Differences in frontotemporal dysfunction during social and non- social cognition tasks between patients with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia 30 3

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Differences in frontotemporal dysfunction during social and non- social cognition tasks between patients with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia

30 3

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1. 2

2. 2

3. 3

4.

(1) 3

(2) 4

(3) NIRS 4

(4) 5

5.

(1) 5

(2) fNIRS 6

6. 7

7. 9

8. 9

9. 10

10. 14

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1.

n = 13 n = 15 n = 18

2.

5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition; DSM-5 1

1

2-4

2

5-12

8

10

13-15

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functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI

13

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; fNIRS fNIRS fMRI

fNIRS 16-18 19-23

fNIRS

16-18

fNIRS 19-21

22,33

fNIRS

22,23

3.

fNIRS

fMRI fNIRS

4.

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28 13 15 18

1 intelligence quotient; IQ

Japanese version of the National Reading Test; JART 24

25

22,23 3 Institutional Review

Board

DSM-5

(5)

5 1 2 2

1

M.I.N.I.

2

27

Autism Spectrum Quotient; AQ 28

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS 29

AQ 31

(2)

30 20 70

30, 31

22

1 2

32 33

fNIRS

300 12 1

60

(mean reaction time; MRT)

(3) NIRS

fNIRS ETG-4000

fNIRS 22,23,34 [oxy-Hb]

0.1

(6)

3×5

17 16 3cm

52 2a 10-20

Fp1-Fp2 30

5

19

fNIRS

(K.M.) integral mode

Integral mode

10 [oxy-Hb]

10 [oxy-

Hb] 2

fNIRS 19, 22, 23, 35 31

22 52 2a

automated anatomical labelling36

54 NIRS 37 31

fNIRS 19,30

25-28 36-38 46-49

22-24 32-35 43-45 29-31 39-42

50-52 2a

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Kruskal-Wallis

2

method

fNIRS [oxy-

Hb]55 38 [oxy-Hb] [oxy-Hb]

19 Kruskal-Wallis 3

[oxy-Hb]

2 2

[oxy- Hb]

[oxy-Hb] 3 Fisher

LR + LR

Diagnostic odds ratio; DOR 5.

(1)

IQ

(7)

( 2 df p 2 3 2 ( 2

df p 2 ( 2 df 2

( 2 df p 2

3 2 MRT 3

: 2 = 22.2, df = 2, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.49

2 = 24.8, df = 2, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.55 MRT

( 2 = 20.8, df = 1, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.69 2 = 4.43, df = 1, p = 0.04, 2 = 0.14)

( 2 = 9.94, df = 1, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.31 2= 14.1, df = 1, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.44)

( 2 = 2.67, df = 1, p = 0.10, 2 = 0.10

2 = 0.58, df = 1, p = 0.45, 2 = 0.02)

IQ

27

AQ PANSS

MRT

MRT PANSS

rho = 0.59 p = 0.02 IQ rho = -0.56 p = 0.029 Bonferroni

MRT

(2) fNIRS

2 b c

[oxy-Hb]

[oxy-Hb] 3

(Fig. 2b) ( 2 = 18.3, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.36), ( 2 = 9.1, p = 0.01, 2= 0.20) ( 2 = 13.6, p < 0.01, 2 = 0.30)

3 [oxy-Hb]

3 [oxy-Hb]

3

3 ( 2 =

6.40, p = 0.04, 2 = 0.14) (Fig. 2c)

[oxy-Hb]

3 fNIRS

[oxy-

Hb] AQ (

rho = 0.62, p = 0.03 rho = 0.75, p < 0.01) 3(a) (b)

Bonferroni [oxy-Hb]

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AQ

[oxy-Hb] PANSS

rho = 0.56, p = 0.03 rho = 0.68, p <

0.01) (Fig. 3c and 3d) Bonferroni

[oxy-Hb]

[oxy-Hb]

75.0% 84.6% 66.7% LR+ 2.54 LR 0.23 DOR 11.0

83.9% 92.3% 77.8% LR+ 4.15 LR 0.10 DOR 42.0

54.5%

66.7% 55.6% LR+ 1.50 LR 0.60 DOR 2.50

6.

1

2 3

PANSS

fMRI

39

fMRI

40 Suda fNIRS

face-to-face AQ

42 41

41

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42 /

43

44 45, 46

fMRI 47

fMRI 48

fMRI

fNIRS 19, 30, 31

1

2 fNIRS

49

3 fNIRS

3cm 1 41 fMRI

3 4

32

5

n = 8 n = 5

fNIRS

[oxy-Hb] ( U = 21.0, p < 0.01)

(U = 35.0, p = 0.04) (U = 26.0, p = 0.01)

[oxy-Hb] (U = 29.0, p = 0.02) (U = 34.0,

p = 0.04)

(U = 21.5, p = 0.013)

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[oxy-Hb] 3 (

, U = 10.0, p = 0.02; , U = 10.0, p = 0.02; , U = 10.0, p = 0.02)

(U = 4.0, p = 0.02) fNIRS

fNIRS fNIRS

fNIRS 50, 51

fNIRS

6 Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule -Second Edition

7

IQ

52, 53 IQ 8

9

AQ PANSS

AQ PANSS

fNIRS 30

31

fNIRS

54, 55 fNIRS

7.

2

8.

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9.

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10.

1.

(n = 13) (n = 15) (n = 18) p

( ) 30

[23.3 38.5] 36

[29 47] 34.5

[28 38.5] 0.18a

( / ) 12/1 12/3 13/5 0.38b

IQ 106.0

[99.5 115.9] 100.0

[91.3 109.6] 102.9

[94.9 107.9] 0.32a

AQ

8 [5 9] - - -

8 [5 9] - - -

5 [3 7] - - -

6 [4 8] - - -

5 [4 6] - - -

31 [25 34.5] - - -

PANSS

- 9 [7 10] - -

- 14

[12 21] - -

- 21

[19 24] - -

- 45

[41 53] - -

(mg) 0 [0 75] 800 [489.4 1300] - < 0.01c

(mg) 38 [6.3 12.5] 0 [0 0] - < 0.01c

( ) - 11 [8 23] -

AQ, autism spectrum quotient PANSS, Positive and Negative

Syndrome Scale

a, Kruskal-Wallis b, Pearson 2 c, Mann-Whitney U

(16)

2.

ap < 0.01 by Kruskal-Wallis Test bp < 0.05 vs. cp

< 0.01 vs. dp < 0.01 vs.

MRT, mean reaction time

a 16

[10.5 19]b

10 [8 14]

11.5 [8.8 16]

(%) 100 [100 100]

100 [100 100]

100 [100 100]

MRT (ms)a

1483.1 [1431.4 1614.8]c

1079.2 [900.8

1593.4]d

852.1 [779.4 1006.6]

(%) 100

[91.7 100]

100 [91.7 100]

100 [100 100]

MRT (ms)a 2001.7 [1784.8 2231.7]c

1946.5 [1472.5

2270.3]d

1251.5 [1076.6 1426.7]

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3. fNIRS

vs.

2= 7.86, p < 0.01,

2 = 0.26

2= 14.5, p < 0.01,

2 = 0.48

2= 12.7, p < 0.01,

2 = 0.42 vs. 2= 0.63,

p = 0.43,

2 = 0.02

2= 4.70, p =0.03,

2 = 0.15

2= 3.81, p = 0.05,

2 = 0.12 vs.

2= 5.41, p = 0.20,

2 = 0.20

2= 5.20, p = 0.02,

2 = 0.19

2= 3.66, p = 0.06,

2 = 0.14

vs.

2= 5.77, p = 0.02,

2 = 0.19

- -

vs. 2= 3.40, p = 0.07,

2 = 0.11

- -

vs.

2= 0.06, p =0.80,

2 = 0.02 - -

Kruskal Wallis

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1.

ìè ìè ìè ìè ìè

(19)

2. fNIRS

[oxy-Hb]

a fNIRS

25-28 36-38 46-49

(20)

22-24 32-35 43-45 29-31 39-42 50-52

b c

3 [oxy-Hb]

Kruskal-Wallis ASD

(SCZ) (Healthy) [oxy-Hb]

(21)

3. [oxy-Hb]

AQ

[oxy-Hb] :(a)

(b) (

[oxy-Hb] PANSS (c) (d)

rho Spearman rho

Figure

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