CZEBS APEC iiSBE Symposium Report

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Smart Net Zero Resilient Buildings and Communiies

CZEBS-APEC-iiSBE Net Zero Built Environment Symposium

REPORT

December 24, 2015

Andreas Athieniis, Ph.D., P.Eng., FCAE Director, Concordia Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies

Bruno Lee, PhD, CEng MCIBSE, LEED AP Concordia Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies

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Smart Net Zero Resilient Buildings and Communiies

CZEBS-APEC-iiSBE Net Zero Built Environment

2015 Symposium

Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CANADA August 20-21, 2015

Overview

This Symposium consisted of two workshops (Aug. 20 and 21), with nearly 70 speakers and delegates from 16 countries, ailiated with Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies (CZEBS), Smart Net-zero Energy Buildings strategic Research Network (SNEBRN), Internaional Iniiaive for a Sustainable Built Environment (iiSBE) and Asia-Paciic Economic Cooperaion (APEC) paricipated through presentaions and discussions on the latest progress on net-zero energy building (NZEB) Best Pracices, as well as enabling technologies. The workshop of August 20, focused on case studies, policy issues and an educaion session, where 20 delegates were funded by APEC. The workshop on August 21 focused mainly on enabling technologies for net-zero buildings and communiies with , iiSBE and APEC delegates, as well as about 15 SNEBRN researchers. The event was organized by CZEBS in collaboraion with iiSBE and APEC.. Nearly 40 students parially supported by SNEBRN paricipated, as well as about 10 key partners from the industry and government agencies). This report includes inputs from SNEBRN students coordinated by Dr. Remi Charron.

The workshop took place at the Concordia University Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies (CZEBS), whose mission is to reduce the environmental impact of buildings while enhancing their safety and comfort. The meeing was in line with one of its main prioriies, which is to facilitate collaboraive research aimed at widespread adopion of opimized NZEB design and operaion concepts. The Centre was iniiated primarily by the Concordia group of researchers collaboraing within the framework of the NSERC

Smart Net-zero Energy Buildings Strategic Research Network (SNEBRN). The Symposium was co-chaired by Dr. Andreas Athieniis and Dr. Bruno Lee.

The NSERC Smart Net-zero Energy Buildings Strategic Research Network (SNEBRN) is currently the major Canadian research efort in smart net-zero energy buildings. It brings together 30 Canadian researchers from 15 universiies to develop the smart net-zero energy homes and commercial buildings of the future. The Network also includes researchers and experts from CanmetENERGY, Natural

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Resources Canada (NRCan) and Hydro-Québec. Industrial partners from the energy and construcion sectors are involved in most projects, developing the know-how that will help them compete in the global market. About 55 SNEBRN researchers, partners and students paricipated in the workshop.

Asia-Paciic Economic Cooperaion (APEC) also co-organized this event, paricularly the workshop on August 20. APEC has 21 member countries and is the premier Asia-Paciic economic forum whose goal is to support sustainable economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Paciic region. APEC’s iniiaives aim to turn policy goals into concrete results and agreements into tangible beneits. APEC has a number of Expert Groups working in diferent areas, including one on Energy Eiciency and Conservaion. APEC helps fund speciic projects in collaboraion with the various member groups that are relevant to net-zero energy buildings, including APEC-funded project EWG-02-2015A: APEC-NZEB Best Pracices.

Internaional Iniiaive for a Sustainable Built Environment (iiSBE) co-organized this event and is an internaional non-proit organizaion whose overall aim is to acively facilitate and promote the adopion of policies, methods and tools to accelerate the movement towards a global sustainable built environment. One of their most important aciviies, which was facilitated by this workshop, is to support networking aciviies that help specialists and generalists become familiar with each other’s abiliies and needs.

This report provides a summary of the key outputs of the Smart Net Zero Resilient Buildings and Communiies, CZEBS-iiSBE-APEC Net Zero Built Environment 2015 Symposium. For more detailed informaion, consult the appendices:

Appendix A: APEC Workshop Summary

Appendix B: Symposium Program

Appendix C: Key Points from the Presentaions

Symposium Outcomes

The symposium included four plenary speakers and eight diferent Panels (with 3 to 5 speakers each) discussing a range of topics from individual technologies, to communiies and their interacion with the grid, policies, standards, incenives, and educaion needed to accelerate the adopion of net-zero energy buildings. The plenary speakers and their topic areas ied all of the research together that was presented in the panels.

In the opening plenary session, Dr. Paul Torcellini discussed how to make net-zero buildings mainstream by presening lessons learned from the new NREL facility in Colorado, the largest net-zero energy building in the world. By having clear objecives in the request for proposal (RFP) including mission criical objecives (e.g. LEED Plainum), highly desirable objecives (e.g. max 25 kBTU/t2 energy consumpion) and “if possible” objecives (e.g. net-zero energy), design teams were able to innovate and develop a design that would meet net-zero energy consumpion at a lower cost than similar convenionally built buildings.

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Dr. Andreas Athieniis’ plenary discussed Network key research achievements, as well as a number of challenges that remain. He stressed that more work needs to be done to integrate solar technologies with energy eiciency, with the building architecture and the building envelope itself. This would need to make use of more intelligent building operaion that employs predicive control, and that the focus would need to not only be on energy conservaion, but also on peak load shiting and reducion. There is a need to coninue to develop building integrated PV systems with thermal energy capture in order to maximise the amount or renewable energy that could be captured and uilised from the building envelope in order to achieve net-zero energy targets in larger muli-storey buildings.

In the inal plenary, Nils Larsson discussed his vision of how clusters of buildings could work together to make achieving the required energy savings more achievable. Prospects at the scale of building clusters ofer the potenial of inter-building synergies. Synergy zones could beneit from opimisaion of supply and demand of thermal energy, DHW, grey water, and DC power from building of diferent uses (residenial, oice, retail, schools, etc).

The panelists presented a number of diferent net-zero and near-zero building demonstraion projects and case studies;

everything from a single house, to large commercial buildings and small communiies. There were many similariies between the diferent projects. There is a need to opimise passive elements irst, with an emphasis on passive solar, daylighing and natural venilaion. This is followed by trying to maximise the energy eiciency of lighing and HVAC systems. Finally renewable energy technologies are introduced. The design also needs to consider opimal operaion of the building through control strategies, as well as implemening coninuous monitoring and commissioning. These similariies existed despite the diferent locaions. Although diferences in climate, energy mix and local poliical will have an inluence on a number of design atributes. There were also a number of presentaions that discussed the importance of codes and standards and these will be key in acceleraing the adopion of net-zero energy buildings.

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Related engineering and architecture programs need to be updated in order to train the architects and engineers to work seamlessly as a team. Not only do architects need to consider the many engineering possibiliies, engineers also need to consider the architectural impact of their technologies. Only through ight integraion at early design phase, a truly resilient net zero built environment can be designed and implemented. In fact, the seniment is that there is no fundamental conlict between any of the architectural / social-cultural values of the design and the technical consideraions of the implementaion. However, there is a lack of a common language that could translate conceptual ideas across diferent professions and a plaform that could facilitate exchange in a quanitaive manner. Research work is needed to develop such language and plaform. The educaion system also plays a crucial role in engaging both architectural and engineering students as a team through project based learning and studio work.

There were a number of presenters that discussed the importance of considering resilience in building design. Net-zero energy buildings are by nature more resilient than standard construcion pracices. However, with addiional focus on resilience, buildings could be beter prepared to adapt and respond to our changing climate.

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Appendix A:

APEC Workshop Summary

(extract from presentaion by Dr. Shicong Zhang

The APEC Nearly (Net) Zero Energy Building Program responds to the 25th APEC Ministers Meeing and 21st APEC Economic Leaders’ Declaraion, to reduce APEC’s aggregate energy intensity by 45 % by 2035, using 2005 as a base year, and promote clean, renewable and sustainable use of energy within APEC region.

Recently, some APEC developed economies set the goal to achieve Nearly (Net) Zero Energy Building (NZEB) and already launched some research programs and accomplished successful demonstraion projects. So, during the 41th Expert Group Meeing of Energy Eiciency and Conservaion under APEC Energy Working Group in 2013, Co-sponsored by Hong Kong China, Singapore, Canada, Japan and Thailand, China proposed this idea of sharing latest progress on NZEB across the APEC region and get the support from APEC.

The objecive of this program is to share the exising experiences and best pracices of NZEB to promote this idea among APEC region, which including (1) Exchanging each economy’s latest policy and naional goals, (2) Comparison of diferent but similar deiniion of NZEB, (3) Sharing valuable experiences from the demonstraion projects, and (4) Finding obstacles and barriers to promote NZEB.

Two workshops were held within the project, irst was held on October 30th to 31st 2013, 60 paricipants from 13 economies atended the workshop. The irst workshop focus on policies and deiniions, research programs and latest technology progress and how upgrading building codes inluences the work of NZEB.

80 paricipants from 15 economies atended the second workshop on October 22nd to 23rd 2014. The second workshop focus on monitoring results of pilot project and community and how to promote NZEB in the future in the APEC region. Besides speakers and APEC economy representaives, lots of NGOs were also invited to the workshop. Including Internaional Finance Corporaion (IFC), United Naions Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and Eurasia Foundaion (EF). During the implementaion of the program, an NZEB technical working group across the APEC region was established.

NSERC Smart Net-zero Energy Buildings Strategic Research Network of Canada, Architecture 2030 and Lawrence Berkeley Naional Laboratory of the United States, The Society of Heaing, Air-Condiioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Nearly Zero Energy Building Alliance of China and Korea Insitute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology all helped a lot to support this Program. We would like to welcome more related stakeholders to join this network during the implementaion of this project to make the network more extensive and inluenial.

In the inal report of the Phase I, we concluded Long and Mid Term Naional Goal of NZEB, Naional Research Team and Stable Funding, Building Codes Upgrading towards NZEB, Financial Support and Subsidy, Energy Reducion Potenial of Demonstraion Projects, Posiive Social & Energy & Environment Inluence, Deiniion Harmonizaion in the Future, Networks and Organizaions.

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GOVERNMENT

• Seing a long-term, aggressive naional target to zero energy buildings with a clear

mid-term objecive for every step. The goal will support the R&D of research academies and give forward-thinking companies a boost for business planning.

• Financial incenives and subsidies for the pilot and demonstraion projects.

• Funding in diferent climate zones to ind the best technology and roadmap to achieve NZEB. • Harmonizing the deiniion of related terms which will be widely used in the government

policies and future acion plans. RESEARCH ACADEMIES

• Kicking-of R&D programs which cover passive technology, acive technology, renewable energy

system, and energy monitoring and management system and technology integraion should be

• Tesing, evaluaion and cerifying the exising projects that was built with the goal to achieve

nearly (net) zero.

• Paricipaing in the coninuous improvement of building energy code. • Deepening involvement in the pilot and demonstraion buildings.

The phase I report of the program was highly evaluated by the APEC Energy Working Group and could be ind in the APEC website here and it had been downloaded for more than 2000 imes. Successful demonstraion projects are the most powerful way to promote NZEB in building sector. With the successful demonstraion projects that could achieve 75% – 90% energy reducion compared with the ordinary buildings, all stakeholders could be inluenced and beneited, the government oicers and building energy codes management organizaion could ind the way to raise up the minimum requirement of building energy consumpion step by step, architects and engineers could see and learn the latest building energy eiciency technology progress, also could call for public awareness.

So, with the APEC coninuous funding support, we are now working on the second phase of this program, which focus on Best Pracices Study. Phase II will carry out professional in-depth comparaive research with the detail informaion collected of best pracices of NZEB pilot buildings among APEC economies, to showcase how tremendous energy savings could be achieved by integrated design, advanced technology uilizaion and NZE oriented management and commissioning in buildings. Thespeciic objecives are:

1. To prepare a comprehensive and systemaic informaion collecing template on exising NZEB demonstraion projects that could cover complete and necessary informaion of the target project. The template could also be used for future APEC related studies.

2. To carry out comparaive study of diferent NZBE pilot projects’ best pracices, including commercial buildings and residenial buildings in all climate regions among APEC economies. The technologies of passive design, acive energy system, building fenestraions and renewable energy systems will be collected and building energy consumpion reducion results will be compared with the average level.

3. To host two workshops. Experts and stakeholders from APEC member economies will be invited to discuss the main challenges and risks during the design, construcion and operaion of Net Zero Energy commercial building and residenial building, experiences and suggesions of how to deal with those problems.

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Appendix B: Symposium Program

Thursday August 20, 2015 Location: EV 2.260

NZEB Case Studies, Best Practices, Policies and Education Issues

8:00 AM - 8:45 AM Registration & Light Breakfast: Atrium, EV Building 8:45 AM - 9:00 AM Introduction

Dr. Andreas Athienitis, Director, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

Nils Larsson, Executive Director, International Initiative for a Sustainable Built Environment (iiSBE)

Prof. Wei Xu, APEC NZEB Program Overseer. Director of China NZEB Alliance. China Academy of Building Research 9:00 AM - 9:30 AM Welcome from Dr. Benoit-Antoine Bacon, Provost, Concordia University, Canada

Plenary Speaker: Dr. Paul Torcellini, Ph.D.,Associate Professor, Eastern Connecticut State University, USA Moving the Mainstream towards Net-Zero Buildings

9:30 AM - 10:45 AM

Chairs: Josef Ayoub CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada Cynthia Cruickshank Carleton University

Panel 1: NZEB and Low Energy Building Case Studies and Practices

Dr. Zhen Yu, Institute of Building Environment & Energy, China Academy of Building Research (CABR) Design and Operation of CABR Nearly Zero Energy Building

Dr. Lantz Holtzhower, Construction Management Technology Department, Oklahoma State University, USA Examining Initial Steps & Barriers to Net Zero in the State of Oklahoma

Hamed Hakim, Powell Center for Construction & Environment, University of Florida, USA Net Zero Energy Schools: The Starting Block for the Canadian Energy Neutral K-12 Schools

Dr. Dongwoo Cho, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology Design, Construction, Operation & Monitoring of Zero Carbon Green Home

Dr. Chun-Ping Gao, Building and Construction Authority Singapore

Leading the Way to Net Zero: Best Practice of Asia's first retrofitted zero energy building 10:45 AM - 11:00 AM Break: Atrium, EV Building

11:00 AM - 12:15 PM

Chairs: Alan Fung Ryerson University Meli Stylianou CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada

Panel 2: NZEB and Low Energy Building Design Practices

Dr. Suwon Song, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology Best Practice for NZEB - Seoul Energy Dream Center of Korea

Dr. Gyuyoung Yoon, Nagoya City University, Japan nZEB Oriented Best Practices in Japan

Carolyn Szum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA

Best Practice of Green Building Development in Sub-tropic Climate in China

Prof. ir. Wim Boydens, Ghent university / CSTO boydens engineering group, Belgium-Luxembourg-Vietnam The Solarwind Pilot Building in Operation as Driver for Research

Michael Lio, buildABILITY Corporation, Canada

Affordable Net Zero Housing Communities in Canada: The Owens Corning Canada National Net Zero Project 12:15 PM - 1:15 PM Lunch: Atrium, EV Building

1:15 PM - 1:45 PM Plenary Speaker: Edward Mazria, AIA, Hon. FRAIC, Founder and CEO, Architecture 2030, USA Road to Zero

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Chairs:

Liam O’Brien

Carelton University

Shicong Zhang

China Academy of Building Research

Panel 3: Policies, Standards and Incentive Measures for Net-Zero Energy Buildings and CommunitiesDr. Hideharu Niwa, Nikkenn Sekkei Research Institute, Japan

Overview of NZEB in Japan - Discussion on Definition and Evaluation Method of NZEB in SHASE of Japan

Dr. Wei Pan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hong Kong

Where to Draw Socio-Technical System Boundaries of Zero Carbon Buildings and Communities?

Sonja Winkelmann, Canadian Home Builders' Association

The Acceleration of Net Zero: How the Canadian Home Builders’ Association is Supporting Industry Innovation

Dr. Railesha Tiwari, School of Architecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA Proposing Metrics for Net-Zero Energy Building Design Performance Assessment

Dr. Shicong Zhang, Institute of Building Environment and Energy, China Academy of Building Research Research on Performance Criteria of Nearly-Zero Energy Buildings In China

3:00 PM - 3:15 PM Break: Atrium, EV Building 3:15 PM - 4:15 PM

Chairs:

Bruno Lee

Concordia University

Carmela Cucuzzella

Concordia University

Panel 4: Education for Net-Zero Energy: Challenges for Architecture and Engineering Programs Ann Edminster, Design AVEnues LLC, Pacifica, California, USA

Educational Needs for Architects & Engineers to Consistently Create Smart Net-Zero Resilient Projects

Dr. Carmela Cucuzzella, Design and Computation Arts Department, Concordia University, Canada When Environmental Evaluation meets Architecture Critique

Michael Jemtrud, School of Architecture, McGill University, Canada

The Architecture Design Studio and High-Performance Building: Challenges and Reflections

Dr. Bruno Lee, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

Preparing Future Engineers to Collaborate in a Multidisciplinary Environment

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Friday August 21, 2015 Location: EV 2.260

NZEBs, Communities and Enabling Technologies

8:30 AM - 9:00 AM Light Breakfast: Atrium, EV Building

9:00 AM - 9:30 AM Welcome from Dr. Amir Asif, Dean of Engineering & Computer Science, Concordia University, Canada Plenary Speaker: Dr. Andreas Athienitis, Ph.D., P.Eng., FCAE, Director, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

Towards Net-zero Energy Buildings and Communities: Challenges and Opportunities 9:30 AM - 10:30 AM

Chairs:

Chris Kennedy

University of Toronto

Caroline H-Vermette

University of Calgary

Panel 5: Design of Net-Zero Resilient Communities

Dr.Caroline Hachem-Vermette, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Canada Towards resilient development: Canadian initiatives

Dr.Scott Bucking, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Canada Net-Zero Resilient Communities: Three Canadian Case-Studies

Dr. Miguel Sattler, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Dept of Civil Engineering, Brazil A Happy Community's Search for Resilience

10:30 AM - 10:45 AM Break: Atrium, EV Building 10:45 AM - 12:15 AM

Chairs:

Stephen Harrison

Queen’s University

Soteris Kalogirou

Cyprus University of Technology

Panel 6: Building Integrated Solar as an Enabling Technology for Net-Zero Energy and ResilienceDr. Soteris Kalogirou, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering,

Cyprus University of Technology

Building Integrated Solar Thermal Systems: Technology Appraisal

Dr. Christophe Ménézo, Chair INSA-EDF/Fédération sur l'Energie Solaire - FédEsol FR 3344/USMB, France Building Integrated PV-thermal collectors and systems

Esteban Zalamea, Department of Design and Theory of Architecture, University of Bío Bío, Chile Assessment of Roof Capacity for Active Solar Energy Generation in Housing Developments

Dr. Alan Fung, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Canada BIPV/T + ASHP: Technologies for Near and Net-Zero Energy Buildings

• Dr. Annamaria Buonomano, Department of Industrial Engineering , University of Naples Federico II, Italy Modelling PCM, BIPV/T and other innovative technologies for energy efficiency in buildings: a case study 12:15 AM - 1:15 PM Lunch: Atrium, EV Building

1:15 AM - 1:45 PM Plenary Speaker: Nils Larsson, FRAIC,Executive Director, iiSBE Systems model for small urban zones

1:45 PM - 3:15 PM

Chairs: Radu Zmeureanu Concordia University Sophie Hossatte CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada

Panel 7: Energy Efficiency Technologies and their Integration with Renewables

Dr. Liam (William) O'Brien, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Canada Design of resilient and robust high-rise residential buildings

Dr.Umberto Berardi, Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science, Ryerson University, Canada The development of mPCM enhanced tile for high performance buildings

Dr. Hua Ge, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

High performance building envelopes for Smart net-zero resilient buildings

Dr. Ted (Theodore) Stathopoulos, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada Wind Energy Potential of Urban Areas

Dr. Huai Li, Institute of Building Environment & Energy, China Academy of Building Research Performance analysis of GSHP system in CABR nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB)

3:15 PM - 3:30 PM Break: Atrium, EV Building 3:30 PM - 4:45 PM

Chairs: Jose Candanedo CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada Jocelyn Millette

Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Québec

Panel 8: Optimizing Building Operation, Storage and Grid Interaction

Dr. Cynthia Cruickshank, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Canada Heat Pump Water Heating Control Strategy Optimization for Cold Climates

Dr.Lukas Swan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Canada Energy storage will enable net-zero energy buildings to become mainstream

Dr. Leon (Liangzhu) Wang, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

Modelling and Design of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation Systems for High Performance Buildings

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Appendix C: Key Points from Presentaions

Introducion

Dr. Andreas Athieniis, Director, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

Nils Larsson, Execuive Director, Internaional Iniiaive for a Sustainable Built Environment

(iiSBE)

Prof. Wei Xu, APEC NZEB Program Overseer. Director of China NZEB Alliance. China Academy

of Building Research

Welcome from Dr. Benoit-Antoine Bacon, Provost, Concordia University, Canada

Plenary - Moving the Mainstream towards Net-Zero Buildings

Dr. Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Eastern Connecicut State University, USA

• Largest NZEB in the world – NREL Colorado.

• Trends for Commercial sector have seen substanial gains in energy eiciency in the past,

but growth in new buildings has increased faster leading to a net-increase in energy consumpion.

• Progression of energy savings goals have seen them becoming measurable (green building,

LEED, 30% less than ASHRAE 90.1-2004, design buildings to use less than 25 kBTU/t2, design

net-zero.

• Presented a graph with 4 quadrants x-axis (energy savings) – y-axis (costs) staing that we

should put more focus on botom let (less costs, less energy) instead of top right (high cost, less energy).

• Problem deiniion is key. Nee clear RFP Objecives with prioriized goals (e.g. mission criical

– LEED plainum, highly desirable – 25 kBTU/t2, if possible, net-zero energy) • Lower cost than other similar convenionally built buildings.

• Actual consumpion matches modelled predicions.

• Think beyond buildings (communiies, campuses, the world), but cauion that you don’t

expand goals beyond decision making span and control.

• Need also to take conservaion beyond buildings into your own life. E.g. the family

commitment to grow their own food and net-zero energy house.

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Panel 1: NZEB and Low Energy Building Case Studies and Pracices

Design and Operaion of CABR Nearly Zero Energy Building

Dr. Zhen Yu, Insitute of Building Environment & Energy, China Academy of Building Research (CABR)

• Tremendous growth of green buildings in China in last 10 years, number of ZEB demonstraion

projects, in various climate zones (with most currently under construcion)

• CABR, future Insitute of Building Energy and Environment (IBEE)

• Target 25 kWh/m2, low construcion costs in China makes it diicult to build actual net-zero

buildings. Instead aiming for near zero energy buildings.

• Completed 2014-07-11, one year of energy data now available.

• Building itself is a comprehensive research plaform with diferent HVAC possibiliies/

coniguraions and lots of instrumentaion to monitor actual performance.

• Actual HVAC + lighing (22 kWh/m2), pump energy consumpion higher than expected,

coninuous monitoring & commissioning should lead to further reducions.

Examining Iniial Steps & Barriers to Net Zero in the State of Oklahoma •

Dr. Lantz Holtzhower, Construcion Management Technology Department, Oklahoma State

University, USA

• Oklahoma Energy Security Act 2010 goal of 15% renewables by 2015, up to 25% of that

from energy eiciency & demand side management. 2014 were at 20.85 RE and 11% from eiciency, lots of RE from large scale wind farms.

• EE measures include$4K income tax credits

• 2010 all public buildings mandated to be LEED. In 2011, reversed by Senate as the state is

very protecive of its natural gas industry. Need baby steps (scale ROI, more wind farms, geothermal neighborhoods, more solar installaions)

Net Zero Energy Schools: The Starting Block for the Canadian Energy

Neutral K-12 Schools

Hamed Hakim, Powell Center for Construcion & Environment, University of Florida, USA

• Many beneits of sustainable school, environmental, economic & environmental

• Over 18,425 elementary & secondary schools in Canada with mean EUI of 213.9 kWh/m2 • Over 450 LEED registered schools (16% ceriied, and 2% plainum)

• Looked at low-energy schools in US with similar climate zones to make suggesions for

Canada to reach net-zero energy.

• Many strategies applied to all studied buildings (PV, opimized orientaion, natural venilaion,

daylighing, geo-exchange, high performance envelope/lighing/HVAC, automated sensors) that should be applicable in Canada making NZES atainable.

Design, Construcion, Operaion & Monitoring of Zero Carbon Green Home

Dr. Dongwoo Cho, Korea Insitute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology

• 26.9% GHG reducion in building sector by 2020

• Policy for promoion of ZEB to generate many case studies (2014 low-rise, high-rise 2015,

towns 2016)

• Policy for promoion (Building standards, tax beneits, technical support) to reduce addiional costs • Promoion of integrated planning & design process and frameworks in each phase

• Case study of a 8 storey / 15 unit inished in 2013 (with non-heated space for stairs &

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 11/19 • Heaing energy, typical 9088 kWh/yr, ZCGH 1,884 kWh/yr per unit.

• Monthly average PV generaion 255 kWh/unit or 85% of the energy demand. Current

payback of 17 yrs, which should be reduced by incenives and growth in the market.

Leading the Way to Net Zero: Best Practice of Asia’s first retrofitted

zero energy building

Dr. Chun-Ping Gao, Building and Construcion Authority Singapore

• Demonstrate it’s possible, serve as test bed for technologies and hub for praciioners. • Needed to move chiller to neighbouring building to make room for large PV system. Even

with whole roof system, didn’t have quite enough area for PV. (Also has light tubes and solar assisted stack venilaion that has solar chimney)

• Green wall system important in tropical climates. Reduces external surface temperature,

reducing heat lux & energy consumpion.

• Ater 2 years, natural venilaion zones needed to add air condiioning.

• Final energy consumpion was less than simulated consumpion with most of the diference

atributed to lower plug loads. Over 25000 visitors since 2009.

• Future – rotatable laboratory building to be situated on the roof.

Panel 2

: NZEB and Low Energy Building Design Pracices

Best Pracice for NZEB - Seoul Energy Dream Center of Korea

Dr. Suwon Song, Korea Insitute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology

• 3762 m2 demonstraion building built in Seoul constructed in 2012

• Combinaion of passive+acive+RE, savings 80%, PV 20% with 272 kWp system • Radiant heaing and cooling system (commercial EU system) with GSHP • 2013 Electricity use 40.61 kWh/m2, annual electricity net-income of $7435/yr

• Savings as expected. Addiional savings expected from further commissioning of system.

nZEB Oriented Best Pracices in Japan

Dr. Gyuyoung Yoon, Nagoya City University, Japan

• Strategies to achieve ZEB (Passive then Acive then RE measures) • Best pracices from 21 buildings of various sizes, uses and locaions: • Three buildings achieved net-zero energy

• Fashionable passive measures: natural venilaion, solar shading, daylighing • Acive: separate sensible & latent HVAC

• High performance lighing, VAV by CO2, GSHP, energy management/visualizaion, ductless

systems (radiaion heaing and cooling)

• One of most important measures is proper energy management and commissioning • Adaping more energy saving measures, coupled achieve further 40% reducion in

consumpion. 400 to 600 MJ/m2 would be a minimum possible value for energy intensity

Best Pracice of Green Building Development in Sub-tropic Climate in China

Carolyn Szum, Lawrence Berkeley Naional Laboratory, USA

• 18,000 m2, 60 kWh/m2, $689/m2 (large data centre uses up about 1/3 of energy consumpion) • 20-30 measures and technologies chosen to be applied to achieve nearly zero energy

building among many other project goals (water savings, material savings, IEQ…)

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 12/19 • Integrated PV 3 ways: on rootop, west façade – semi-transparent thin-ilm, horizontal

placement on façade to serve as solar shading devices. Also have small wind on the roof. RE make up 6% of building energy use.

• Book available at Amazon.com that describes the building

The Solarwind Pilot Building in Operaion as Driver for Research

Prof. ir. Wim Boydens, Ghent university / CSTO boydens engineering group, Belgium-Luxembourg-Vietnam

• Designed 2008, inauguraion November 2012, 20,000 m2 oice building

• Opimize control, and one step further is to opimize the design to go with the opimized control. • Geothermal, biomass,and solar for heaing

• Thermal energy storage on 3 levels – geothermal, building integrated (concrete slabs) and 20 m3 tank

• Building Management System (try to inluence users, as well as opimise control to reduce

energy). For this type of building they anicipate 2 years of ine tuning and ield opimisaion.

• Holisic system approach taking into account dynamic interacion of the components.

Afordable Net Zero Housing Communiies in Canada: The Owens Corning

Canada Naional Net Zero Project

Michael Lio, buildABILITY Corporaion, Canada

• Work with builders to mainstream technologies, i.e. making net-zero “Producion Builder

Friendly”

• No direct funds going to the builders

• Ulimate long term goal is to implement net-zero into the building code by 2030

• 5 net-zero communiies (minimum 5 houses) across the country (1 condo, 1 row, 3 single

family projects) to be completed by March 2016

• Similar design features seen across projects including PV, triple glazed windows, heat pump

water heater, cold climate heat pump, home energy monitor (most have R60 blown aic, R24+R10 XPS for walls)

Plenary – Road to Zero

Edward Mazria, AIA, Hon. FRAIC, Founder and CEO, Architecture 2030, USA

• Why, when, what and how?

• Emissions peak , eliminate CO2 emissions by 2070 to have 66% chance of staying below 2ºC • Emissions peak by 2020, phase out by 2050 gives an 85% chance of keeping below 2ºC • Equivalent of one NYC worth of building areas added every 35 days unil 2030… • Road to zero (New Buildings, Exising Buildings, Building Products)

• 2015 70% savings, 2020 80%, 2025 90%, 2030 carbon neutral (savings eiciency + RE) • Exising buildings – developed countries renovate 2% to 3% total exising stock to reach 50%

reducion, developing countries 1.5 to 2%

• Building products: 2015 – 35%, 40% 2020, 45% 2025, 50% 2030

• Code applicaion for new buildings, building renovaions and building purchases, combined

with stretch codes going to ZNE by 2030.

• www.2030palete.org online resource that provides easy to understand visually rich

representaions of various soluions/strategies. To be integrated into AutoDesk

• Sefeira – real-ime energy simulaion of the building during design. Needed with quicker

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 13/19 • Buildings Day at World Climate Summit in Paris 2015 relects the importance of buildings.

• Need to develop a near net-zero energy building codes (zEPI 30) then it is easy for the

countries to move to ZNE Code, need every ceriicaion approach to have a ZNE Ceriicaion Level (plainum is not good enough)

Panel 3

: Policies, Standards and Incenive Measures for Net-Zero Energy

Buildings and Communiies

Overview of NZEB in Japan - Discussion on Deiniion and Evaluaion Method

of NZEB in SHASE of Japan

Dr. Hideharu Niwa, Nikkenn Sekkei Research Insitute, Japan

• SHASE Society of Heaing Air Condiioning and Sanitary Engineering

• Self-suiciency of energy recognized from viewpoint of energy security ater earthquake. • Qualitaive deiniion. Quanitaive Deiniion with boundary around building Energy

Generaion = Energy Consumpion (G=C)

• Net Energy Standard Measurement, normalized consumpion = normalized generaion • Classiicaions include ZEB ready, Nearly ZEB and Posiive Energy

Where to Draw Socio-Technical System Boundaries of Zero Carbon Buildings

and Communiies?

Dr. Wei Pan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hong Kong

• Caveats: need to draw diference between energy and carbon

• Hong Kong challenges high rise, density, hot and humid climate, 7 million people

• Hong Kong Zero Carbon Partnership to develop zero carbon buildings in urban environments

soluions.

• Need to be not only technically feasible, but commercially viable, supply chain, end-users…

The Acceleraion of Net Zero: How the Canadian Home Builders’ Associaion

is Supporing Industry Innovaion

Sonja Winkelmann, Canadian Home Builders’ Associaion

• Pushing to support members’ voluntary adopion of NZE • 45 acive voing members, and 11 ex-oicio members

• Key prioriies for Year 1(NZE labelling Program, Markeing and Communicaion Iniiaive,

Educaional Iniiaive, and Financing Iniiaives)

• Cost of NZE upgrade around $60K with some builders reporing cost-neutral achievement

when considering energy savings.

• Labelling program BASE R2000+ERS 0 GJ + Energy Star requirements+ RE design evaluaion &

installaion veriicaion+ energy monitoring device with real ime informaion for consumer

• Future program development, NZE MURBS and NZE Renos, NZE Communiies

• Top 4 must haves according to large new homebuyer survey, 1st is walk-in closets, then it’s

energy eicient appliances, overall eicient home, and eicient windows.

Research on Performance Criteria of Nearly-Zero Energy Buildings in China

Dr. Shicong Zhang, Insitute of Building Environment and Energy, China Academy of Building

Research

• Building Codes and Standards are the most fundamental and efecive measure to promote

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 14/19 • China Academy Building Research Nearly Zero Energy Building as a Pilot building July 2014

• Need performance criteria of Passive Nearly-Zero Energy Building for China to enable

technical analysis to ind best combinaion of design strategies to achieve nearly net-zero energy buildings in the diferent climate zones.

Panel 4

: Educaion for Net-Zero Energy: Challenges for Architecture and

Engineering Programs

Educaional Needs for Architects & Engineers to Consistently Create Smart

Net-Zero Resilient Projects

Ann Edminster, Design AVEnues LLC, Paciica, California, USA

• Biggest mistake we do is focusing on how to change buildings instead of than focusing on

changing how we operate and do things (how to change our mindset).

• Our leading architects and engineers know how to do this now.

• Need explicit goals set early along with priorities (it’s a map to show you how to get

there)

• Educaion focus 1: Efecive collaboraion – integrated design and delivery: A structured

process and checking progress frequently. Educaion focus 2: Quality management throughout construcion.

When Environmental Evaluaion meets Architecture Criique

Dr. Carmela Cucuzzella, Design and Computaion Arts Department, Concordia University, Canada

• Construct a design matrix of architectural expectaions vs environmental strategies. • Help architects see how the environmental goals can by met in synergy with architectural goals.

The Architecture Design Studio and High-Performance Building: Challenges

and Relecions

Michael Jemtrud, School of Architecture, McGill University, Canada

• Overview of Architectural Design course and a Sustainable Design Course ofered last

school year.

• Used the BREEAM scheme to evaluate sustainability in design as well as Passive House

guidelines.

• Students crave real life problems on how to improve sustainability. They know the urgency

of climate change and want to feel more empowered.

• Need project-based interdisciplinary approach to teach the diferent pillars of sustainability.

Preparing Future Engineers to Collaborate in a Mulidisciplinary Environment

Dr. Bruno Lee, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

• Design for architects is a creaive process and for engineers it is a realizaion process • Project based learning to learn equaions through solving a problem

• Project is muli-dimensional and muli-criteria, can build a lot of learning around one

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 15/19

Plenary

- Towards Net-zero Energy Buildings and Communiies:

Challenges and Opportuniies

Dr. Andreas Athieniis, Ph.D., P.Eng., FCAE, Director, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

• Net-zero buildings need to be smart, as they will be interacing with the smart-grid

• Building fabric to have passive design with integraion of acive solar systems. HVAC to be

well sized systems that are opimally controlled. Solar and renewable will be fully integrated within the building. Building operaion will make use of predicive control to opimize comfort and energy consumpion.

• Challenges of integraion and opimizaion of solar with energy eiciency, architecture and

envelope, must not be separate. Integrated control of HVAC and solar systems, looking to reduce peak loads.

Panel 5

: Design of Net-Zero Resilient Communiies

Towards resilient ciies: Canadian iniiaives

Dr. Caroline Hachem-Vermete, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Canada

• Design of neighbourhoods should be considered as holisic ecosystems

• Current community design process in industry not conducive to opimal energy management

and sustainability

• A number of iniiaives are underway to look at opimising solar potenial of communiies

Net-Zero Resilient Communiies: Three Canadian Case-Studies

Dr. Scot Bucking, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Canada

• Opimisaion study of annualized net-present value of buildings found to be at around 50

kWh/m2

• Three case studies presented: West 5 Community in London, Zibi Community in Otawa,

Burlington Innovaion District at McMaster University

• At community scale, it is not clear where to invest limited money, on individual buildings, or

on community energy systems

• Resiliency requires a micro-grid with CHP, also leads to Economic Development as the smart

energy plan enables a new energy economy with micro-uiliies.

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 16/19

A Happy Community’s Search for Resilience

Dr. Miguel Satler, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Dept of Civil Engineering, Brazil

• Post-graduate students being involved in a number of design, construcion and evaluaion

of real building projects with muli-disciplinary teams.

• Municipality of Feliz, moderate climate doesn’t need heaing or cooling. Started in 2003

with request to help with design of a more sustainable school.

• Looking to make Feliz a reference for other municipaliies in Brazil to increase sustainability.

Feliz ranked one of highest in social indicators in Brazil. See how to replicate and further improve through a number of post-graduate projects over many years.

Panel 6: Building Integrated Solar as an Enabling Technology for

Net-Zero Energy and Resilience

Building Integrated Solar Thermal Systems: Technology Appraisal

Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and

Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology

• COST Acion TU1205 (2013-2017) did survey of building integrated solar thermal systems (BISTS) • Many examples of solar thermal collectors used as balustrades in balconies (especially in China) • Transpired solar collector (SOLARWALL) used in many applicaions

• Many commercial technologies exist, and the TU1205 will explore developing diferent

types of BISTS technologies. www.tu1205-bists.eu

Building Integrated PV-thermal collectors and systems

Dr. Christophe Ménézo, Chair INSA-EDF/Fédéraion sur l’Energie Solaire - FédEsol FR 3344/

USMB, France

• PV/T development has been going on for more than 35 years.

• Three air based prototypes developed (pleated double-skin façade, veranda/rootop, façade/

rootop) that could be used in retroit applicaions, and a liquid type PV/T collector developed

• Water type collectors sill have issues with aging, stagnaion, reliability. Air systems are

being used in more cases.

• PV/T makes it easier to develop net-zero and net-posiive energy buildings.

• Assessment of Roof Capacity for Acive Solar Energy Generaion in Housing Developments • Esteban Zalamea, Department of Design and Theory of Architecture, University of Bío Bío, Chile • Large amount of housing being built, wanted to study potenial of solar energy generaion

from roofs. Potenial generaion of 19789 MWh/year for 3132 houses

• Single pane windows and minimal insulaion used in houses in Chile leads to a large heaing

demand. With increased insulaion and PV/T on roof can lead to signiicant over producion that could be used to supply neighbouring houses.

BIPV/T + ASHP: Technologies for Near and Net-Zero Energy Buildings

Dr. Alan Fung, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Canada

• PV costs are approaching grid parity. Building integraion and thermal energy usage will

further decrease energy generaion costs.

• Proper uilisaion of low-grade thermal energy of PV/T systems is a challenge. Coupling with

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 17/19 • Test hut being built to develop a PV/T system with heat pump and venilated gravel/concrete

bed and PBC-water storage tank.

• Need to develop standardized way to integrate PV to houses.

Modelling PCM, BIPV/T and other innovaive technologies for energy

eiciency in buildings: a case study

Dr. Annamaria Buonomano, Department of Industrial Engineering , University of Naples Federico II, Italy

• Building case study in Naples, Italy. Non residenial, includes oice spaces, conference area, etc. • Parametric building simulaion done to minimize energy consumpion evaluaing many

diferent parameters.

• Excess thermal energy generaion to be supplied to a neighbouring building

• Of the number of technologies studied, PCM was not found to have savings that jusiied

the costs.

Plenary - Systems model for small urban zones

Nils Larsson, FRAIC, Execuive Director, iiSBE

• NZEB more readily achievable, but new buildings are small part of building stock, and

meeing net-zero for enire building stock very diicult, if not impossible.

• Prospects at the scale of building clusters ofers the potenial of inter-building synergies. • Synergy zones could beneit from opimisaion of supply and demand of thermal energy,

DHW, grey water, and DC power from building of diferent uses (residenial, oice, retail, schools.)

• Concept needs to be further evaluated, pilot would help work out details.

Panel 7

: Energy Eiciency Technologies and their Integraion with Renewables

Design of resilient and robust high-rise residenial buildings

Dr. Liam (William) O’Brien, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton

University, Canada

• 50% more high-rise units housing starts compared to single detached, but lack of research

into this building type, despite the many unique challenges in this sector.

• Study found that people that pay for their heaing keep their setpoint on average at 20.1ºC

vs 21.9ºC for bulk metered units.

• Thermal bridging is important to consider in modelling high rise buildings

• In terms of resilience occupant interacions can be as important as design elements.

The development of mPCM enhanced ile for high performance buildings

Dr. Umberto Berardi, Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science, Ryerson University, Canada

• With high number of highly-glazed high rise buildings built in last decade, integraing

addiional thermal mass would help address some comfort issue. Passive PCM-material would be good opion to provide high thermal storage potenial in low surface area.

• Many of PCM projects done in Canada have focused on lab project, lack of research in real

project applicaions.

• Adding parain to concrete can increase its heat storage capacity by 2-3 imes without

impacing its structural strength too much.

• Parain embedded concrete iles irst used in Solar Decathlon house now a commercial

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 18/19

High performance building envelopes for Smart net-zero resilient buildings

Dr. Hua Ge, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

• For all new building envelope technologies, it is important to ensure the integrity of the

building envelope. Need durability. HAM analysis is important.

• Hygrothermal analysis done on CLT wood panels, and highly insulated wall assemblies. • A number of uncertainies in material properies, assumpions on air and water leakage, and

modelling need to be examined to ensure that results are realisic.

Wind Energy Potenial of Urban Areas

Dr. Ted (Theodore) Stathopoulos, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

• Wind speed lower and turbulence higher in urban environments, need to maximize power

output at low wind speed.

• Proper selecion of turbine locaion will greatly impact performance, need to model the

wind speeds over diferent areas of the roof.

• Need a method to determine wind speed at urban locaion from exising wind monitoring staions. • Wind tunnel methodology tested against ield monitoring and found to be in good agreement

(within 5%) in homogenous terrain, but only within 30% for non-homogenous terrain.

Performance analysis of GSHP system in CABR nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB)

Dr. Huai Li, Insitute of Building Environment & Energy, China Academy of Building Research

• Two ground-source heat pumps, one for radiant loor (2nd) and radiant ceiling (3rd) and one

for air based system on ground level.

• 79 boreholes with single U, double-U and spiral tubes.

• COP of radiant unit started at 5.4 at beginning of winter and went to 4.8 ater three months,

compared to 4.7 and 3.9 for COP of air based unit

• Over the enire year, soil temperatures were seen to recover in summer ater winter such

that temperatures at the beginning of winter remained similar.

Panel 8

: Opimizing Building Operaion, Storage and Grid Interacion

Heat Pump Water Heaing Control Strategy Opimizaion for Cold Climates

Dr. Cynthia Cruickshank, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton

University, Canada

• Efecive 2015 tanks larger than 55 US Gal will be required to use heat pump water heaters in US • HPWH studied at CCHT found no signiicant change of total house energy use in winter as 1/3

DHW savings was counter balanced by 6% increase in space heaing. Beneits found in summer.

• Used experimental setup to validate TRNSYS model and GenOPT to opimise design/control

of 10 diferent parameters.

• HPWH cost efeciveness varies according to uility rates, and heaing fuel type.

Energy storage will enable net-zero energy buildings to become mainstream

Dr. Lukas Swan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Canada

• Posits that electricity storage required for mainstreaming of NZEB

• As penetraion of PV increases, grid will no longer be able to cope with luctuaions in

generaion

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Net Zero Built Environment Symposium Report 19/19

Modelling and Design of Natural and Hybrid Venilaion Systems for High

Performance Buildings

Dr. Leon (Liangzhu) Wang, CZEBS, Concordia University, Canada

• Need systemaic/integrated approach to consider natural venilaion in design. Tools for

early stage concept and late stage, and for managers vs engineers

• Developed and presented early stage tool with simple inputs and outputs to evaluate the

potenial of natural venilaion.

• Detailed modelled developed to be validated with experimental work at Concordia EV

building atrium

Advanced Control of Heat Pumps and the Impact on Building/Grid Interacions

Jusin Tamasauskas, Natural Resources Canada, CanmetENERGY-Varennes

• Heat pumps provide link between thermal and electrical networks

• Evoluion of buildings requires new approach to control (model predicive control) • Predicive control tested with TRNSYS model coupled to MATLAB model.

• Predicive control allows the space heaing energy consumpion to be spread out over the

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