{g, C}one can relate an infinite dimensional algebra of KacMoody typebg_{C}whose elements are
X(λ) =^{X}
k
X_{k}λ^{k}, X_{k}∈g^{(k)}. (42) The series in (42) must contain only finite number of negative (positive) powers of λandg^{(k+N)} ≡g^{(k)}. This construction is a most natural one for Lax pairs and we will see that due to the grading condition (41) we can always impose a reduction onL(λ)andM(λ)such that both U(x, t, λ)andV(x, t, λ) ∈ _{b}g_{C}. In the case of symmetric spacesN = 2andCis the Cartan involution. Then one can choose the Lax operatorLin such a way that
Q∈g^{(1)}, J ∈g^{(0)} (43)
as it is the case in (2). Here the subalgebra g^{(0)} consists of all elements of g commuting withJ. The special choice ofJ =^{P}^{r}_{k=1}hktaken above allows us to split the set of all positive roots∆^{+}into two subsets
∆^{+}= ∆^{+}_{0} ∪∆^{+}_{1}, ∆^{+}_{0} ={e_{i}−e_{j}}_{i<j}, ∆^{+}_{1} ={e_{i}+e_{j}}_{i<j}. (44) Obviously the elementsα ∈∆^{+}_{1} have the propertyα(J) = (α, ~a) = 2, while the elementsβ ∈∆^{+}_{0} have the propertyβ(J) = (β, ~a) = 0.
3. The Fundamental Analytic Solutions and the RiemannHilbert Problem
3.1. The Fundamental Analytic Solutions
The next step is to construct thefundamental analytic solutions(FAS)χ^{±}(x, λ) of (2). Here we slightly modify the definition in [18] to ensure that χ^{±}(x, λ) ∈ SO(2r). Thus we define
χ^{+}(x, λ)≡ φ^{+}i,ψ^{+}cˆ^{+}i^{}(x, λ) =φ(x, λ)S^{+}(λ) =ψ(x, λ)T^{−}(λ)D^{+}(λ) (45) χ^{−}(x, λ)≡ ψ^{−}ˆc^{−}i,φ^{−}i^{}(x, λ) =φ(x, λ)S^{−}(λ) =ψ(x, λ)T^{+}(λ)D^{−}(λ) where the blocktriangular functionsS^{±}(λ)andT^{±}(λ)are given by
S^{+}(λ) =
11 d^{−}cˆ^{+}(λ) 0 11
, T^{−}(λ) =
11 0 b^{+}aˆ^{+}(λ) 11
S^{−}(λ) =
11 0
−d^{+}ˆc^{−}(λ) 11
, T^{+}(λ) =
11 −b^{−}aˆ^{−}(λ) 0 11
.
(46)
The matricesD^{±}(λ)are blockdiagonal and equal D^{+}(λ) =
a^{+}(λ) 0 0 ˆc^{+}(λ)
, D^{−}(λ) =
ˆc^{−}(λ) 0 0 a^{−}(λ)
. (47) The upper scripts±here refer to their analyticity properties forλ∈C±.
In view of the relations (19) it is easy to check that all factorsS^{±}, T^{±} andD^{±} take values in the groupSO(2r). Besides, since
T(λ) =T^{−}(λ)D^{+}(λ) ˆS^{+}(λ) =T^{+}(λ)D^{−}(λ) ˆS^{−}(λ) T(λ) =ˆ S^{+}(λ) ˆD^{+}(λ) ˆT^{−}(λ) =S^{−}(λ) ˆD^{−}(λ) ˆT^{+}(λ)
(48) we can view the factors S^{±}, T^{±} and D^{±} as generalized Gauss decompositions (see [20]) ofT(λ)and its inverse.
The relations between c^{±}(λ), d^{±}(λ) anda^{±}(λ), b^{±}(λ) in equation (17) ensure that equations (48) become identities. From equations (45), (46) we derive
χ^{+}(x, λ) =χ^{−}(x, λ)G0(λ), χ^{−}(x, λ) =χ^{+}(x, λ) ˆG0(λ) (49) G0(λ) =
11 τ^{+} τ^{−} 11+τ^{−}τ^{+}
, Gˆ0(λ) =
11+τ^{+}τ^{−} −τ^{+}
−τ^{−} 11
(50) valid forλ∈R. Below we introduce
X^{±}(x, λ) =χ^{±}(x, λ)e^{iλJ x}. (51)
Strictly speaking it isX^{±}(x, λ)that allow analytic extension for λ ∈ C±. They have also another nice property, namely their asymptotic behavior forλ→ ±∞is given by
λ→∞lim X^{±}(x, λ) =11. (52) Along withX^{±}(x, λ) we can use another set of FASX˜^{±}(x, λ) = X^{±}(x, λ) ˆD^{±}, which also satisfy equation (52) due to the fact that
λ→∞lim D^{±}(λ) =11. (53)
The analyticity properties ofX^{±}(x, λ)andX˜^{±}(x, λ)forλ∈C±along with equa tion (52) are crucial for our considerations.
3.2. The RiemannHilbert Problem
The equations (49) and (50) can be written down as
X^{+}(x, λ) =X^{−}(x, λ)G(x, λ), λ∈R (54) where
G(x, λ) = e^{−iλJ x}G0(λ)e^{iλJ x}. (55) Likewise the second pair of FAS satisfy
X˜^{+}(x, λ) = ˜X^{−}(x, λ) ˜G(x, λ), λ∈R (56) with
G(x, λ) = e˜ ^{−iλJ x}G˜_{0}(λ)e^{iλJ x}, G˜_{0}(λ) =
11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+} ρ^{−} ρ^{+} 11
. (57) Equation (54) (respectively equation (56)) combined with (52) is known in the literature [12] as a RiemannHilbert problem (RHP) with canonical normalization.
It is well known that RHP with canonical normalization has unique regular solution while the matrixvalued solutionsX_{0}^{+}(x, λ) andX_{0}^{−}(x, λ) in (54), obeying (52) are called regular ifdetX_{0}^{±}(x, λ)does not vanish for anyλ∈C±.
Let us now apply the contourintegration method to derive the integral decomposi tions ofX^{±}(x, λ). To this end we consider the contour integrals
J_{1}(λ) = 1 2πi
I
γ+
dµ
µ−λX^{+}(x, µ)− 1 2πi
I
γ−
dµ
µ−λX^{−}(x, µ) (58) and
J_{2}(λ) = 1 2πi
I
γ+
dµ
µ−λX˜^{+}(x, µ)− 1 2πi
I
γ−
dµ
µ−λX˜^{−}(x, µ) (59) whereλ∈C+and the contoursγ±are shown in Fig. 1.
k
+;1
;1  
 6
Y

Figure 1. The contoursγ_{±}=R∪γ_{±∞}.
Each of these integrals can be evaluated by Cauchy residue theorem. The result for λ∈C+are
J_{1}(λ) =X^{+}(x, λ) +
N
X
j=1
Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X^{+}(x, µ) µ−λ +
N
X
j=1
Res
µ=λ^{−}_{j}
X^{−}(x, µ)
µ−λ (60) J_{2}(λ) = ˜X^{+}(x, λ) +
N
X
j=1
Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X˜^{+}(x, µ) µ−λ +
N
X
j=1
Res
µ=λ^{−}_{j}
X˜^{−}(x, µ)
µ−λ . (61) The discrete sums in the right hand sides of equations (60) and (61) naturally pro vide the contribution from the discrete spectrum ofL. For the sake of simplicity we assume thatL has a finite number of simple eigenvalues λ^{±}_{j} ∈ C± and for additional details see [18]. Let us clarify the above statement. For the 2 ×2 ZakharovShabat problem it is well known that the discrete eigenvalues ofLare provided by the zeroes of the transmission coefficientsa^{±}(λ), which in that case are scalar functions. For the more general 2r×2r ZakharovShabat system (2) the situation becomes more complex because nowa^{±}(λ)arer×r matrices. The discrete eigenvalues λ^{±}_{j} now are the points at which a^{±}(λ) become degenerate and their inverse develop pole singularities. More precisely, we assume that in the vicinities ofλ^{±}_{j} a^{±}(λ),c^{±}(λ)and their inverseaˆ^{±}(λ),ˆc^{±}(λ)have the following decompositions in Taylor series
a^{±}(λ) =a^{±}_{j} + (λ−λ^{±}_{j}) ˙a^{±}_{j} +· · ·, c^{±}(λ) =c^{±}_{j} + (λ−λ^{±}_{j}) ˙c^{±}_{j} +· · · (62) ˆ
a^{±}(λ) = aˆ^{±}_{j}
λ−λ^{±}_{j} + ˆ˙a^{±}_{j} +· · · , ˆc^{±}(λ) = ˆc^{±}_{j}
λ−λ^{±}_{j} + ˆ˙a^{±}_{j} +· · · (63)
where all the leading coefficients a^{±}_{j} , aˆ^{±}_{j} , c^{±}_{j} , ˆc^{±}_{j} are degenerate matrices such that
ˆ
a^{±}_{j}a^{±}_{j} =a^{±}_{j} aˆ^{±}_{j} = 0, ˆc^{±}_{j} c^{±}_{j} =c^{±}_{j} ˆc^{±}_{j} = 0. (64) In addition we have more relations such as
aˆ^{±}_{j}a˙^{±}_{j} + ˆ˙a^{±}_{j} a^{±}_{j} =11, ˆc^{±}_{j}c˙^{±}_{j} + ˆ˙c^{±}_{j}c^{±}_{j} =11 (65) that are needed to ensure the identitiesaˆ^{±}(λ)a^{±}(λ) = 11,ˆc^{±}(λ)c^{±}(λ) = 11, etc for all values ofλ.
The assumption that the eigenvalues are simple here means that we have considered only first order pole singularities ofaˆ^{±}_{j}(λ)andˆc^{±}_{j} (λ). After some additional con siderations we find that the “halfs” of the Jost solutionsψ^{±}(x, λ)iandφ^{±}(x, λ)i satisfy the following relationships forλ=λ^{±}_{j}
ψ_{j}^{±}(x)ˆc^{±}_{j} i=±φ^{±}_{j} (x)τ_{j}^{±}i, φ^{±}_{j} (x)ˆa^{±}_{j} i=±ψ^{±}_{j} (x)ρ^{±}_{j}i (66) whereψ_{j}^{±}(x)i=ψ^{±}(x, λ^{±}_{j} )i,φ^{±}_{j} (x)i=φ^{±}(x, λ^{±}_{j})i
ρ^{±}_{j} = ˆc^{±}_{j} d^{±}_{j} =b^{±}_{j}aˆ^{±}_{j}, τ_{j}^{±}= ˆa^{±}_{j} b^{±}_{j} =d^{±}_{j}ˆc^{±}_{j} (67) and the additional coefficientsb^{±}_{j} andd^{±}_{j} are constantr×rnondegenerate matrices which, as we shall see below, are also part of the minimal sets of scattering data needed to determine the potentialQ(x, t).
These considerations allow us to calculate explicitly the residues in equations (60), (61) with the result
Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X^{+}(x, µ)
µ−λ = (0i,φ^{+}_{j}(x)τ_{j}^{+}i)
λ^{+}_{j} −λ , Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X˜^{+}(x, µ)
µ−λ = (ψ_{j}^{+}(x)ρ^{+}_{j} i,0i) λ^{+}_{j} −λ
(68) Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X^{−}(x, µ)
µ−λ =−(φ^{−}_{j}(x)τ_{j}^{−}i,0i)
λ^{+}_{j} −λ , Res
µ=λ^{+}_{j}
X˜^{−}(x, µ)
µ−λ =−(0i,ψ^{−}_{j} (x)τ_{j}^{−}i) λ^{+}_{j} −λ where0istands for a collection ofrcolumns whose components are all equal to zero.
We can also evaluateJ_{1}(λ)andJ_{2}(λ)by integrating along the contours. In inte grating along the infinite semicircles ofγ±,∞we use the asymptotic behavior of X^{±}(x, λ)andX˜^{±}(x, λ)forλ→ ∞. The results are
J_{1}(λ) =11+ 1 2πi
Z ∞
−∞
dµ
µ−λφ(x, µ)e^{iµJ x}K(x, µ) (69) J_{2}(λ) =11+ 1
2πi Z ∞
−∞
dµ
µ−λψ(x, µ)e^{iµJ x}K(x, µ)˜ (70) K(x, µ) = e^{−iµJ x}K_{0}(µ)e^{iµJ x}, K(x, µ) = e˜ ^{−iµJ x}K˜_{0}(µ)e^{iµJ x} (71)
K0(µ) =
0 τ^{+}(µ) τ^{−}(µ) 0
, K˜0(µ) =
0 ρ^{+}(µ) ρ^{−}(µ) 0
(72) where in evaluating the integrands we made use of equations (15), (17), (54) and (56).
Equating the right hand sides of (60) and (69), and (61) and (70) we get the fol lowing integral decomposition forX^{±}(x, λ)
X^{+}(x, λ) =11+ 1 2πi
Z ∞
−∞
dµ
µ−λX^{−}(x, µ)K1(x, µ) +
N
X
j=1
X_{j}^{−}(x)K1,j(x) λ^{−}_{j} −λ (73) X^{−}(x, λ) =11+ 1
2πi Z ∞
−∞
dµ
µ−λX^{−}(x, µ)K_{2}(x, µ)−
N
X
j=1
X_{j}^{+}(x)K_{2,j}(x) λ^{+}_{j} −λ (74) whereX_{j}^{±}(x) =X^{±}(x, λ^{±}_{j} )and
K1,j(x) = e^{−iλ}
−
jJ x 0 ρ^{+}_{j} τ_{j}^{−} 0
! e^{iλ}
− jJ x
, K2,j(x) = e^{−iλ}^{+}^{j}^{J x} 0 τ_{j}^{+} ρ^{−}_{j} 0
!
e^{iλ}^{+}^{j}^{J x}. (75) Equations (73), (74) can be viewed as a set of singular integral equations which are equivalent to the RHP. For the MNLS these were first derived in [23].
We end this section by a brief explanation of how the potential Q(x, t) can be recovered provided we have solved the RHP and know the solutions X^{±}(x, λ).
First we take into account thatX^{±}(x, λ)satisfy the differential equation idX^{±}
dx +Q(x, t)X^{±}(x, λ)−λ[J, X^{±}(x, λ)] = 0 (76) which must hold true for all λ. From equation (52) and also from the integral equations (73), (73) one concludes thatX^{±}(x, λ)and their inverseXˆ^{±}(x, λ)are regular forλ→ ∞and allow asymptotic expansions of the form
X^{±}(x, λ) =11+
∞
X
s=1
λ^{−s}Xs(x), Xˆ^{±}(x, λ) =11+
∞
X
s=1
λ^{−s}Xˆs(x). (77) Inserting these into equation (76) and taking the limitλ→ ∞we get
Q(x, t) = lim
λ→∞λ(J−X^{±}(x, λ)JXˆ^{±}(x, λ)]) = [J, X1(x)]. (78) 3.3. The Minimal Set of Scattering Data
Obviously, given the potentialQ(x) one can solve the integral equations for the Jost solutions which determine them uniquely. The Jost solutions in turn determine uniquely the scattering matrixT(λ) and its inverseTˆ(λ). But the potentialQ(x) containsr(r−1)independent complexvalued functions ofx. Thus it is natural
to expect that at most r(r −1) of the coefficients in T(λ) for λ ∈ R will be independent and the rest must be functions of those.
The set of independent coefficients ofT(λ)are known as the minimal set of scat tering data. As such we may use any of the following two setsT_{i}≡ T_{i,c}∪ T_{i,d}
T_{1,c}≡^{}ρ^{+}(λ), ρ^{−}(λ), λ∈R , T_{1,d}≡^{n}ρ^{±}_{j}, λ^{±}_{j} ^{o}^{N}
j=1
T_{2,c}≡^{}τ^{+}(λ), τ^{−}(λ), λ∈R , T_{1,d}≡^{n}τ_{j}^{±}, λ^{±}_{j}^{o}^{N}
j=1
(79)
where the reflection coefficientsρ^{±}(λ)andτ^{±}(λ)were introduced in equation (17), λ^{±}_{j} are (simple) discrete eigenvalues ofLandρ^{±}_{j} andτ_{j}^{±}characterize the norming constants of the corresponding Jost solutions.
Remark 2. A consequence of equation (20) is the fact that S^{±}(λ),S^{±}(λ) ∈ SO(2r). These factors can be written also in the form
S^{±}(λ) = exp
X
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
τ_{α}^{±}(λ)E±α
, T^{±}(λ) = exp
X
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
ρ^{±}_{α}(λ)E±α
. (80) Taking into account that in the typical representation we haveE±αE±β = 0for all rootsα, β∈∆^{+}_{1} we find that
X
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
τ_{α}^{+}(λ)E±α=
0 τ^{+}(λ)
0 0
, ^{X}
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
τ_{α}^{−}(λ)E−α =
0 0 τ^{−}(λ) 0
X
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
ρ^{+}_{α}(λ)E±α=
0 ρ^{+}(λ)
0 0
, ^{X}
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
ρ^{−}_{α}(λ)E−α=
0 0 ρ^{−}(λ) 0
(81)
where ∆^{+}_{1} is a subset of the positive roots of so(2r) defined below in Subsec tion 3.3. The formulae (81) ensure that the number of independent matrix elements ofτ^{+}(λ) andτ^{−}(λ)(respectively, ρ^{+}(λ) andρ^{−}(λ)) equals2∆^{+}_{1} = r(r−1) which coincides with the number of independent functions ofQ(x).
The reflection coefficientsρ^{±}(λ) andτ^{±}(λ) are defined only on the real λaxis, while the diagonal blocksa^{±}(λ)andc^{±}(λ)(or, equivalently,D^{±}(λ)) allow ana lytic extensions forλ∈C±. From the equations (17) there follows that
a^{+}(λ)c^{−}(λ) = (11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+}(λ))^{−1}, a^{−}(λ)c^{+}(λ) = (11+ρ^{+}ρ^{−}(λ))^{−1} (82) c^{−}(λ)a^{+}(λ) = (11+τ^{+}τ^{−}(λ))^{−1}, c^{+}(λ)a^{−}(λ) = (11+τ^{−}τ^{+}(λ))^{−1}.(83)
Given T_{1} (respectively, T_{2}) we determine the right hand sides of (82) (respec tively (83)) forλ∈R. Combined with the facts about the limits
λ→∞lim a^{+}(λ) = lim
λ→∞c^{−}(λ) = lim
λ→∞a^{−}(λ) = lim
λ→∞c^{+}(λ) =11 (84) each of the relations (82), (83) can be viewed as a RHP with canonical normaliza tion. Such RHP can be solved explicitly in the onecomponent case (provided we know the locations of their zeroes) by using the PlemeljSokhotsky formulae [12].
These zeroes are in fact the discrete eigenvalues ofL. One possibility to make use of these facts is to take log of the determinants of both sides of (82) which leads to A^{+}(λ) +C^{−}(λ) =−ln det(11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+}(λ), λ∈R (85) where
A^{±}(λ) = ln deta^{±}(λ), C^{±}(λ) = ln detc^{±}(λ). (86) Then PlemeljSokhotsky formulae allows us to recoverA^{±}(λ)andC^{±}(λ)
A(λ) = i 2π
Z ∞
−∞
dµ
µ−λln det(11+ρ^{−}ρ^{+}(µ)) +
N
X
j=1
lnλ−λ^{+}_{j}
λ−λ^{−}_{j} (87) whereA(λ) = A^{+}(λ) forλ∈ C+andA(λ) = −C^{−}(λ)forλ∈ C−. In deriv ing (87) we have also assumed thatλ^{±}_{j} are simple zeroes ofA^{±}(λ)andC^{±}(λ).
Let us consider the reduction condition (29) with C_{1} from the Cartan subgroup C_{1}= diag(B_{+}, B−)where the diagonal matricesB±are such thatB^{2}_{±}=11. Then we get the following constraints on the setsT_{1,2}
ρ^{−}(λ) = (B−ρ^{+}(λ)B+)^{†}, ρ^{−}_{j} = (B−ρ^{+}_{j} B+)^{†}, λ^{−}_{j} = (λ^{+}_{j})^{∗} (88) τ^{−}(λ) = (B_{+}τ^{+}(λ)B−)^{†}, τ_{j}^{−}= (B_{+}τ_{j}^{+}B−)^{†}, λ^{−}_{j} = (λ^{+}_{j})^{∗} (89) wherej= 1, . . . , N. For more details see Subsection 4.4 and Subsection 4.5.
Remark 3. For certain reductions such as, e.g. Q=−Q^{†}the generalized Zakha rovShabat system L(λ)ψ = 0 can be written down as an eigenvalue problem Lψ = λψ(x, λ) whereLis a selfadjoint operator. The continuous spectrum of Lfills up the whole realλaxis thus “leaving no space” for discrete eigenvalues.
Such Lax operators have no discrete spectrum and the corresponding MNLS or MMKdV equations do not have soliton solutions.
From the general theory of RHP [12] one may conclude that (82), (83) allow unique solutions provided the number and types of the zeroes λ^{±}_{j} are properly chosen.
Thus we can outline a procedure which allows one to reconstruct not onlyT(λ) andT(λ)ˆ and the corresponding potentialQ(x)from each of the setsT_{i},i= 1,2:
i) GivenT_{2}(respectivelyT_{1}) solve the RHP (82) (respectively (83)) and con structa^{±}(λ)andc^{±}(λ)forλ∈C±.
ii) GivenT_{1}we determineb^{±}(λ)andd^{±}(λ)as
b^{±}(λ) =ρ^{±}(λ)a^{±}(λ), d^{±}(λ) =c^{±}(λ)ρ^{±}(λ) (90) or ifT_{2}is known then
b^{±}(λ) =a^{±}(λ)τ^{±}(λ), d^{±}(λ) =τ^{±}(λ)c^{±}(λ). (91) iii) The potentialQ(x)can be recovered fromT_{1}by solving the RHP (54) and
using equation (78).
Another method for reconstructingQ(x)fromT_{j}uses the interpretation of the ISM as generalized Fourier transform, see [1, 13, 21].
4. Finite Order Reductions of MMKdV Equations
In order that the potentialQ(x, t) be relevant for aDIIItype symmetric space it must be of the form
Q(x, t) = ^{X}
α∈∆^{+}_{1}
(qα(x, t)Eα+pα(x, t)E−α) (92) or, equivalently
Q(x, t) = ^{X}
1≤i<j≤r
q_{ij}(x, t)E_{e}_{i}_{+e}_{j} +p_{ij}(x, t)E−e_{i}−e_{j}
. (93)
4.1. Hamiltonian Formulations for the Generic MMKdV Type Equations Let us, before going into the nontrivial reductions, briefly discuss the Hamiltonian formulations for the generic (i.e., nonreduced) MMKdV type equations. It is well known (see [18] and the numerous references therein) that the class of these equa tions is generated by the socalled recursion operatorΛ = 1/2(Λ_{+}+ Λ−)which act on generic blockoffdiagonal matrix valued functionZ(x)by
Λ±Z = i ad^{−1}_{J} dZ
dx +
Q(x), Z x
±∞
dy[Q(y), Z(y)]
. (94)
Any nonlinear evolution equation (NLEE) integrable via the inverse scattering method applied to the Lax operatorL(2) can be written in the form
i ad^{−1}_{J} ∂Q
∂t + 2f(Λ)Q(x, t) = 0 (95)
where the functionf(λ)is known as the dispersion law of this NLEE. The generic MMKdV equation is a member of this class and is obtained by choosingf(λ) =
−4λ^{3}. If Q(x, t) is a solution to (95) then the corresponding scattering matrix satisfy the linear evolution equation
idT
dt +f(λ)[J, T(λ, t)] = 0 (96)
and vice versa. In particular from (96) there follows that a^{±}(λ) andc^{±}(λ) are timeindependent and therefore can be considered as generating functionals of in tegrals of motion for the NLEE.
If no additional reduction is imposed one can write each of the equations in (95) in Hamiltonian form. The corresponding Hamiltonian and symplectic form for the MMKV equation are given by
H_{MMKdV}^{(0)} = 1 4
Z ∞
−∞dx ^{}tr(J QxQxx)−3 tr(J Q^{3}Qx)^{} (97) Ω^{(0)} = 1
i Z ∞
−∞dx tr
ad^{−1}_{J} δQ(x)∧
0
h
J,ad^{−1}_{J} δQ(x)^{i}
(98)
= 1 2i
Z ∞
−∞dx tr(J δQ(x)∧
0 δQ(x)).
The Hamiltonian can be identified as proportional to the fourth coefficientI_{4}in the asymptotic expansion ofA^{+}(λ)(84) over the negative powers ofλ
A^{+}(λ) =
∞
X
k=1
iI_{k}λ^{−k}. (99)
This series of integrals of motion is known as the principal one. The first three of these integrals take the form
I1 = 1 4
Z ∞
−∞
dx tr(Q^{2}(x, t)), I2 =−i 4
Z ∞
−∞
dx tr(Qad^{−1}_{J} Qx) I_{3} =−1
8 Z ∞
−∞
dx tr(QQ_{xx}+ 2Q^{4}) I_{4} = 1
32 Z ∞
−∞
dx ^{}tr(J Q_{x}Q_{xx})−3 tr(J Q^{3}Q_{x})^{}.
(100)
We will remind also another important result, namely that the gradient of I_{k} is expressed throughΛas
∇_{Q}T(x)I_{k}=−1
2Λ^{k−1}Q(x, t). (101) Then the Hamiltonian equations written throughΩ^{(0)} and the Hamiltonian vector fieldX_{H}(0) in the form
Ω^{(0)}(·, X_{H}(0)) +δH^{(0)} = 0 (102) forH^{(0)}given by (97) coincides with the MMKdV equation.
An alternative way to formulate Hamiltonian equations of motion is to introduce along with the Hamiltonian the Poisson brackets on the phase spaceMwhich is
the space of smooth functions taking values ing^{(0)} and vanishing fast enough for x→ ±∞, see (93). These brackets can be introduced by
{F, G}_{(0)}= i Z ∞
−∞dx tr^{}∇_{Q}T(x)F,^{h}J,∇_{Q}T(x)G^{i}. (103) Then the Hamiltonian equations of motions
dq_{ij}
dt ={q_{ij}, H^{(0)}}_{(0)}, dp_{ij}
dt ={p_{ij}, H^{(0)}}_{(0)} (104) with the above choice forH^{(0)}again give the MMKdV equation.
Along with this standard Hamiltonian formulation there exist a whole hierarchy of them. This is a special property of the integrable NLEE. The hierarchy is generated again by the recursion operator and has the form
H_{MMKdV}^{(m)} =−8I_{4+m} (105)
Ω^{(m)}= 1 i
Z ∞
−∞dx tr
ad^{−1}_{J} δQ(x)∧
0
h
J,Λ^{m}ad^{−1}_{J} δQ(x)^{i}
. (106) Of course there is also a hierarchy of Poisson brackets
{F, G}_{(m)}= i Z ∞
−∞dx tr^{}∇_{Q}T(x)F,^{h}J,Λ^{−m}∇_{Q}T(x)G^{i}. (107) For a fixed value ofmthe Poisson bracket{·,·}_{(m)}is dual to the symplectic form Ω^{(m)}in the sense that combined with a given Hamiltonian they produce the same equations of motion. Note that sinceΛis an integrodifferential operator in general it is not easy to evaluate explicitly its negative powers. Using this duality one can avoid the necessity to evaluate negative powers ofΛ.
Then the analogs of (102) and (104) take the form
Ω^{(m)}(·, X_{H}(m)) +δH^{(m)}= 0 (108) dq_{ij}
dt ={q_{ij}, H^{(−m)}}_{(m)}, dp_{ij}
dt ={p_{ij}, H^{(−m)}}_{(m)} (109) where the hierarchy of Hamiltonians is given by
H^{(m)}=−4^{X}
k
f_{k}Ik+1−m. (110)
The equations (108) and (109) with the Hamiltonian H^{(m)} given by (110) will produce the NLEE (95) with dispersion lawf(λ) =^{P}_{k}f_{k}λ^{k}for any value ofm.
Remark 4. It is a separate issue to prove that the hierarchies of symplectic struc tures and Poisson brackets have all the necessary properties. This is done using the spectral decompositions of the recursion operators Λ± which are known also as the expansions over the “squared solutions” ofL. We refer the reader to the review papers [14, 18] where he/she can find the proof of the completeness relation for