(in order that it may not become a fortune used by the rich among you.) means, ` We made the expenditures for the Fai' like this, so that the wealth d

全文

(1)

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る∠ホ∠ギ∠タ ゅ∠レ∇ミ∠ゲ∠ゎ ゅ∠ョ ∩⊥ゐ∠ケヲ⊥ル ゅ∠ャ

«

(Our (t he Prophet s` ) propert y will not be inherit ed. What ever we leave, is charit y)' They replied, ` He said so.' ` Umar t hen said, ` Allah best owed on His Messenger a special favor unlike what he gave all ot her people. Allah t he Exalt ed said,

∇ユ⊥わ∇ヘ∠ィ∇ヱ∠ぺ べ∠ヨ∠プ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∇レ͡ョ ͡ヮ͡ャヲ⊥シ∠ケ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠¬べ∠プ∠ぺ べ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

∠ヤ∠ハ

⊥ヮ∠ヤ⊥シ⊥ケ ⊥テあヤ∠ジ⊥Α ∠ヮzヤャや zリ͡ム⇒∠ャ∠ヱ ∃ゆゅ∠ミ͡ケ ∠Ι∠ヱ ∃モ∇Β∠カ ∇リ͡ョ ͡ヮ∇Β

び ∀ゲΑ͡ギ∠ホ ∃¬∇ヴ∠セ あモ⊥ミ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ⊥ヮzヤャや∠ヱ ⊥¬べ∠ゼ∠Α リ∠ョ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ

(And what Allah gave as boot y (Fai') t o His Messenger from t hem -- for t his you made no expedit ion wit h eit her cavalry or camelry. But Allah gives power t o His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able t o do all t hings.) Therefore, t his propert y, t he boot y collect ed from Bani An-Nadir, was especially given t o Allah's Messenger . However, by Allah, neit her did he t ake possession of it and leave you, nor did he favor himself wit h it t o your exclusion. Allah's Messenger t ook t he yearly expenses from it for himself and his family and left t he rest in t he Muslim Treasury.' He t hen asked t he group, ` I ask you by Allah wit h Whose permission t he heavens and eart h exist , do you know t his' They replied, ` Yes.' ` Umar t hen said t o ` Ali and Al-` Abbas, ` I ask you by Allah, wit h Whose permission t hat heavens and eart h exist , do you know t his' They said, ` Yes.' ` Umar added, ` When Allah t ook His Prophet unt o Him, Abu Bakr said: I am t he successor of Allah's Messenger ! Then you bot h came t o Abu Bakr asking for your (Al-` Abbas') share of inherit ance from your nephew, and he (` Ali) asked for his wife's share from her fat her's inherit ance. Abu Bakr said: Allah's Messenger said,

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る∠ホ∠ギ∠タ ゅ∠レ∇ミ∠ゲ∠ゎ ゅ∠ョ ∩⊥ゐ∠ケヲ⊥ル ゅ∠ャ

«

(Our (t he Prophet s') propert y will not be inherit ed. What ever we leave, is charit y.)'' Allah knows t hat Abu Bakr was t rue, pious, right ly guided and a follower of what was right . So, Abu Bakr assumed t he responsibilit y of t hat propert y. When Abu Bakr died, I said: I am t he successor of Allah's Messenger and t he successor of Abu Bakr. So I managed it as long as Allah allowed me t o manage it . Then you bot h (` Ali and Al-` Abbas) came t o t alk t o me, bearing t he same claim and present ing t he same case, asking for t hat propert y. I said t o you: I am ready t o hand over t his propert y t o you if you wish. I will do so on t he condit ion t hat you will t ake a pledge before Allah's t hat you will manage it in t he same way as Allah's Messenger used t o. So, bot h of you agreed and on t hat condit ion I handed it over t o you. Now you come t o me t o render a different j udgement over t he propert y t han t he one I made before. By Allah, I will never give any decision ot her t han what I have already given, unt il t he Last Hour begins. If you are unable t o manage it , t hen ret urn it t o me, and I will do t he j ob on your behalf.,'' They recorded t his from t he Hadit h of Az-Zuhri. Allah said,

∇Β∠よ ⇔る∠ャヱ⊥キ ∠ラヲ⊥ム∠Α ∠Ι ヴ∠ミぴ

び∇ユ⊥ムレ͡ョ ͡¬べ∠Β͡レ∇ビxΙや ∠リ

(2)

(in order t hat it may not become a fort une used by t he rich among you.) means, ` We made t he expendit ures for t he Fai' like t his, so t hat t he wealt h does not remain among t he wealt hy, who would spend it as t hey wish and desire and give none of it t o t he poor.'

Ordering Obedience of the Messenger in All Commands and

Prohibitions

Allah t he Exalt ed said,

⊥ヮ∇レ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ム⇒∠ヰ∠ル ゅ∠ョ∠ヱ ⊥ロヱ⊥グ⊥ガ∠プ ⊥メヲ⊥シzゲャや ⊥ユ⊥ム⇒∠ゎや∠¬ べ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

び∇やヲ⊥ヰ∠わルゅ∠プ

(And what soever t he Messenger gives you, t ake it ; and what soever he forbids you, abst ain (from it ).) meaning, ` what ever t he Messenger commands you, t hen do it and what ever he forbids you, t hen avoid it . Surely, He only commands right eousness and forbids evil.' Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said, "Allah curses women who pract ice t at t ooing and t hose who get t hemselves t at t ooed, and t he women who remove t he hair from t heir eyebrows and faces and t hose who make art ificial spaces bet ween t heir t eet h in order t o look more beaut iful, whereby changing Allah's creat ion.'' His st at ement reached a woman from Bani Asad called, Umm Ya` qub, who came t o ` Abdullah and said, "I have come t o know t hat you have cursed such and such'' He replied, "Why should I not curse t hose whom Allah's Messenger has cursed and who are cursed in Allah's Book!'' Umm Ya` qub said, "I have read t he whole Qur'an, but did not find in it what you say.'' He said, "Verily, if you have read t he Qur'an, you have found it . Didn't you read,

⇒∠ヰ∠ル ゅ∠ョ∠ヱ ⊥ロヱ⊥グ⊥ガ∠プ ⊥メヲ⊥シzゲャや ⊥ユ⊥ム⇒∠ゎや∠¬ べ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

⊥ヮ∇レ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ム

び∇やヲ⊥ヰ∠わルゅ∠プ

(And what soever t he Messenger gives you t ake it and what soever he forbids you, you abst ain (from it ).)'' She replied, "Yes, I did.'' He said, "Verily, Allah's Messenger forbade such t hings. '' "She said, "But I t hink t hat your wife does t hese t hings'' He said, "Go and look at her.'' She went and wat ched her, but could not see anyt hing in support of her claim. She went back t o ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud and said t hat she did not not ice anyt hing on his wife. On t hat he said, "If my wife was as you t hought , I would not keep her wit h me.'' The Two Sahihs recorded t his from t he Hadit h of Sufyan At h-Thawri. As well as a Hadit h of Abu Hurayrah, who said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

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∇バ∠ト∠わ∇シや ゅ∠ョ ⊥ヮ∇レ͡ョ やヲ⊥わ∇もゅ∠プ ∃ゲ∇ョ∠ほ͡よ ∇ユ⊥ム⊥ゎ∇ゲ∠ョ∠ぺ や∠ク͡ま

ゅ∠ョ∠ヱ ∩∇ユ⊥わ

ロヲ⊥ら͡レ∠わ∇ィゅ∠プ ⊥ヮ∇レ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ム⊥わ∇Β∠ヰ∠ル

«

(When I order you t o do somet hing, t hen do as much as you can of it . If I forbid somet hing for you, t hen shun it .) Allah's st at ement ,

(3)

び͡ゆゅ∠ボ͡バ∇ャへ ⊥ギΑ͡ギ∠セ ∠ヮzヤャや zラ͡ま ∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ボzゎや∠ヱぴ

(Have Taqwa of Allah; verily, Allah is Severe in punishment .) means, fear Allah by obeying His orders and refraining from His prohibit ions. Surely, Allah is severe in punishment for t hose who defy Him and rej ect and disobey His commands as well as, t hose who commit what He forbids and prohibit s.

∇ユ͡ワ͡ゲ⇒∠Α͡キ リ͡ョ ∇やヲ⊥ィ͡ゲ∇カ⊥ぺ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ∠リΑ͡ゲ͡イ⇒∠ヰ⊥ヨ∇ャや ͡¬へ∠ゲ∠ボ⊥ヘ∇ヤ͡ャぴ

⇔ゅル∠ヲ∇ッ͡ケ∠ヱ ͡ヮzヤャや ∠リあョ ⇔Κ∇ツ∠プ ∠ラヲ⊥ピ∠わ∇ら∠Α ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ャ∠ヲ∇ョ∠ぺ∠ヱ

∠ラヲ⊥ホ͡ギ⇒zダャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ぺ ⊥ヮ∠ャヲ⊥シ∠ケ∠ヱ ∠ヮzヤャや ∠ラヱ⊥ゲ⊥ダレ∠Α∠ヱ

-∠ヱ ∠ケやzギャや やヱ⊥¬zヲ∠ら∠ゎ ∠リΑ͡グzャや-∠ヱ

∠ラヲぁら͡エ⊥Α ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ヤ∇ら∠ホ リ͡ョ ∠リ⇒∠ヨΑ͡Ηや

⇔る∠ィゅ∠ェ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケヱ⊥ギ⊥タ ヴ͡プ ∠ラヱ⊥ギ͡イ∠Α ∠Ι∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ャ͡ま ∠ゲ∠ィゅ∠ワ ∇リ∠ョ

∇ユ͡ヰ͡よ ∠ラゅ∠ミ ∇ヲ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ジ⊥ヘル∠ぺ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラヱ⊥ゲ͡を∇ぽ⊥Α∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ゎヱ⊥ぺ べzヨあョ

⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ほ∠プ ͡ヮ͡ジ∇ヘ∠ル zウ⊥セ ∠ベヲ⊥Α リ∠ョ∠ヱ ∀る∠タゅ∠ダ∠カ

∠ラヲ⊥エ͡ヤ∇ヘ⊥ヨ∇ャや

-∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱ

∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ∠Α ∇ユ͡ワ͡ギ∇バ∠よ リ͡ョ やヱ⊥¬べ∠ィ

͡リ⇒∠ヨΑ∠Ηゅ͡よ ゅ∠ルヲ⊥ボ∠ら∠シ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠レ͡ル∠ヲ∇カ͡Η∠ヱ ゅ∠レ∠ャ ∇ゲ͡ヘ∇ビや ゅ∠レzよ∠ケ

∠マzル͡ま べ∠レzよ∠ケ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzヤあャ 6Κ͡ビ ゅ∠レ͡よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ ヴ͡プ ∇モ∠バ∇イ∠ゎ ∠Ι∠ヱ

び ∀ユΒ͡ェzケ ∀フヱ⊥¬∠ケ

(8. (And t here is also a share in t his boot y) for t he poor emigrant s, who were expelled from t heir homes and t heir propert y, seeking bount ies from Allah and (His) good pleasure, and helping Allah and His Messenger. Such are indeed t he t rut hful.) (9. And (it is also for) t hose who, before t hem, had homes and had adopt ed t he fait h, love t hose who emigrat e t o t hem, and have no j ealousy in t heir breast s for t hat which t hey have been given, and give t hem preference over t hemselves even t hough t hey were in need of t hat . And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are t hey who will be t he successful.) e(10. And t hose who came aft er t hem say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our bret hren who have preceded us in fait h, and put not in our heart s any hat red against t hose who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.)

(4)

Those Who deserve the Fai'; and the Virtues of the Muhajirin and

Al-Ansar

Allah st at es t he cat egories of needy people who also deserve a part of t he Fai',

∠ラヲ⊥ピ∠わ∇ら∠Α ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ャ∠ヲ∇ョ∠ぺ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ゲ⇒∠Α͡キ リ͡ョ ∇やヲ⊥ィ͡ゲ∇カ⊥ぺ ∠リΑ͡グzャやぴ

⇔Κ∇ツ∠プ

び⇔ゅル∠ヲ∇ッ͡ケ∠ヱ ͡ヮzヤャや ∠リあョ

(who were expelled from t heir homes and t heir propert y, seeking bount ies from Allah and (His) good pleasure,) meaning, depart ed t heir homes and defied t heir people, seeking t he accept ance of Allah and His favor,

∠ラヱ⊥ゲ⊥ダレ∠Α∠ヱぴ

び∠ラヲ⊥ホ͡ギ⇒zダャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ぺ ⊥ヮ∠ャヲ⊥シ∠ケ∠ヱ ∠ヮzヤャや

(and helping Allah and His Messenger. Such are indeed t he t rut hful.) meaning, ` t hey are t hose who were t rut hful in st at ement and deed, and t hey are t he chiefs of t he Muhaj irin.' Allah t he Exalt ed praised t he Ansar next and emphasized t heir virt ue, st at us and honor, preferring t o give t o ot hers over t hemselves, even t hough t hey were in need, and not feeling enviousness. Allah t he Exalt ed said,

び∇ユ͡ヰ͡ヤ∇ら∠ホ リ͡ョ ∠リ⇒∠ヨΑ͡Ηや∠ヱ ∠ケやzギャや やヱ⊥¬zヲ∠ら∠ゎ ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱぴ

(And (it is also for) t hose who, before t hem, had homes and had adopt ed t he fait h,) referring t o t hose who resided in t he cit y t o which t he migrat ion occurred, before t he emigrant s arrived at it , and who embraced t he fait h before many of t he emigrant s. ` Umar said, "I recommend t he Khalifah, who will come aft er me, t o know t he right s and virt ues of t he foremost Muhaj irin and t o preserve t heir honor. I also recommend him t o be kind t o t he Ansar, t hose who resided in t he cit y of Hij rah and embraced t he fait h beforehand, t hat he accept s t he good t hat comes from t hose who do good among t hem and forgives t hose among t hem who commit errors.'' Al-Bukhari collect ed t his Hadit h. Allah said,

び∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ャ͡ま ∠ゲ∠ィゅ∠ワ ∇リ∠ョ ∠ラヲぁら͡エ⊥Αぴ

(love t hose who emigrat e t o t hem,) indicat es t hat t hey, on account of t heir generosit y and honorable conduct , loved t hose who emigrat ed t o t hem and comf ort ed t hem wit h t heir wealt h. Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Anas said, "The Muhaj irin said, ` O Allah's Messenger! We have never met people like t hose whom we emigrat ed t o; comfort ing us in t imes of scarcit y and giving us wit h a good heart in t imes of abundance. They have sufficed for us and shared t heir wealt h wit h us so much so, t hat we feared t hat t hey might earn t he whole reward inst ead of us.' He said,

»

ユ⊥ヰ∠ャ ∠ぶや ⊥ユ⊥ゎ∇ヲ∠ハ∠キ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ヤ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥わ∇Β∠レ∇を∠ぺ ゅ∠ョ ∩ゅ∠ャ

«

(5)

(No t hey won't , as long you t hanked t hem for what t hey did and invoked Allah for t hem.)'' I have not seen t his version in t he ot her books. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Yahya bin Sa` id heard Anas bin Malik, when he went wit h him t o Al-Walid, saying, "The Prophet called Ansar t o divide Al-Bahrayn among t hem. The Ansar said, ` Not unt il you give a similar port ion t o our emigrant brot hers.' He said,

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͡み∠プ ∩ヶ͡ル∇ヲ∠ボ∇ヤ∠ゎ ヴ∇わ∠ェ やヱ⊥ゲ͡ら∇タゅ∠プ ∩ゅ∠ャ ゅzョ͡ま

∇ユ⊥ム⊥らΒ͡ダ⊥Β∠シ ⊥ヮzル

り∠ゲ∠を∠ぺ ヵ͡ギ∇バ∠よ

«

(Perhaps, no; but you will soon see people giving preference t o ot hers, so remain pat ient unt il you meet me (on t he Day of Resurrect ion).)'' Al-Bukhari was alone wit h t his version. He also recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "The Ansar said (t o t he Prophet ), ` Dist ribut e our dat e-palms bet ween us and our emigrant brot hers.' He replied, ` No.' The Ansar said (t o t he emigrant s), ` Look t end t o t he t rees and share t he fruit s wit h us.' The emigrant s said, ` We hear and obey.''' Al-Bukhari, but not Muslim, recorded it .

The Ansar never envied the Muhajirin

Allah said,

び∇やヲ⊥ゎヱ⊥ぺ べzヨあョ ⇔る∠ィゅ∠ェ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケヱ⊥ギ⊥タ ヴ͡プ ∠ラヱ⊥ギ͡イ∠Α ∠Ι∠ヱぴ

(and have no j ealousy in t heir breast s for t hat which t hey have been given,) meaning, t he Ansar did not have any envy for t he Muhaj irin because of t he bet t er st at us, rank, or more exalt ed grade t hat Allah gave t he Muhaj irin above t hem. Allah's st at ement ,

び∇やヲ⊥ゎヱ⊥ぺ べzヨあョぴ

(t hat which t hey have been given,) refers t o what t he Muhaj irin were favored wit h, according t o Qat adah and Ibn Zayd.

Selflessness of the Ansar

Allah said,

び∀る∠タゅ∠ダ∠カ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡よ ∠ラゅ∠ミ ∇ヲ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ジ⊥ヘル∠ぺ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラヱ⊥ゲ͡を∇ぽ⊥Α∠ヱぴ

(and give t hem preference over t hemselves even t hough t hey were in need of t hat .) meaning, t hey preferred giving t o t he needy rat her t han at t ending t o t heir own needs, and began by giving t he people before t heir own selves, even t hough t hey t oo were in need. An aut hent ic Hadit h st at ed t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

(6)

»

モ͡ボ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥ギ∇ヰ⊥ィ ͡る∠ホ∠ギzダャや ⊥モ∠ツ∇プ∠ぺ

«

(The best charit y is t hat given when one is in need and st ruggling.) This exalt ed rank is bet t er t han t he rank of t hose whom Allah described in His st at ement s,

び͡ヮあら⊥ェ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ュゅ∠バzトャや ∠ラヲ⊥ヨ͡バ∇ト⊥Α∠ヱぴ

(And t hey give food, inspit e of t heir love for it .)(76:8), and,

び͡ヮあら⊥ェ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠メゅ∠ヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ゎや∠¬∠ヱぴ

(And gives his wealt h, in spit e of love for it .)(2:177) The lat t er give charit y even t hough t hey love t he wealt h t hey give, not t hat t hey really need it , nor t hat it is necessary for t hem t o keep it . The former prefer ot hers t o t hemselves even t hough t hey are in need and have a necessit y for what t hey spend in charit y. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq gave away all his wealt h in charit y and Allah's Messenger asked him,

»

∨∠マ͡ヤ∇ワ∠ほ͡ャ ∠ろ∇Β∠ボ∇よ∠ぺ ゅ∠ョ

«

(What did you keep for your family,) and he said, "I kept for t hem Allah and His Messenger.'' ` Ikrimah (bin Abi Jahl) and t wo ot her wounded fight ers were offered wat er when t hey were inj ured during t he bat t le of Al-Yarmuk, and each one of t hem said t hat t he sip of wat er should be given t o anot her of t he t hree wounded men. They did so even t hough t hey were badly inj ured and craving wat er. When t he wat er reached t he t hird man, he and t he ot her t wo died and none of t hem drank any of t he wat er! May Allah be pleased wit h t hem and make t hem pleased wit h Him. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "A man came t o t he Prophet and said, ` O Allah's Messenger! Povert y has st uck me.' The Prophet sent a messenger t o his wives (t o bring somet hing for t hat man t o eat ) but t hey said t hat t hey had not hing. Then Allah's Messenger said,

»

ぶや ⊥ヮ∠ヨ͡ェ∠ケ ∩∠る∠ヤ∇Βzヤャや ∩や∠グ∠ワ ⊥ブあΒ∠ツ⊥Α ∀モ⊥ィ∠ケ ゅ∠ャ∠ぺ

«

(Who will invit e t his person or ent ert ain him as a guest t onight ; may Allah grant His mercy t o him who does so) An Ansari man said, ` I, O Allah's Messenger!' So he t ook him t o his wife and said t o her, ` Ent ert ain t he guest of Allah's Messenger generously.' She said, ` By Allah ! We have not hing except t he meal for my children.' He said, ` Let your children sleep if t hey ask for supper. Then t urn off t he lamp and we go t o bed t onight while hungry.' She did what he asked her t o do. In t he morning t he Ansari went t o Allah's Messenger who said,

»

∃ラゅ∠ヤ⊥プ ∇リ͡ョ ∠マ͡エ∠ッ ∇ヱ∠ぺ zモ∠ィ∠ヱ zゴ∠ハ ⊥ぶや ∠ょ͡イ∠ハ ∇ギ∠ボ∠ャ

る∠ルゅ∠ヤ⊥プ∠ヱ

«

(7)

(Allah wondered (favorably) or laughed at t he act ion of so-and-so and his wife.) Then Allah revealed,

び∀る∠タゅ∠ダ∠カ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡よ ∠ラゅ∠ミ ∇ヲ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ジ⊥ヘル∠ぺ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラヱ⊥ゲ͡を∇ぽ⊥Α∠ヱぴ

(and t hey give t hem preference over t hemselves even t hough t hey were in need of t hat ). '' Al-Bukhari recorded t his Hadit h in anot her part of his Sahih. Muslim, At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i collect ed t his Hadit h. In anot her narrat ion for t his Hadit h, t he Companion's name was ment ioined, it was Abu Talhah Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased wit h him. Allah said,

⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ほ∠プ ͡ヮ͡ジ∇ヘ∠ル zウ⊥セ ∠ベヲ⊥Α リ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

び∠ラヲ⊥エ͡ヤ∇ヘ⊥ヨ∇ャや

(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are t hey who will be t he successful.) indicat ing t hat t hose who are saved from being st ingy, t hen t hey have earned success and a good achievement . Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

»

∩͡る∠ョゅ∠Β͡ボ∇ャや ∠ュ∇ヲ∠Α ∀れゅ∠ヨ⊥ヤ⊥ニ ∠ユ∇ヤぁヌャや zラ͡み∠プ ∩∠ユ∇ヤぁヌャや∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ミゅzΑ͡ま

∩∇ユ⊥ム∠ヤ∇ら∠ホ ∠ラゅ∠ミ ∇リ∠ョ ∠マ∠ヤ∇ワ∠ぺ zウぁゼャや zラ͡み∠プ ∩zウぁゼャや やヲ⊥ボzゎや∠ヱ

やヲぁヤ∠エ∠わ∇シや∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ワ∠¬ゅ∠ョ͡キ やヲ⊥ム∠ヘ∠シ ∇ラ∠ぺ ヴヤ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ヤ∠ヨ∠ェ

ユ⊥ヰ∠ョ͡ケゅ∠エ∠ョ

«

(Be on your guard against commit t ing oppression, for oppression is a darkness on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Be on your guard against being st ingy, for being st ingy is what dest royed t hose who were before you. It made t hem shed blood and make lawful what was unlawful for t hem.) Muslim collect ed t his Hadit h. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat Al-Aswad bin Hilal said t hat a man said t o ` Abdullah (bin Mas` ud),"O Abu ` Abdur-Rahman! I fear t hat I have earned dest ruct ion for myself.'' ` Abdullah asked him what t he mat t er was and he said, "I hear Allah's saying,

び∠ラヲ⊥エ͡ヤ∇ヘ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ほ∠プ ͡ヮ͡ジ∇ヘ∠ル zウ⊥セ ∠ベヲ⊥Α リ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are t hey who will be t he successful.) and I am somewhat a miser who barely gives away anyt hing.'' ` Abdullah said, "That is not t he greed Allah ment ioned in t he Qur'an, which pert ains t o illegally consuming your brot her's wealt h. What you have is miserliness, and it is an evil t hing indeed t o be a miser.'' Allah said,

∠Α ∇ユ͡ワ͡ギ∇バ∠よ リ͡ョ やヱ⊥¬べ∠ィ ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱぴ

ゅ∠レ∠ャ ∇ゲ͡ヘ∇ビや ゅ∠レzよ∠ケ ∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ

(8)

∀ユΒ͡ェzケ ∀フヱ⊥¬∠ケ ∠マzル͡ま べ∠レzよ∠ケ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzヤあャ 6Κ͡ビ ゅ∠レ͡よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ

(And t hose who came aft er t hem say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our bret hren who have preceded us in fait h, and put not in our heart s any hat red against t hose who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Mercif ul.) This is t he t hird t ype of believers whose poor most deserve t o receive a part of t he Fai'. These t hree t ypes are t he Muhaj irin, t he Ansar and t hose who followed t heir right eous lead wit h excellence. Allah said in anot her Ayah,

͡ゲ⇒∠ダ∇ル∠Εや∠ヱ ∠リΑ͡ゲ͡イ⇒∠ヰ⊥ヨ∇ャや ∠リ͡ョ ∠ラヲ⊥ャzヱxΙや ∠ラヲ⊥ボ͡ら⇒zジャや∠ヱぴ

∇ユ⊥ヰ∇レ∠ハ ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヴ͡ッzケ ∃ラゅ∠ジ∇ェ͡み͡よ ユ⊥ワヲ⊥バ∠らzゎや ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱ

び⊥ヮ∇レ∠ハ ∇やヲ⊥ッ∠ケ∠ヱ

(And of t he foremost t o embrace Islam of t he Muhaj irin and t he Ansar and also t hose who followed t hem exact ly, Allah is well-pleased wit h t hem as t hey are well-pleased wit h Him.)(9:100) The t hird t ype are t hose who followed t he Muhaj irin and Ansar in t heir good works, beaut iful at t ribut es and who invoke Allah for t hem in public and secret . This is why Allah t he Exalt ed said in t his honorable Ayah,

び∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ∠Α ∇ユ͡ワ͡ギ∇バ∠よ リ͡ョ やヱ⊥¬べ∠ィ ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱぴ

(And t hose who came aft er t hem say), meaning, t he st at ement t hat t hey ut t er is,

͡リ⇒∠ヨΑ∠Ηゅ͡よ ゅ∠ルヲ⊥ボ∠ら∠シ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠レ͡ル∠ヲ∇カ͡Η∠ヱ ゅ∠レ∠ャ ∇ゲ͡ヘ∇ビや ゅ∠レzよ∠ケぴ

び6Κ͡ビ ゅ∠レ͡よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ ヴ͡プ ∇モ∠バ∇イ∠ゎ ∠Ι∠ヱ

(Our Lord! Forgive us and our bret hren who have preceded us in fait h, and put not in our heart s any hat red), meaning, rage or envy,

び∀ユΒ͡ェzケ ∀フヱ⊥¬∠ケ ∠マzル͡ま べ∠レzよ∠ケ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzヤあャぴ

(against t hose who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.) Indeed, it is a beaut iful way t hat Imam Malik used t his honorable Ayah t o declare t hat t he Rafidah who curse t he Companions do not have a share in t he Fai' money, because t hey do not have t he good qualit y of t hose whom Allah has described here t hat t hey say,

(9)

∠ヨΑ∠Ηゅ͡よ ゅ∠ルヲ⊥ボ∠ら∠シ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠レ͡ル∠ヲ∇カ͡Η∠ヱ ゅ∠レ∠ャ ∇ゲ͡ヘ∇ビや ゅ∠レzよ∠ケぴ

͡リ⇒

∠マzル͡ま べ∠レzよ∠ケ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzヤあャ 6Κ͡ビ ゅ∠レ͡よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ ヴ͡プ ∇モ∠バ∇イ∠ゎ ∠Ι∠ヱ

び∀ユΒ͡ェzケ ∀フヱ⊥¬∠ケ

(Our Lord! Forgive us and our bret hren who have preceded us in fait h, and put not in our heart s any hat red against t hose who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.) Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat ` A'ishah said, "They were commanded t o invoke Allah t o forgive t hem, but inst ead, t hey cursed t hem!'' She t hen recit ed t his Ayah,

∠レzよ∠ケ ∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ∠Α ∇ユ͡ワ͡ギ∇バ∠よ リ͡ョ やヱ⊥¬べ∠ィ ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱぴ

ゅ∠レ∠ャ ∇ゲ͡ヘ∇ビや ゅ

び͡リ⇒∠ヨΑ∠Ηゅ͡よ ゅ∠ルヲ⊥ボ∠ら∠シ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠レ͡ル∠ヲ∇カ͡Η∠ヱ

(And t hose who came aft er t hem say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our bret hren who have preceded us in fait h, and put not in our heart s any hat red against t hose who have believed.'')

∠ゎ ∇ユ∠ャ∠ぺぴ

∠リΑ͡グzャや ⊥ユ͡ヰ͡ルや∠ヲ∇カ͡Η ∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ∠Α ∇やヲ⊥ボ∠ヘ⇒∠ル ∠リΑ͡グzャや ヴ∠ャ͡ま ∠ゲ

zリ∠ィ⊥ゲ∇ガ∠レ∠ャ ∇ユ⊥わ∇ィ͡ゲ∇カ⊥ぺ ∇リ͡ゃ∠ャ ͡ょ⇒∠わ͡ム∇ャや ͡モ∇ワ∠ぺ ∇リ͡ョ ∇やヱ⊥ゲ∠ヘ∠ミ

∇ユ⊥わ∇ヤ͡ゎヲ⊥ホ ラ͡ま∠ヱ ⇔やギ∠よ∠ぺ ⇔やギ∠ェ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ムΒプ ⊥ノΒ͡ト⊥ル ∠Ι∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ム∠バ∠ョ

∠ラヲ⊥よ͡グ⇒∠ム∠ャ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル͡ま ⊥ギ∠ヰ∇ゼ∠Α ⊥ヮzヤャや∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ムzル∠ゲ⊥ダレ∠レ∠ャ

-∇リ͡ゃ∠ャ

∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥ヤ͡ゎヲ⊥ホ リ͡ゃ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠バ∠ョ ∠ラヲ⊥ィ⊥ゲ∇ガ∠Α ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥ィ͡ゲ∇カ⊥ぺ

∠Ι zユ⊥を ∠ゲ⇒∠よ∇キxΙや zリぁャ∠ヲ⊥Β∠ャ ∇ユ⊥ワヱ⊥ゲ∠ダzル リ͡ゃ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ルヱ⊥ゲ⊥ダレ∠Α

∠ラヱ⊥ゲ∠ダレ⊥Α

-∠リあョ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケヱ⊥ギ⊥タ ヴ͡プ ⇔る∠ら∇ワ∠ケ ぁギ∠セ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥わル∂Ι

∠ラヲ⊥ヰ∠ボ∇ヘ∠Α zΙ ∀ュ∇ヲ∠ホ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル∠ほ͡よ ∠マ͡ャ∠ク ͡ヮzヤャや

-∇ユ⊥ム∠ルヲ⊥ヤ͡わ⇒∠ボ⊥Α ∠Ι

∃ケ⊥ギ⊥ィ ͡¬へ∠ケ∠ヱ リ͡ョ ∇ヱ∠ぺ ∃る∠レzダ∠エぁョ ン⇔ゲ⊥ホ ヴ͡プ zΙ͡ま ⇔ゅバΒ͡ヨ∠ィ

ヴzわ∠セ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ∠ヱ ⇔ゅバΒ͡ヨ∠ィ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥ら∠ジ∇エ∠ゎ ∀ギΑ͡ギ∠セ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠レ∇Β∠よ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥シ∇ほ∠よ

(10)

∠ラヲ⊥ヤ͡ボ∇バ∠Α zΙ ∀ュ∇ヲ∠ホ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル∠ほ͡よ ∠マ͡ャ∠ク

-∇ユ͡ヰ͡ヤ∇ら∠ホ リ͡ョ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ͡モ∠ん∠ヨ∠ミ

∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ホや∠ク ⇔ゅらΑ͡ゲ∠ホ

∀ユΒ͡ャ∠ぺ ∀ゆや∠グ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ャ∠ヱ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ゲ∇ョ∠ぺ ∠メゅ∠よ

-͡モ∠ん∠ヨ∠ミ

ヴあル͡ま ∠メゅ∠ホ ∠ゲ∠ヘ∠ミ ゅzヨ∠ヤ∠プ ∇ゲ⊥ヘ∇ミや ͡リ⇒∠ジル͡Θ͡ャ ∠メゅ∠ホ ∇ク͡ま ͡リ⇒∠ト∇Βzゼャや

∠リΒ͡ヨ∠ヤ⇒∠バ∇ャや zゆ∠ケ ∠ヮzヤャや ⊥フゅ∠カ∠ぺ ヴあル͡ま ∠マレあョ ∀¬ン͡ゲ∠よ

-∠ラゅ∠ム∠プ

͡ャ∠ク∠ヱ ゅ∠ヰΒ͡プ ∠リΑ͡ギ͡ヤ⇒∠カ ͡ケゅzレャや ヴ͡プ ゅ∠ヨ⊥ヰzル∠ぺ べ∠ヨ⊥ヰ∠わ∠ら͡ボ⇒∠ハ

⊥¬へ∠ゴ∠ィ ∠マ

び ∠リΒ͡ヨ͡ヤ⇒zヌャや

(11. Have you not observed t he hypocrit es who say t o t heir disbelieving bret hren among t he People of t he Script ure, "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out wit h you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are at t acked, we shall indeed help you.'' But Allah is Wit ness t hat t hey verily are liars.) (12. Surely, if t hey (t he Jews) are expelled, never will t hey (hypocrit es) go out wit h t hem; and if t hey are at t acked, t hey will never help t hem. And (even) if t hey do help t hem, t hey (hypocrit es) will t urn t heir backs, and t hey will not be vict orious.) (13. Verily, you are more fearful in t heir breast s t han Allah. That is because t hey are a people who comprehend not .) (14. They fight not against you even t oget her, except in fort ified t ownships, or from behind walls. Their enmit y among t hemselves is very great . You would t hink t hey were unit ed, but t heir heart s are divided. That is because t hey are a people who underst and not .) (15. They are like t heir immediat e predecessors; t hey t ast ed t he evil result of t heir conduct , and for t hem a painful t orment .) e(16. Like Shayt an, when he says t o man: "Disbelieve.'' But when he disbelieves, Shayt an says: "I am free of you, I fear Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s!'') (17. So, t he end of bot h will be t hat t hey will be in t he Fire, abiding t herein. Such is t he recompense of t he wrongdoers.)

The False Promise of Support the Hypocrites gave to the Jews

Allah st at es t hat t he hypocrit es, ` Abdullah bin Ubayy and his like, sent a messenger t o Bani An-Nadir promising t hem help. Allah t he Exalt ed said,

∠リΑ͡グzャや ⊥ユ͡ヰ͡ルや∠ヲ∇カ͡Η ∠ラヲ⊥ャヲ⊥ボ∠Α ∇やヲ⊥ボ∠ヘ⇒∠ル ∠リΑ͡グzャや ヴ∠ャ͡ま ∠ゲ∠ゎ ∇ユ∠ャ∠ぺぴ

zリ∠ィ⊥ゲ∇ガ∠レ∠ャ ∇ユ⊥わ∇ィ͡ゲ∇カ⊥ぺ ∇リ͡ゃ∠ャ ͡ょ⇒∠わ͡ム∇ャや ͡モ∇ワ∠ぺ ∇リ͡ョ ∇やヱ⊥ゲ∠ヘ∠ミ

⇔やギ∠よ∠ぺ ⇔やギ∠ェ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ムΒプ ⊥ノΒ͡ト⊥ル ∠Ι∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ム∠バ∠ョ

∇ユ⊥わ∇ヤ͡ゎヲ⊥ホ ラ͡ま∠ヱ

(11)

(Have you not observed t he hypocrit es who say t o t heir friends among t he People of t he Script ure who disbelieve: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out wit h you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are at t acked, we shall indeed help you.'') Allah t hen said,

び∠ラヲ⊥よ͡グ⇒∠ム∠ャ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル͡ま ⊥ギ∠ヰ∇ゼ∠Α ⊥ヮzヤャや∠ヱぴ

(But Allah is Wit ness t hat t hey verily are liars.) meaning, t he hypocrit es lied when t hey issued t his promise, because it was j ust words t hat t hey did not int end t o fulfill. Also, what t hey said t hey would do, would never have been fulfilled by t hem, and t his is why Allah said,

び∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ルヱ⊥ゲ⊥ダレ∠Α ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥ヤ͡ゎヲ⊥ホ リ͡ゃ∠ャ∠ヱぴ

(and if t hey are at t acked, t hey will never help t hem.) meaning, t he hypocrit es will not fight along wit h t he Jews,

び∇ユ⊥ワヱ⊥ゲ∠ダzル リ͡ゃ∠ャ∠ヱぴ

(And (even) if t hey do help t hem, ) and even if t he hypocrit es did fight along t heir side,

び∠ラヱ⊥ゲ∠ダレ⊥Α ∠Ι zユ⊥を ∠ゲ⇒∠よ∇キxΙや zリぁャ∠ヲ⊥Β∠ャぴ

(t hey will t urn t heir backs, and t hey will not be vict orious.) This Ayah cont ains good news, j ust as t he good news t hat t his following Ayah conveys,

び͡ヮzヤャや ∠リあョ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケヱ⊥ギ⊥タ ヴ͡プ ⇔る∠ら∇ワ∠ケ ぁギ∠セ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥わル∂Ιぴ

(Verily, you are more fearful in t heir breast s t han Allah.) meaning, t he hypocrit es fear you more t han t hey fear Allah, as He says;

∇ヱ∠ぺ ͡ヮzヤャや ͡る∠Β∇ゼ∠ガ∠ミ ∠サゅzレャや ∠ラ∇ヲ∠ゼ∇ガ∠Α ∇ユ⊥ヰ∇レあョ ∀ペΑ͡ゲ∠プ や∠ク͡まぴ

び⇔る∠Β∇ゼ∠カ zギ∠セ∠ぺ

(Behold! a sect ion of t hem fear men as t hey fear Allah or even more.)(4:77) This is why Allah said,

∇ヘ∠Α zΙ ∀ュ∇ヲ∠ホ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル∠ほ͡よ ∠マ͡ャ∠クぴ

び∠ラヲ⊥ヰ∠ボ

(12)

リ͡ョ ∇ヱ∠ぺ ∃る∠レzダ∠エぁョ ン⇔ゲ⊥ホ ヴ͡プ zΙ͡ま ⇔ゅバΒ͡ヨ∠ィ ∇ユ⊥ム∠ルヲ⊥ヤ͡わ⇒∠ボ⊥Α ∠Ιぴ

び∃ケ⊥ギ⊥ィ ͡¬へ∠ケ∠ヱ

(They fight not against you even t oget her, except in fort ified t ownships, or from behind walls.) meaning, t hey will not fight Muslims except from behind besieged fort ified fort s, because of t heir cowardice and fear of Muslims. They only fight when t hey have t o defend t hemselves (even t hough t hey t hreat en Muslims of reprisals). Allah t he Exalt ed said,

び∀ギΑ͡ギ∠セ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠レ∇Β∠よ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥シ∇ほ∠よぴ

(Their enmit y among t hemselves is very great .) meaning, t he enmit y t hey feel against each ot her is int ense,

び∃ヂ∇バ∠よ ∠サ∇ほ∠よ ∇ユ⊥ム∠ツ∇バ∠よ ∠ペΑ͡グ⊥Α∠ヱぴ

(And make you t o t ast e t he violence of one anot her.)(6:65) Allah said in t he Ayah,

びヴzわ∠セ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥よヲ⊥ヤ⊥ホ∠ヱ ⇔ゅバΒ͡ヨ∠ィ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥ら∠ジ∇エ∠ゎぴ

(You would t hink t hey were unit ed, but t heir heart s are divided.) meaning, even t hough one might see t hem combining forces and t hink t hat t hese forces are harmonious, yet in realit y, t hey are divided severely. Ibrahim An-Nakha` i said t hat t his Ayah refers t o t he hypocrit es and t he People of t he Script ures,

び∠ラヲ⊥ヤ͡ボ∇バ∠Α zΙ ∀ュ∇ヲ∠ホ ∇ユ⊥ヰzル∠ほ͡よ ∠マ͡ャクぴ

(That is because t hey are a people who underst and not .) Allah said,

͡ョ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ͡モ∠ん∠ヨ∠ミぴ

∇ユ͡ワ͡ゲ∇ョ∠ぺ ∠メゅ∠よ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ホや∠ク ⇔ゅらΑ͡ゲ∠ホ ∇ユ͡ヰ͡ヤ∇ら∠ホ リ

び ∀ユΒ͡ャ∠ぺ ∀ゆや∠グ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ャ∠ヱ

(They are like t heir immediat e predecessors; t hey t ast ed t he evil result of t heir conduct , and for t hem a painful t orment .) referring t o t he Jewish t ribe of Bani Qaynuqa` , according t o Ibn ` Abbas, Qat adah and Muhammad bin Ishaq.

The Parable of the Hypocrites and the Jews

(13)

∠ゲ∠ヘ∠ミ ゅzヨ∠ヤ∠プ ∇ゲ⊥ヘ∇ミや ͡リ⇒∠ジル͡Θ͡ャ ∠メゅ∠ホ ∇ク͡ま ͡リ⇒∠ト∇Βzゼャや ͡モ∠ん∠ヨ∠ミぴ

び∠マレあョ ∀¬ン͡ゲ∠よ ヴあル͡ま ∠メゅ∠ホ

(Like Shayt an, when he says t o man: "Disbelieve. '' But when (man) disbelieves, Shayt an says: "I am free of you...'') meaning, t he example of t he Jews being deceived by t he promises of t he hypocrit es, who said t hat t hey will help t hem if Muslims fight t hem, is t hat of t he devil. When mat t ers got serious and t he Jews were besieged, t he hypocrit es bet rayed t hem and abandoned t hem t o t ast e ut t er defeat . Likewise, t he devil lures mankind int o disbelief and when t hey obey him, he disowns t hem and declares himself free of t heir act ions, saying,

ゅ∠カ∠ぺ ヴあル͡まぴ

び∠リΒ͡ヨ∠ヤ⇒∠バ∇ャや zゆ∠ケ ∠ヮzヤャや ⊥フ

(I fear Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s!) Allah said,

びゅ∠ヰΒ͡プ ∠リΑ͡ギ͡ヤ⇒∠カ ͡ケゅzレャや ヴ͡プ ゅ∠ヨ⊥ヰzル∠ぺ べ∠ヨ⊥ヰ∠わ∠ら͡ボ⇒∠ハ ∠ラゅ∠ム∠プぴ

(So, t he end of bot h will be t hat t hey will be in t he Fire, abiding t herein.) meaning, t he end of bot h he, Shayt an, who commanded t hat dis- belief be commit t ed, and t hose who accep- t ed his call, was in t he fire of Hell forever,

び∠リΒ͡ヨ͡ヤ⇒zヌャや ⊥¬へ∠ゴ∠ィ ∠マ͡ャ∠ク∠ヱぴ

(Such is t he recompense of t he wrongdoers. ) means, t his is t he recompense of every unj ust person.

ゅzョ ∀ザ∇ヘ∠ル ∇ゲ⊥ヌレ∠わ∇ャ∠ヱ ∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ボzゎや ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

∠ラヲ⊥ヤ∠ヨ∇バ∠ゎ ゅ∠ヨ͡よ ∀ゲΒ͡ら∠カ ∠ヮzヤャや zラ͡ま ∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ボzゎや∠ヱ ∃ギ∠ピ͡ャ ∇ろ∠ョzギ∠ホ

-∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ジ⊥ヘル∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⇒∠ジル∠ほ∠プ ∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ジ∠ル ∠リΑ͡グzャゅ∠ミ ∇やヲ⊥ルヲ⊥ム∠ゎ ∠Ι∠ヱ

⇒∠ヘ∇ャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャヱ⊥ぺ

∠ラヲ⊥ボ͡ジ

-͡ケゅzレャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺ ン͡ヲ∠わ∇ジ∠Α ∠Ι

び ∠ラヱ⊥ゴ͡もべ∠ヘ∇ャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ͡るzレ∠イ∇ャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺ ͡るzレ∠イ∇ャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺ∠ヱ

(18. O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and let every person look t o what he has sent fort h for t omorrow, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) (19. And be not like t hose who forgot Allah, and He caused t hem t o forget t hemselves. Those are t he rebellious.) (20. Not equal are t he dwellers of t he Fire and t he dwellers of t he Paradise. It is t he dwellers of Paradise t hat will be successful.)

(14)

The Command to have Taqwa and to prepare for the Day of

Resurrection

Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Al-Mundhir bin Jarir narrat ed t hat his fat her said, "While we were in t he company of t he Messenger of Allah in t he early hours of t he morning, some people came t here who were barefoot ed, naked, wearing st riped woolen clot hes, or cloaks, wit h t heir swords hung (around t heir necks). Most of t hem, nay, all of t hem, belonged t o t he t ribe of Mudar. The color of t he face of t he Messenger of Allah underwent a change when he saw t hem in povert y. He t hen ent ered (his house) and came out and commanded Bilal t o pronounce Adhan. Bilal pronounced Adhan and Iqamah, and t he Prophet led t he prayer. He t hen addressed t hem, first recit ing,

zゎや ⊥サゅzレャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほ⇒∠Αぴ

∃ザ∇ヘzル リあョ ∇ユ⊥ム∠ボ∠ヤ∠カ ン͡グzャや ⊥ユ⊥ムzよ∠ケ ∇やヲ⊥ボ

び∃り∠ギ͡ェ∠ヱ

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who creat ed you from a single person... ) (4:1), unt il t he end of t he Ayah. Then he recit ed t he Ayah t hat is in Surat Al-Hashr:

∠ョzギ∠ホ ゅzョ ∀ザ∇ヘ∠ル ∇ゲ⊥ヌレ∠わ∇ャ∠ヱぴ

び∃ギ∠ピ͡ャ ∇ろ

(and let every person look t o what he has sent fort h for t omorrow,'') He t hen said, "A man donat ed his Dinar, his Dirham, from his clot hes, from his Sa` of wheat , from his Sa` of dat es'' -- unt il he said -- "even if it was half a dat e.'' Then a person among t he Ansar came t here wit h a moneybag, which his hands could scarcely lift ; in fact , his hands could not lift it . Then t he people followed cont inuously, unt il I saw t wo heaps of eat ables and clot hes. I saw t he face of t he Messenger radiat e wit h pleasure, like gold. The Messenger of Allah said,

»

ゅ∠ワ⊥ゲ∇ィ∠ぺ ⊥ヮ∠ヤ∠プ ⇔る∠レ∠ジ∠ェ ⇔るzレ⊥シ ͡ュゅ∠ヤ∇シ͡み∇ャや ヶ͡プ zリ∠シ ∇リ∠ョ

∇リ͡ョ ∠ゾ∠ボ∇レ⊥Α ∇ラ∠ぺ ͡ゲ∇Β∠ビ ∇リ͡ョ ∩⊥ロ∠ギ∇バ∠よ ゅ∠ヰ͡よ ∠モ͡ヨ∠ハ ∇リ∠ョ ⊥ゲ∇ィ∠ぺ∠ヱ

⇔る∠ゃあΒ∠シ ⇔るzレ⊥シ ͡ュゅ∠ヤ∇シ͡み∇ャや ヶ͡プ zリ∠シ ∇リ∠ョ∠ヱ ∩∀¬∇ヶ∠セ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケヲ⊥ィ⊥ぺ

ゅ∠ミ

͡ゲ∇Β∠ビ ∇リ͡ョ ∩ゅ∠ヰ͡よ ∠モ͡ヨ∠ハ ∇リ∠ョ ⊥ケ∇コ͡ヱ∠ヱ ゅ∠ワ⊥ケ∇コ͡ヱ ͡ヮ∇Β∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラ

¬∇ヶ∠セ ∇ユ͡ワ͡ケや∠コ∇ヱ∠ぺ ∇リ͡ョ ∠ゾ∠ボ∇レ⊥Α ∇ラ∠ぺ

«

(He who set s a good example in Islam, t here is a reward for him for t his (act of goodness) and reward of t hat also who act ed according t o it subsequent ly, wit hout any deduct ion from t heir rewards. Whoever set s in Islam an evil example, t here is upon him t he burden of t hat evil and t he burden of him also who act ed upon it subsequent ly, wit hout any deduct ion from t heir burden.)'' Muslim recorded t his Hadit h via t he chain of Shu` bah. Therefore, Allah's st at ement ,

(15)

び∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ボzゎや ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

(O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah), ordains t he Taqwa of Allah which pert ains t o obeying what He ordered and st aying away from what He forbade. Allah said,

び∃ギ∠ピ͡ャ ∇ろ∠ョzギ∠ホ ゅzョ ∀ザ∇ヘ∠ル ∇ゲ⊥ヌレ∠わ∇ャ∠ヱぴ

(and let every person look t o what he has sent fort h for t omorrow,) meaning, hold yourselves account able before you are recompensed, and cont emplat e what you have kept for yourselves of good deeds for t he Day of your ret urn and being paraded before your Lord,

び∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ボzゎや∠ヱぴ

(Have Taqwa of Allah), again ordering Taqwa,

び∠ラヲ⊥ヤ∠ヨ∇バ∠ゎ ゅ∠ヨ͡よ ∀ゲΒ͡ら∠カ ∠ヮzヤャや zラ͡まぴ

(Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) Allah assert s t hat surely, He knows all of your deeds -- O mankind -- and act ions. Not hing t hat pert ains t o you ever escapes His observat ion, nor any mat t er of yours, whet her maj or or minor, is ever beyond His knowledge,

⊥ヰ∠ジ⊥ヘル∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⇒∠ジル∠ほ∠プ ∠ヮzヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ジ∠ル ∠リΑ͡グzャゅ∠ミ ∇やヲ⊥ルヲ⊥ム∠ゎ ∠Ι∠ヱぴ

び∇ユ

(And be not like t hose who forgot Allah, and He caused t hem t o forget t hemselves.) meaning, do not forget t he remembrance of Allah, t he Exalt ed, ot herwise, He will make you forget t o perform t he good deeds t hat benefit you in your ret urn, because t he recompense is equat ed wit h t he act ion. This is why Allah t he Exalt ed said,

び∠ラヲ⊥ボ͡ジ⇒∠ヘ∇ャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャヱ⊥ぺぴ

(Those are t he rebellious.) referring t o t hose who rebel against obedience t o Allah, who will earn dest ruct ion on t he Day of Resurrect ion and failure upon t heir ret urn,

∇ユ⊥ミ⊥ギ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ ∠Ι∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ム⊥ャ∠ヲ∇ョ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ム͡ヰ∇ヤ⊥ゎ ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

⊥ユ⊥ワ ∠マ͡ゃ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ⊥ほ∠プ ∠マ͡ャ∠ク ∇モ∠バ∇ヘ∠Α リ∠ョ∠ヱ ͡ヮzヤャや ͡ゲ∇ミ͡ク リ∠ハ

び ∠ラヱ⊥ゲ͡ジ⇒∠ガ∇ャや

(O you who believe! Let not your propert ies or your children divert you from t he remembrance of Allah. And whosoever does t hat , t hen t hey are t he losers.)(63:9)

(16)

The Residents of Paradise and the Residents of Hell are never Equal

Allah said,

び͡るzレ∠イ∇ャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺ∠ヱ ͡ケゅzレャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺ ン͡ヲ∠わ∇ジ∠Α ∠Ιぴ

(Not equal are t he dwellers of t he Fire and t he dwellers of t he Paradise.) meaning, t hese t wo cat egories of people are never t he same wit h regards t o t he j udgement of Allah, t he Exalt ed, on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Allah said in ot her Ayat ,

あΒzジャや ∇やヲ⊥ェ∠ゲ∠わ∇ィや ∠リΑ͡グzャや ∠ょ͡ジ∠ェ ∇ュ∠ぺぴ

∇ユ⊥ヰ∠ヤ∠バ∇イzル ラ∠ぺ ͡ろ⇒∠ゃ

∇ユ⊥ヰ⇒∠Β∇エzョ ⇔¬へ∠ヲ∠シ ͡ろ⇒∠エ͡ヤ⇒zダャや ∇やヲ⊥ヤ͡ヨ∠ハ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャゅ∠ミ

び ∠ラヲ⊥ヨ⊥ム∇エ∠Α ゅ∠ョ ∠¬べ∠シ ∇ユ⊥ヰ⊥わ⇒∠ヨ∠ョ∠ヱ

(Or do t hose who earn evil deeds t hink t hat We shall hold t hem equal wit h t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, in t heir present life and aft er t heir deat h Worst is t he j udgement t hat t hey make.)(45:21),

∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや∠ヱ ⊥ゲΒ͡ダ∠ら∇ャや∠ヱ ヴ∠ヨ⇒∇ハxΙや ン͡ヲ∠わ∇ジ∠Α ゅ∠ョ∠ヱぴ

ゅzョ ⇔Κ⇒Β͡ヤ∠ホ ⊥¬ヴ͡ジ⊥ヨ∇ャや ∠Ι∠ヱ ͡ろ⇒∠エ͡ヤ⇒zダャや ∇やヲ⊥ヤ͡ヨ∠ハ∠ヱ

び ∠ラヱ⊥ゲzミ∠グ∠わ∠ゎ

(And not equal are t he blind and t hose who see; nor are t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds and t hose who do evil. Lit t le do you remember!)(40:58), and,

͡ろ⇒∠エ͡ヤ⇒zダャや ∇やヲ⊥ヤ͡ヨ∠ハ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ⊥モ∠バ∇イ∠ル ∇ュ∠ぺぴ

zわ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥モ∠バ∇イ∠ル ∇ュ∠ぺ ͡チ∇ケxΙや ヴ͡プ ∠リΑ͡ギ͡ジ∇ヘ⊥ヨ∇ャゅ∠ミ

∠リΒ͡ボ

び ͡ケゅzイ⊥ヘ∇ャゅ∠ミ

(Shall We t reat t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds as corrupt ers on eart h Or shall We t reat t hose who have Taqwa as t he wicked)(38:28) Therefore, Allah assert s t hat He will honor t he right eous and humiliat e t he sinners, and t his is why He said here,

(17)

び∠ラヱ⊥ゴ͡もべ∠ヘ∇ャや ⊥ユ⊥ワ ͡るzレ∠イ∇ャや ⊥ょ⇒∠エ∇タ∠ぺぴ

(It is t he dwellers of Paradise t hat will be successful.) t hat is, t hey are t hose who will earn safet y and deliverance from t he t orment of Allah t he Exalt ed and Most Honored.

∠ぺ ∇ヲ∠ャぴ

⇔ゅバ͡ゼ⇒∠カ ⊥ヮ∠わ∇Α∠ぺ∠ゲzャ ∃モ∠ら∠ィ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラや∠¬∇ゲ⊥ボ∇ャや や∠グ⇒∠ワ ゅ∠レ∇ャ∠ゴル

ゅ∠ヰ⊥よ͡ゲ∇ツ∠ル ⊥モ⇒∠ん∇ョxΙや ∠マ∇ヤ͡ゎ∠ヱ ͡ヮzヤャや ͡る∠Β∇ゼ∠カ ∇リあョ ⇔ゅハあギ∠ダ∠わぁョ

∠ラヱ⊥ゲzム∠ヘ∠わ∠Α ∇ユ⊥ヰzヤ∠バ∠ャ ͡サゅzレヤ͡ャ

-zΙ͡ま ∠ヮ⇒∠ャ͡ま ∠Ι ン͡グzャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ

∠ヲ⊥ワ ͡り∠ギ⇒∠ヰzゼャや∠ヱ ͡ょ∇Β∠ピ∇ャや ⊥ユ͡ャゅ∠ハ ∠ヲ⊥ワ

⊥ユΒ͡ェzゲャや ⊥リ⇒∠ヨ∇ェzゲャや

-⊥ユ⇒∠ヤzジャや ⊥サヱぁギ⊥ボ∇ャや ⊥マ͡ヤ∠ヨ∇ャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ zΙ͡ま ∠ヮ⇒∠ャ͡ま ∠Ι ン͡グzャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ

∠リ⇒∠エ∇ら⊥シ ⊥ゲあら∠ム∠わ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥ケゅzら∠イ∇ャや ⊥ゴΑ͡ゴ∠バ∇ャや ⊥リ͡ヨ∇Β∠ヰ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥リ͡ョ∇ぽ⊥ヨ∇ャや

∠ラヲ⊥ミ͡ゲ∇ゼ⊥Α ゅzヨ∠ハ ͡ヮzヤャや

-⊥¬ン͡ケゅ∠ら∇ャや ⊥ペ͡ヤ⇒∠ガ∇ャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ

⊥ケあヲ∠ダ⊥ヨ∇ャや

ヴ͡プ ゅ∠ョ ⊥ヮ∠ャ ⊥ウあら∠ジ⊥Α ヴ∠レ∇ジ⊥エ∇ャや ⊥¬べ∠ヨ∇シxΙや ⊥ヮ∠ャ

び ⊥ユΒ͡ム∠エ∇ャや ⊥ゴΑ͡ゴ∠バ∇ャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ∠ヱ ͡チ∇ケxΙや∠ヱ ͡れ∠ヲ⇒∠ヨzジャや

(21. Had We sent down t his Qur'an on a mount ain, you would surely have seen it humbling it self and rent asunder by t he fear of Allah. Such are t he parables which We put forward t o mankind t hat t hey may reflect .) (22. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, t he All-Knower of t he unseen and t he seen. He is t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful.) (23. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Malik, Quddus, As-Salam, Mu` min, Muhaymin, ` Aziz, Al-Jabbar, Al-Mut akabbir. Glory be t o Allah! Above all t hat t hey associat e as part ners wit h Him.) (24. He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir. To Him belong t he Best Names. All t hat is in t he heavens and t he eart h glorify Him. And He is t he Almight y, t he All-Wise.)

Asserting the Greatness of the Qur'an

Allah t he Exalt ed emphasizes t he great ness of t he Qur'an, it s high st at us and of being wort hy of making heart s humble and rent asunder upon hearing it , because of t he t rue promises and sure t hreat s t hat it cont ains,

(18)

⇔ゅバ͡ゼ⇒∠カ ⊥ヮ∠わ∇Α∠ぺ∠ゲzャ ∃モ∠ら∠ィ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∠ラや∠¬∇ゲ⊥ボ∇ャや や∠グ⇒∠ワ ゅ∠レ∇ャ∠ゴル∠ぺ ∇ヲ∠ャぴ

び͡ヮzヤャや ͡る∠Β∇ゼ∠カ ∇リあョ ⇔ゅハあギ∠ダ∠わぁョ

(Had We sent down t his Qur'an on a mount ain, you would surely have seen it humbling it self and rent asunder by t he fear of Allah.) If t his is t he case wit h a mount ain which is hard and huge, t hat if it was made able t o comprehend and underst and t his Qur'an, will feel humble and crumble from fear of Allah t he Exalt ed, t hen what about you -- O mankind Why do your heart s not feel soft ness and humbleness from t he fear of Allah, even t hough you underst and Allah's command and comprehend His Book This is why Allah said,

∇ユ⊥ヰzヤ∠バ∠ャ ͡サゅzレヤ͡ャ ゅ∠ヰ⊥よ͡ゲ∇ツ∠ル ⊥モ⇒∠ん∇ョxΙや ∠マ∇ヤ͡ゎ∠ヱぴ

び∠ラヱ⊥ゲzム∠ヘ∠わ∠Α

(Such are t he parables which We put forward t o mankind t hat t hey may reflect .) There is a Hadit h of t he Mut awat ir grade t hat st at es t hat t he Messenger of Allah had someone make him a Minbar. Before t hat , he used t o st and next t o a t ree t runk in t he Masj id t o deliver speeches. So, when t he Minbar was made and placed in t he Masj id, t he Prophet came t o deliver a speech and passed t he t ree t runk, headed t owards t he Minbar, t he t ree t runk st art ed weeping, j ust like an infant . The t ree t runk missed hearing t he remembrance of Allah and t he revelat ion t hat were being recit ed next t o it . In one of t he narrat ions for t his Hadit h, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said aft er narrat ing t he Hadit h, "You - mankind -- are more wort hy t o miss t he Messenger of Allah t han t he t ree t runk!'' t Likewise, t his honorable Ayah asks t hat if t he solid mount ains feel humble and are rent asunder from t he fear of Allah, if it heard Allah's Speech and comprehended it , what about you -- O mankind -- who heard t he Qur'an and underst ood it Allah t he Exalt ed said in anot her Ayah,

͡ヮ͡よ ∇ろ∠バあト⊥ホ ∇ヱ∠ぺ ⊥メゅ∠ら͡イ∇ャや ͡ヮ͡よ ∇れ∠ゲあΒ⊥シ ゅ⇔ルへ∇ゲ⊥ホ zラ∠ぺ ∇ヲ∠ャ∠ヱぴ

びヴ∠ゎ∇ヲ∠ヨ∇ャや ͡ヮ͡よ ∠ユあヤ⊥ミ ∇ヱ∠ぺ ⊥チ∇ケxΙや

(And if t here had been a Qur'an wit h which mount ains could be moved, or t he eart h could be cloven asunder, or t he dead could be made t o speak.)(13:31) We ment ioned t he meaning of t his Ayah as st at ing t hat , if t here were a Qur'an t hat has t hese qualit ies, it would be t his Qur'an. Allah t he Exalt ed said in anot her Ayah,

∠ヘ∠わ∠Α ゅ∠ヨ∠ャ ͡り∠ケゅ∠イ͡エ∇ャや ∠リ͡ョ zラ͡ま∠ヱぴ

zラ͡ま∠ヱ ⊥ゲ⇒∠ヰ∇ル∠Εや ⊥ヮ∇レ͡ョ ⊥ゲzイ

ゅ∠ヨ∠ャ ゅ∠ヰ∇レ͡ョ zラ͡ま∠ヱ ⊥¬べ∠ヨ∇ャや ⊥ヮ∇レ͡ョ ⊥ァ⊥ゲ∇ガ∠Β∠プ ⊥ペzボzゼ∠Α ゅ∠ヨ∠ャ ゅ∠ヰ∇レ͡ョ

び͡ヮzヤャや ͡る∠Β∇ゼ∠カ ∇リ͡ョ ⊥テ͡ら∇ヰ∠Α

(And indeed, t here are st ones out of which rivers gush fort h, and indeed, t here are of t hem (st ones) which split asunder so t hat wat er flows from t hem, and indeed, t here are of t hem which fall down for fear of Allah.)(2:74)

(19)

Glorifying Allah the Exalted by mentioning His Names and Attributes

Allah t he Exalt ed said,

⊥ユ͡ャゅ∠ハ ∠ヲ⊥ワ zΙ͡ま ∠ヮ⇒∠ャ͡ま ∠Ι ン͡グzャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワぴ

͡ょ∇Β∠ピ∇ャや

び ⊥ユΒ͡ェzゲャや ⊥リ⇒∠ヨ∇ェzゲャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ ͡り∠ギ⇒∠ヰzゼャや∠ヱ

(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, t he All-Knower of t he unseen and t he seen. He is t he Most Gracious, t he Most Mercif ul.) Allah st at es t hat He Alone is wort hy of worship, t here is no Lord or God for t he exist ence, except Him. All t hat is being worshipped inst ead of Allah are false deit ies. Allah is t he All-Knower in t he unseen and t he seen, He knows all t hat pert ains t o t he creat ions t hat we see, and t hose we cannot see. Not hing in heaven or on eart h ever escapes His knowledge, no mat t er how great or insignificant , big or small, including ant s in darkness. Allah's st at ement ,

び⊥ユΒ͡ェzゲャや ⊥リ⇒∠ヨ∇ェzゲャや ∠ヲ⊥ワぴ

(He is t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful.) was duly explained before at t he very beginning of t his Tafsir, so it is not necessary t o repeat it here, and it assert s t hat Allah is t he Owner of t he wide encompassing mercy t hat ent ails all of His creat ion. He is Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim of t his life and t he Hereaft er. Allah t he Exalt ed said in ot her Ayat ,

び∃¬∇ヴ∠セ zモ⊥ミ ∇ろ∠バ͡シ∠ヱ ヴ͡わ∠ヨ∇ェ∠ケ∠ヱぴ

(And My mercy embraces all t hings.)(7:156),

び∠る∠ヨ∇ェzゲャや ͡ヮ͡ジ∇ヘ∠ル ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∇ユ⊥ムぁよ∠ケ ∠ょ∠わ∠ミぴ

(Your Lord has writ t en (prescribed) mercy for Himself.)(6:54), and,

͡ら∠プ ͡ヮ͡わ∠ヨ∇ェ∠ゲ͡よ∠ヱ ͡ヮzヤャや ͡モ∇ツ∠ヘ͡よ ∇モ⊥ホぴ

∠ヲ⊥ワ ∇やヲ⊥ェ∠ゲ∇ヘ∠Β∇ヤ∠プ ∠マ͡ャ∠グ

び ∠ラヲ⊥バ∠ヨ∇イ∠Α ゅzヨあョ ∀ゲ∇Β∠カ

(Say: "In t he bount y of Allah, and in His mercy; -- t herein let t hem rej oice.'' That is bet t er t han what (t he wealt h) t hey amass.)(10:58) Allah t he Exalt ed said,

∠ヮ⇒∠ャ͡ま ∠Ι ン͡グzャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワぴ

び⊥マ͡ヤ∠ヨ∇ャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ zΙ͡ま

(20)

(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Malik.) Al-Malik, meaning "The Owner and King of all t hings,'' Who has full power over t hem wit hout resist ance or hindrance. Allah's st at ement ,

び⊥サヱぁギ⊥ボ∇ャやぴ

(Al-Quddus,) meaning "The Pure,'' according t o Wahb bin Munabbih, while Muj ahid and Qat adah said t hat Al-Quddus means "The Blessed.'' Ibn Jurayj said t hat Al-Quddus means "He Whom t he honorable angels glorify.''

び⊥ユ⇒∠ヤzジャやぴ

(As-Salam,) meaning "Free from any defect s or short comings t hat lessen or decrease His perfect at t ribut es and act ions.'' Allah's st at ement ,

び⊥リ͡ョ∇ぽ⊥ヨ∇ャやぴ

(Al-Mu'min,) means "Who has grant ed safet y t o His servant s by promising t hat He will never be unj ust t o t hem, '' according t o Ad-Dahhak who report ed it from Ibn ` Abbas. Qat adah said t hat Al-Mu'min means t hat "Allah affirms t hat His st at ement s are t rue,'' while Ibn Zayd said t hat it means, "He at t est ed t o His fait hful servant s' having fait h in Him.'' Allah's st at ement ,

び⊥リ͡ヨ∇Β∠ヰ⊥ヨ∇ャやぴ

(Al-Muhaymin,) means, according t o Ibn ` Abbas and ot hers, "The Wit ness for His servant s act ions,'' t hat is, t he Ever-Wat cher over t hem. Allah said in similar Ayat ,

び∀ギΒ͡ヰ∠セ ∃¬∇ヴ∠セ あモ⊥ミ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ⊥ヮzヤャや∠ヱぴ

(And Allah is Wit ness over all t hings.)(58:6),

∀ギΒ͡ヰ∠セ ⊥ヮzヤャや zユ⊥をぴ

び∠ラヲ⊥ヤ∠バ∇ヘ∠Α ゅ∠ョ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ

(and moreover Allah is Wit ness over what t hey used t o do.)(10:46), and,

び∇ろ∠ら∠ジ∠ミ ゅ∠ヨ͡よ ∃ザ∇ヘ∠ル あモ⊥ミ ヴ∠ヤ∠ハ ∀ユ͡もべ∠ホ ∠ヲ⊥ワ ∇リ∠ヨ∠プ∠ぺぴ

(Is t hen He (Allah) Who t akes charge (guards) of every person and knows all t hat he has earned)(13:33) Allah said,

(21)

(Al-` Aziz,) meaning t hat "He is t he Almight y, Dominant over all t hings.'' Therefore, His maj est y is never violat ed, due t o His might , great ness, irresist ible power and pride. Allah said;

び⊥ゲあら∠ム∠わ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥ケゅzら∠イ∇ャやぴ

(Al-Jabbar, Al-Mut akabbir), meaning "The Only One wort hy of being t he Compeller and Supreme.'' There is a Hadit h in t he Sahih Collect ion in which Allah said,

»

∇リ∠ヨ∠プ ∩ヶ͡もや∠キ͡ケ ⊥¬ゅ∠Α͡ゲ∇ら͡ム∇ャや∠ヱ ∩ヵ͡ケや∠コ͡ま ⊥る∠ヨ∠ヌ∠バ∇ャや

ヮ⊥わ∇よzグ∠ハ ゅ∠ヨ⊥ヰ∇レ͡ョ や⇔ギ͡ェや∠ヱ ヶ͡レ∠ハ∠コゅ∠ル

«

(Might is My Izar and pride is My Rida; if anyone disput es any one of t hem wit h Me, t hen I will punish him.) Allah t he Exalt ed said,

び∠ラヲ⊥ミ͡ゲ∇ゼ⊥Α ゅzヨ∠ハ ͡ヮzヤャや ∠リ⇒∠エ∇ら⊥シぴ

(Glory be t o Allah! (High is He) above all t hat t hey associat e as part ners wit h Him.), t hen He said,

び⊥ケあヲ∠ダ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥¬ン͡ケゅ∠ら∇ャや ⊥ペ͡ヤ⇒∠ガ∇ャや ⊥ヮzヤャや ∠ヲ⊥ワぴ

(He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.) Al-Khaliq refers t o measuring and proport ioning, Al-Bari refers t o invent ing and bringing int o exist ence what He has creat ed and measured. Surely, none except Allah is able t o measure, bring fort h and creat e what ever He wills t o come t o exist ence. Allah's st at ement ,

び⊥ケあヲ∠ダ⊥ヨ∇ャや ⊥¬ン͡ケゅ∠ら∇ャや ⊥ペ͡ヤ⇒∠ガ∇ャやぴ

(Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.) means, if Allah wills somet hing, He merely says t o it "be'' and it comes t o exist ence in t he form t hat He wills and t he shape He chooses,

び ∠マ∠らzミ∠ケ ∠¬べ∠セ ゅzョ ∃り∠ケヲ⊥タ あン∠ぺ ヴ͡プぴ

(In what ever form He willed, He put you t oget her.)(82:8) Allah describing Himself as being Al-Musawwir, Who brings int o exist ence anyt hing He wills in t he shape and form He decides.

Al-Asma' Al-Husna

(22)

びヴ∠レ∇ジ⊥エ∇ャや ⊥¬べ∠ヨ∇シxΙや ⊥ヮ∠ャぴ

(To Him belong Al-Asma' Al-Husna (t he Best Names).) We explained t he meaning of t his Ayah in t he Tafsir of Surat Al-A` raf. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

»

ゅzャ͡ま ⇔る∠もゅ͡ョ ∩ゅ⇔ヨ∇シや ∠リΒ͡バ∇ジ͡ゎ∠ヱ ⇔る∠バ∇ジ͡ゎ ヴ∠ャゅ∠バ∠ゎ ͡ぶ zラ͡ま

∀ゲ∇ゎ͡ヱ ∠ヲ⊥ワ∠ヱ ∩∠るzレ∠イ∇ャや ∠モ∠カ∠キ ゅ∠ワゅ∠ダ∇ェ∠ぺ ∇リ∠ョ ∩や⇔ギ͡ェや∠ヱ

ゲ∇ゎ͡ヲ∇ャや ぁょ͡エ⊥Α

«

(Allah t he Exalt ed has ninet y-nine Names, one hundred less one; whoever t hen preserves t hem, will ent er Paradise. Allah is Wit r (One) and He likes t he Wit r.)

Everything praises and glorifies Allah

Allah's st at ement ,

び͡チ∇ケxΙや∠ヱ ͡れ∠ヲ⇒∠ヨzジャや ヴ͡プ ゅ∠ョ ⊥ヮ∠ャ ⊥ウあら∠ジ⊥Αぴ

(All t hat is in t he heavens and t he eart h glorify Him.) is similar t o His ot her st at ement ,

zリ͡ヰΒ͡プ リ∠ョ∠ヱ ⊥チ∇ケxΙや∠ヱ ⊥ノ∇らzジャや ⊥れ∠ヲ⇒∠ヨzジャや ⊥ヮ∠ャ ⊥ウあら∠ジ⊥ゎぴ

∠ラヲ⊥ヰ∠ボ∇ヘ∠ゎ zΙ リ͡ム⇒∠ャ∠ヱ ͡ロ∠ギ∇ヨ∠エ͡よ ⊥ウあら∠ジ⊥Α zΙ͡ま ∃¬∇ヴ∠セ リあョ ラ͡ま∠ヱ

や⇔ケヲ⊥ヘ∠ビ ゅ⇔ヨΒ͡ヤ∠ェ ∠ラゅ∠ミ ⊥ヮzル͡ま ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠エΒ͡ら∇ジ∠ゎ

(The seven heavens and t he eart h and all t hat is t herein, glorify Him and t here is not a t hing but glorifies His praise. But you underst and not t heir glorificat ion. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft --Forgiving.)(17:44) Allah's st at ement ,

∠バ∇ャや ∠ヲ⊥ワ∠ヱぴ

び⊥ゴΑ͡ゴ

(and He is Al-` Aziz) The Almight y, meaning, His great ness is never humbled,

(23)

(Hakim) t he All-Wise, in His legislat ion and decrees This is t he end of t he Tafsir of Surat Al-Hashr. All praise is due t o Allah.

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mumtahanah

(Chapter - 60)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

び ͡ユΒ͡ェzゲャや ͡リ⇒∠ヨ∇ェzゲャや ͡ヮzヤャや ͡ユ∇ジ͡よぴ

In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful.

∇ユ⊥ミzヱ⊥ギ∠ハ∠ヱ ンあヱ⊥ギ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥グ͡ガzわ∠ゎ ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

∠ラヲ⊥ボ∇ヤ⊥ゎ ∠¬べ∠Β͡ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ

∇ユ⊥ミ∠¬べ∠ィ ゅ∠ヨ͡よ ∇やヱ⊥ゲ∠ヘ∠ミ ∇ギ∠ホ∠ヱ ͡りzキ∠ヲ∠ヨ∇ャゅ͡よ ∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ャ͡ま

∇やヲ⊥レ͡ョ∇ぽ⊥ゎ ラ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ム⇒zΑ͡ま∠ヱ ∠メヲ⊥シzゲャや ∠ラヲ⊥ィ͡ゲ∇ガ⊥Α あペ∠エ∇ャや ∠リあョ

ヴ͡ヤΒ͡ら∠シ ヴ͡プ ⇔やキゅ∠ヰ͡ィ ∇ユ⊥わ∇ィ∠ゲ∠カ ∇ユ⊥わレ⊥ミ ラ͡ま ∇ユ⊥ムあよ∠ケ ͡ヮzヤャゅ͡よ

∠ぺ∠ヱ ͡りzキ∠ヲ∠ヨ∇ャゅ͡よ ∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ャ͡ま ∠ラヱぁゲ͡ジ⊥ゎ ヴ͡ゎゅ∠ッ∇ゲ∠ョ ∠¬べ∠ピ͡わ∇よや∠ヱ

∇ゅ∠ル

∇ギ∠ボ∠プ ∇ユ⊥ムレ͡ョ ⊥ヮ∇ヤ∠バ∇ヘ∠Α リ∠ョ∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥わレ∠ヤ∇ハ∠ぺ べ∠ョ∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥わ∇Β∠ヘ∇カ∠ぺ べ∠ヨ͡よ ⊥ユ∠ヤ∇ハ∠ぺ

͡モΒ͡らzジャや ∠¬へ∠ヲ∠シ zモ∠ッ

-∇ユ⊥ム∠ャ ∇やヲ⊥ルヲ⊥ム∠Α ∇ユ⊥ミヲ⊥ヘ∠ボ∇ん∠Α ラ͡ま

͡¬ヲぁジャゅ͡よ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠わ∠レ͡ジ∇ャ∠ぺ∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ヰ∠Α͡ギ∇Α∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ム∇Β∠ャ͡ま ∇やヲ⊥ト⊥ジ∇ら∠Α∠ヱ ⇔¬へ∠ギ∇ハ∠ぺ

∠ラヱ⊥ゲ⊥ヘ∇ム∠ゎ ∇ヲ∠ャ ∇やヱぁキ∠ヱ∠ヱ

-リ∠ャ

∠Ι∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ム⊥ヨ⇒∠ェ∇ケ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ム∠バ∠ヘレ∠ゎ

ゅ∠ヨ͡よ ⊥ヮzヤャや∠ヱ ∇ユ⊥ム∠レ∇Β∠よ ⊥モ͡ダ∇ヘ∠Α ͡る∠ヨ⇒∠Β͡ボ∇ャや ∠ュ∇ヲ∠Α ∇ユ⊥ミ⊥ギ⇒∠ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ

び ∀ゲΒ͡ダ∠よ ∠ラヲ⊥ヤ∠ヨ∇バ∠ゎ

(1. O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as prot ect ing friends, showing affect ion t owards t hem, while t hey have disbelieved in what has come t o you of t he t rut h, and have driven out t he Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah, your Lord! If you have come fort h t o st rive in My cause and t o seek My good pleasure. You show friendship t o t hem in secret , while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does t hat , t hen indeed he has gone (far) ast ray from t he st raight pat h.) (2. Should t hey gain t he upper hand over you, t hey would behave t o you as enemies, and st ret ch

(24)

fort h t heir hands and t heir t ongues against you wit h evil, and t hey desire t hat you should disbelieve.) (3. Neit her your relat ives nor your children will benefit you on t he Day of Resurrect ion. He will j udge bet ween you. And Allah is t he All-Seer of what you do.)

Reason behind revealing Surat Al-Mumtahanah

The st ory of Hat ib bin Abi Balt a` ah is t he reason behind revealing t he beginning of t his honorable Surah. Hat ib was among t he Early Emigrant s and part icipat ed in t he bat t le of Badr. Hat ib had children and wealt h in Makkah, but he was not from t he t ribe of Quraysh. Rat her, he was an ally of ` Ut hman. When t he Messenger of Allah decided t o conquer Makkah, aft er it s people broke t he peace t reat y bet ween t hem, he ordered t he Muslims t o mobilize t heir forces t o at t ack Makkah, and t hen said,

»

ゅ∠ル∠ゲ∠ら∠カ ∇ユ͡ヰ∇Β∠ヤ∠ハ あユ∠ハ zユ⊥ヰ∇ヤャや

«

(O Allah! Keep our news concealed from t hem.) Hat ib wrot e a let t er and sent it t o t he people of Makkah, wit h a woman from t he t ribe of Quraysh, informing t hem of t he Messenger's int ent t o at t ack t hem. He want ed t hem t o be indebt ed t o him ぴso that they would grant safety to his family in Makkahび. Allah the Exalted conveyed this matter to His Messenger , because He accept ed t he Prophet 's invocat ion ぴto Him to conceal the news of the attackび. The Prophet sent someone aft er t he woman and ret rieved t he let t er. This st ory is collect ed in t he Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Hasan bin Muhammad bin ` Ali said t hat ` Abdullah bin Abu Rafi` -- or Ubaydullah bin Abu Rafi` -- said t hat he heard ` Ali say, "Allah's Messenger sent me, Zubayr and Al-Miqdad saying,

»

⇔る∠レΒ͡バ∠ニ ゅ∠ヰ͡よ zラ͡み∠プ ∃ォゅ∠カ ∠る∠ッ∇ヱ∠ケ やヲ⊥ゎ∇ほ∠ゎ ヴ∇わ∠ェ やヲ⊥ボ͡ヤ∠ト∇ルや

ゅ∠ヰ∇レ͡ョ ⊥ロヱ⊥グ⊥ガ∠プ ∀ゆゅ∠わ͡ミ ゅ∠ヰ∠バ∠ョ

«

(Proceed unt il you reach Rawdat Khakh, where t here is a lady carrying a let t er. Take t hat let t er from her.) So we proceeded on our way, wit h our horses galloping, unt il we reached t he Rawdah. There we found t he lady and said t o her, ` Take out t he let t er.' She said, ` I am not carrying a let t er.' We said, ` Take out t he let t er, or else we will t ake off your clot hes.' So she t ook it out of her braid, and we brought t he let t er t o Allah's Messenger . The let t er was addressed from Hat ib bin Abu Balt a` ah t o some pagans of Makkah, t elling t hem about what Allah's Messenger int ended t o do. Allah's Messenger said,

»

∨や∠グ∠ワ ゅ∠ョ ∩⊥ょ͡デゅ∠ェ ゅ∠Α

«

(O Hat ib! What is t his) Hat ib replied, ` O Allah's Messenger! Do not make a hast y decision about me. I was a person not belonging t o Quraysh, but I was an ally t o t hem. All t he Emigrant s who were wit h you have kinsmen (in Makkah) who can prot ect t heir families. So I want ed t o do t hem a favor, so t hey might prot ect my relat ives, as I have no blood relat ion wit h t hem. I did not do t his out of disbelief or t o renegade from my religion, nor did I do it t o choose disbelief aft er Islam.' Allah's Messenger said t o his Companions,

(25)

»

ユ⊥ム∠ホ∠ギ∠タ ⊥ヮzル͡ま

«

(Regarding him, he has t old you t he t rut h.) ` Umar said, ` O Allah's Messenger! Allow me t o chop off t he head of t his hypocrit e!' The Prophet said,

»

⇔ケ∇ギ∠よ ∠ギ͡ヰ∠セ ∇ギ∠ホ ⊥ヮzル͡ま

ヴ∠ャ͡ま ∠ノ∠ヤzデや ∠ぶや zモ∠バ∠ャ ∠マΑ͡ケ∇ギ⊥Α ゅ∠ョ∠ヱ ∩や

∠メゅ∠ボ∠プ ∃ケ∇ギ∠よ ͡モ∇ワ∠ぺ

:

ユ⊥ム∠ャ ⊥れ∇ゲ∠ヘ∠ビ ∇ギ∠ボ∠プ ∇ユ⊥わ∇ゃ͡セ ゅ∠ョ やヲ⊥ヤ∠ヨ∇ハや

«

(He at t ended Badr. What can I t ell you, perhaps Allah looked at t hose who at t ended Badr and said, "O t he people of Badr, do what you like, for I have forgiven you.'')'' The Group wit h t he except ion of Ibn Maj ah, collect ed t his Hadit h using various chains of narrat ion t hat included Sufyan bin ` Uyaynah. Al-Bukhari added in his narrat ion in t he chapt er on t he Prophet 's bat t les, "Then Allah revealed t he Surah,

∇ユ⊥ミzヱ⊥ギ∠ハ∠ヱ ンあヱ⊥ギ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥グ͡ガzわ∠ゎ ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

び∠¬べ∠Β͡ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ

(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as prot ect ing friends...) '' Al-Bukhari said in anot her part of his Sahih, ` Amr (one of t he narrat ors of t he Hadit h) said, "This Ayah,

∇ユ⊥ミzヱ⊥ギ∠ハ∠ヱ ンあヱ⊥ギ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥グ͡ガzわ∠ゎ ∠Ι ∇やヲ⊥レ∠ョや∠¬ ∠リΑ͡グzャや ゅ∠ヰぁΑ∠ほΑぴ

び∠¬べ∠Β͡ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ

(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as prot ect ing friends'...) was revealed about Hat ib, but I do not know if t he Ayah was ment ioned in t he Hadit h (or was added as an explanat ion by one of t he narrat ors).'' Al-Bukhari also said t hat ` Ali bin Al-Madini said t hat Sufyan bin ` Uyaynah was asked, "Is t his why t his Ayah,

∠Β͡ャ∇ヱ∠ぺ ∇ユ⊥ミzヱ⊥ギ∠ハ∠ヱ ンあヱ⊥ギ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥グ͡ガzわ∠ゎ ∠Ιぴ

び∠¬べ

(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as prot ect ing friends.) was revealed'' Sufyan said, "This is t he narrat ion t hat I collect ed from ` Amr, I did not leave a let t er out of it . I do not know if anyone else memorized t he same words for it .''

The Command to have Enmity towards the Disbelievers and to

abandon supporting Them

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参照

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