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Required environmental education in junior high school for pro-environmental behavior in Indonesia: a perspective on parents’ household sanitation situations and teachers’ awareness of environmental education

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Required environmental education in junior high school for pro-environmental behavior in Indonesia:

a perspective on parents’ household sanitation situations and teachers’ awareness of environmental education

RukaSaito*,RumikoKimura**,AkikoTsuda***,Syahrul****,TantutSusanto*,*****,Agrina*,******

Introduction

Economicdevelopmentwasoneofthefacetsemphasized inthedevelopmentassistanceprovidedtodeveloping

countriesinthe1980s;however,thevarioustypesof assistanceofferedwereinsufficienttodrivegrowthand reducepovertyinthesedevelopingcountries.Thus,eight

* DivisionofHealthSciences,GraduateSchoolofMedicalSciences,KanazawaUniversity,Kanazawa,Japan

** KanazawaUniversity,EmeritusProfessor

*** FacultyofHealthScience,InstituteofMedical,PharmaceuticalandHealthSciences,KanazawaUniversity,Kanazawa, Japan

**** DepartmentofCommunityandFamilyHealthNursing,SchoolofNursing,HasanuddinUniversity,Makassar,Indonesia

***** DepartmentofFamilyandCommunityHealthNursing,SchoolofNursing,UniversityofJember,Jember,Indonesia

******DepartmentofCommunityandFamilyHealthNursing,RiauUniversity,Pekanbaru,Indonesia Abstract

 Indonesiafacespressingenvironmentalissues,manyofwhicharerelatedtocitizens’

lifestyles.Therefore,community-basedenvironmentaleducationisneededtoencourage pro-environmentalbehavior.Weexaminedparents’perspectivesontheirhousehold sanitationsituationsandteachers’awarenessofenvironmentaleducationinjuniorhighschool inIndonesiatoconsiderwhattypesofenvironmentaleducationareneededtopromote pro-environmentalbehavior.Weconductedacross-sectionalstudyamong350parentsand 17juniorhighschoolteachersinMakassarCity,Indonesia.Weadministeredaquestionnaire onhouseholdsanitationsituationstotheparentsandconductedsemi-structuredinterviews withtheteachers.Theanalysisindicatedthat95.9%oftheparentswereinterestedin environmentalissues,and90.2%wereawareofwaterpollution.Although35.3%sortedtheir garbageregularly,theydidsoinadiverserangeofways.Moreover,thenumberofparents withalowlevelofeducationthatanswered“nospecificreason”astheirreasonforsortingtheir garbagewashigherthanamongthosewithhigherlevelsofeducation.Inaddition,only42.1%

ofparentsperformedadequateoildisposal.TwocategorieswereextractedbasedonMayring’s contentanalysis:1)necessityofsymbiosiswithinthecommunity;and2)educationaspeople concernedwiththeenvironment.Asmallpercentageofparentsexhibitedpro-environmental behavior,andteachersmentionedsomeproblemsregardingenvironmentaleducation.Therefore, itwasconsideredthatthehouseholdsanitationandenvironmentaleducationofjuniorhigh schoolstudentswerenotadequate.Teachersofsubjectsunrelatedtoenvironmentaleducation alsoteachenvironmentaleducationintheirlessons.Topromotepro-environmentalbehaviors injuniorhighschoolstudents,itisnecessarytoprovideenvironmentaleducationforstudents andtheirparents,andenvironmentaleducationmaterialsthatallteacherscanusetoteach environmentaleducation.

KEY WORDS

pro-environmentalbehavior,environmentaleducation,householdsanitation,juniorhighschool,parentandteacher

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goalswerecodifiedintheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals

(MDGs)toresolvetheenvironmentalissuesandhealth problemsindevelopingcountries,includingreducingchild mortalityandimprovingmaternalhealth.Theseventh goal,whichistoensureenvironmentalsustainability,aims tohalvethenumberofpeoplewholackaccesstosafe drinkingwaterandsanitaryfacilitiesby20151).However, manyofthetargetswerenotaccomplishedbythis date,andhavecontinuedaspartofthe“17Sustainable DevelopmentGoalsofthe2030Agenda.”

ThemajorenvironmentalissuesintheRepublicof Indonesiarelatetoairpollutioninurbanareascausedby automobileexhaustfumes,thelowlevelsofsewagesystem maintenance,andthepollutionofriversandgroundwater duetoindustrialwasteandhouseholdeffluents2).Water pollutioncauseshealthproblemssuchasdermatologic disorders,diarrhea,andinfectionbecauseinhabitantsuse thewaterdirectlyfordrinkingandfarming3).Indonesia’s MinistryofEnvironmenthascollaboratedwithlocal municipalitiestoimplementanumberofapproachesfor curbingenvironmentalpollutionthroughtheCleanRiver Program(PROKASIH),evaluatingandratingbusiness entities through the Environment Control Agency

(PROPER),andensuringcleanerproduction(CP)in small-andmedium-sizedcompanies4).However,mostof thesearemeasuresagainstindustrialwaste,andlittle attentionhasbeengiventohouseholdeffluents.The sewagesystemacrossthecountrywasconstructedata mere3.0%level,andmostareaslacksuchasystem5).

Householdeffluentscause60–70%ofIndonesia’swater pollution2).Still,peopledisposetheirgarbageinbarefeet andbyhand,andnudechildrenplayinsurroundingdirty rivers;theriskofhealthhazardsfrominteractingwiththis contaminatedenvironmentishigh6).Householdeffluents arenottheonlyfactorcontributingtowaterpollution, butthecauseofwaterpollutionislargelyassociatedwith thelocalpeople’slifestyle;therefore,changingpeople’s awarenessisessentialtoaddressingwaterpollution.

Accordingtoa2001studyontheawarenessof537 menaged30–49yearsinJakarta,theeducatedgroup ofuniversityworkershadknowledgeofenvironmental issues,whereasthegroupofcommunitymemberslacked thesameknowledge7).Afewsubsequentstudieshave examinedadultawareness.In2013,universitystudents underwentenvironmentaleducationtoincreasetheir knowledgeofenvironmentalissues;however,itwasdifficult

forthemtotakeactiontosolvetherelatedproblems8). Therefore,implementationofenvironmentaleducation fromchildhoodisnecessarytopromotepro-environmental behavior.

Onestudyfoundthatpeoplewholiveincountriesand regionsthathaveundergonerapideconomicdevelopment tendtopayattentiontothebenefitsofeconomicgrowth, althoughtheirawarenessofenvironmentalissuesislow;

thisproblemislikelytoexpand9).Asimilartendencyhas occurredinIndonesia:70%of70surveyedteachersbelieved thateconomicdevelopmentwasmoreimportantthan environmentalconservation10).Indonesianpeopleseemingly cannot take appropriate coping and environmental hygieneactionsbecausetheyfaceenvironmentalissues routinely,andlifeinapollutedenvironmentisaccepted asthenorm11,12).Inresponsetothis,anenvironmental educationinitiativewasstartedin1989amongelementary and junior high school students, and the Adiwiyata programwasintroducedasanenvironmentallyfriendly

“GreenSchoolProgram.”TheAdiwiyataprogramaims toproduceresponsibleschoolchildrenintheeffortto protectandmanagetheenvironmentthroughgoodschool governanceandsupportsustainabledevelopment.The Indonesiangovernmentevaluatesschoolswhichparticipate intheAdiwiyataprogram,andtheschoolsthatachieve highevaluationsreceiveAdiwiyataaccreditation.Schools thathaveachievedAdiwiyatalevelareresponsiblefor teachingenvironmentaleducationinotherschoolsandinthe community.Nevertheless,mostelementaryandjuniorhigh schoolstudentsinMakassarCitydidnotfollowthrough withpro-environmentalbehaviors13),suggestingthatthe schools’effortswereinadequate.Parentsandteachershave animportantroleinencouragingpro-environmentalbehavior inchildren14-16).However,therehasbeennoclearresearch intoeitherthehouseholdsanitationpracticessurrounding childrenortheawarenessofenvironmentaleducationamong teachers.

Consequently,theaimofthisstudywastoexamine parents’perspectivesofhouseholdsanitationandteachers’

awarenessofenvironmentaleducationforjuniorhigh schoolstudentsinMakassarCityinSouthSulawesi Province.Thisresearchcancontributetoconsideration ofwhattypeofenvironmentaleducationisneededto promotepro-environmentalbehaviorsbyjuniorhigh schoolstudents.

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Methods 1.Studydesign

Thiswasacross-sectionalstudy.Theexaminationof parents’perspectiveontheirhouseholdsanitationsituation was conducted quantitatively, whereas measuring teachers’awarenessofenvironmentaleducationwas qualitative to consider what type of environmental education is needed to promote pro-environmental behaviorsbychildren.

2.Participants 1)Parents

Atotalof745parentsofthestudentsinapublic juniorhighschoolinMakassarCitythathadachieved Adiwiyatamandirilevelweresurveyed.Weuseda purposivesamplingmethodtorecruitparentsforthe study.MakassarCityhasexperiencedrapideconomic development,includinganeconomicgrowthrateof9.88%

in201417).Thosewhowerenotparentsofanyjuniorhigh schoolstudentswereexcludedfromthestudy.

2)Teachers

Atotalof17teachersinthreepublicjuniorhighschools inSouthSulawesithathaveachievedAdiwiyatamandiri ornasionallevelparticipatedinsemi-structuredinterviews.

Weusedapurposivesamplingmethodtorecruitteachers forthestudy.TheteachingstaffofHasanuddinUniversity selectedthefirstschoolfromamongthosethatachieved Adiwiyataaccreditationin2013,whilethesecondand thirdschoolswereintroducedbytheadministratorof firstschool.Thosewhohadtoteachclassesduringthe interviewperiodofthisstudywereexcluded.

3.Datacollectionandprocedures 1)Parents

Thisstudyusedaquestionnairethatwasadministered from September 2–5, 2013. The data collection tool wasastructuredquestionnairebasedontheliterature review10);threeindependentexpertsreviewedit,twoof whomwereexpertsinchildren’slivingenvironments.

Thisquestionnaireincludedninequestionsonparents’

demographiccharacteristicsandhouseholdsanitation situations.Questionsondemographiccharacteristics includedtheparents’age,relationshiptotheirchildren

(i.e.,motherorfather),andeducationalbackground.This questionnaireaskedtheparentsabouttheirhousehold sanitationsituations,theirinterestinenvironmentalissues, theirknowledgeofwaterpollution,andtheirpractices regardingsortinggarbage,disposingofoil,andwashing

clothing.Thetimerequiredtocompletethequestionnaire wasabout15minutes.Thisquestionnairewasverified byexpertsinenvironmentaleducationinIndonesiato ascertainitsvalidityandtoensurethatthequestions wereclearandunderstandable.

The researchersinformedthe administratorsand teachersoftheselectedschoolsofthestudy’saimsand providedthemwithessentialexplanationsneededto completethequestionnaires.Thisjuniorhighschool achievedAdiwiyatamandirilevelin2013.Theteachers thendistributedthequestionnairesalongwithletters addressedtotheparents,explainingthestudytothe childrenandaskingthemtodeliverallofthematerialsto theirparents.Theexplanationletteraskedtheparents tocomplete thequestionnaires, enclose theminthe envelopesprovided,andreturnthemtotheteachersvia theirchildrenwithintwodays.

2)Teachers

Thisstudyconductedsemi-structuredinterviewsfrom August30–September2,2014.Theresearchersformulated aninterviewguidefrompreviousstudy13)anduseditwith juniorhighschoolteacherswhohadagreedtoparticipate.

JuniorhighschoolswhichachievedAdiwiyatamandirior nasionallevelin2013wereselected.Theteacherswere askedabouttheir“perceptionofenvironmentaleducation,”

theirperceptionsofthe“relationshipbetweenenvironmental issuesandhealth,”andwhat“behaviorswereneededto improveenvironmentalissues.”Interviewswereconducted bythreeresearcherswhohadagoodunderstandingofthis study,andoneteacherwasinterviewedbyaresearcher withinterpreterwhowasproficientinIndonesianand English.Aftereveryinterview,theresearchersconfirmed with the interpreter whether the translation from IndonesiantoEnglishwasaccurate.

Theinterviewsiteswereprivateroomsinthejunior highschools,guaranteeinganenvironmentwiththe privacytospeakfreely,alowlevelofsound,goodlighting, and a comfortable room temperature. Consent was obtainedfromtheteachers.Theinterviewswererecorded usingadigitalvoicerecorder,andtherecordedinterviews werelatertranscribedfordataanalysis.

3.Analysis

Withrespecttothesurveyquestionnaire,allstatistical analyseswereperformedusingIBMSPSSforWindows version24.0(IBMCorp,Armonk,NY,USA).Indonesia hasthreestandardsforschooleducation;basic(elementary

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andjuniorhighschool),middle(seniorhighschool),and high(diplomalevelandhigher).Inthisstudy,parental educationalbackgroundwascategorizedintohigh(diploma levelandhigher)andlow(lowerthandiplomaschool)

levels.Achi-squareorFisherexacttestwasusedto exploretheassociationsbetweeneducationalbackground andhouseholdsanitationsituations.P-values<0.05were consideredtobestatisticallysignificant.

Mayring’smethodologyforqualitativecontentanalysis18)

wasusedtoanalyzetheteachers’interviewdata;this includessummarizing,explicating,andstructuringthe interviewcontent.Mayring’smethodologywasused toextractcodesthroughexplicativecontentanalysis;

then,thecontentanalysiswassummarizedtodevelop categoriesandsubcategories.Theanalysisthemewasthe typesofeducationneededtopromotepro-environmental behavior.However,structuredcontentanalysiswasnot utilizedbecauseofitsinapplicabilitytooverallresearch schemes. Throughout these analytical processes, an experiencedsupervisorrepeatedlycollatedthegenerated codes and then categorized and subcategorized the verbatimdatatoensuretheirvalidity.

4.Ethicalconsiderations

Kanazawa University Medical Ethics Committee, Japanapprovedthisstudy(ApprovalNumber460).

ThegovernmentofSouthSulawesiProvinceandthe EducationalOfficeofMakassarCityalsoapprovedthis study.Participationwasvoluntary,andinformedconsent obtained when the anonymous questionnaires were returned.Allparticipantswereinformedoftheanonymity andconfidentialityofthedata,andtheyweretoldthat theycouldwithdrawfromthestudyatanytimewithout consequences.Theresearcherswerenotifiedimmediately ofanyproblemsorquestionsthatemerged.

Results 1.Participants

Atotalof379questionnaireresponsesoutoftheinitial 745thatweredistributedwerereturned(responserate:

50.9%);thefinalnumberofparticipantswas350(191 mothersand159fathers,validresponserate:92.3%).

Theaverageageofthemotherswas40.9±5.3years, fatherswas45.0±6.8years.Thepercentageofparents withahighlevelofeducationwas60.6%(n=212);the percentageofparentswithalowlevelofeducationwas 39.4%(n=138).Atotalof17teachersparticipatedin

thesemi-structuredinterviews(male:3,female:14).The averageageoftheteacherswas44.0±8.3years;the meannumberofyearsteachingwas19.5±7.8.There werefivescienceteachers,threeteachersofIndonesian, twoteacherseachfromSocialStudiesandHealthand PhysicalEducation,andfiveteachersofothersubjects includingArtsandCrafts(Table1).

2.Householdsanitationsituation

Table 2 shows the sanitation situation for each householdbasedoneducationallevelattained.Thosewith ahighlevelofeducationshowedinterestinenvironmental issues(98.1%)andhadknowledgeofwaterpollution

(94.3%);thiswassignificantlyhigherthanthosewith alowlevelofeducation92.7%and83.9%,respectively.

Parents’garbagesortingathomewasasfollows:38.0%

and31.0%ofthosewithhighandlowlevelsofeducation, respectively,regularlyseparatedgarbageathome;29.6%

and38.0%ofthosewithhighandlowlevelsofeducation, respectively,sometimesseparatedgarbageathome;and 37.6%and31.0%ofthosewithhighandlowlevelsof education,respectively,didnotseparategarbage.Thus, therewasasignificantdifferenceingarbagesorting practicesbasedoneducationallevel(p=0.030).The reasonsgivenforsortinggarbagedidnotrevealany differencesbasedonhighorloweducationallevel,asfor bothgroups,“badfortheenvironment”wasthemost commonreason(57.9%vs.53.4%,respectively),followed by“dirty”(37.3%vs.38.6%,respectively).However,14.3%

ofparentswithahighlevelofeducationand25.0%of thosewithalowlevelofeducationrespondedwith“no specificreason”;here,asignificantdifferenceineducational levelwasnoted(p=0.048).Forbothgroups,themost commonmethodusedtoseparategarbagewas“dryand wetgarbage,”followedby“organicandinorganicgarbage.”

Meanwhile, many parents were unclear about their garbageseparationmethod,andseveraldidnotrespond tothequestionaboutgarbageseparationmethodatall.

Thereasongivenfornotseparatinggarbagewas“there isnogarbagebinforseparation”forbothgroups,although lesscommonresponsesincluded“toomuchwork”and“no onetoldmeto.”Otheropenresponsecommentsincluded

“evenifIseparatedgarbage,thegarbagetruckwon’t keepthemseparated,”and“thegovernmentdoesn’tspecify onemethodofgarbageseparation.”Thosewhoproperly treatedoilcomprised42.1%ofthetotal,and3.8%ofthe parentsrespondedthattheywashedtheirclothesinwells.

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3. Awareness of environmental education among teachers

1)Categoriesoverview

Mayring’scontentanalysiswasperformedaccordingto

“typeofeducationnecessarytopromotepro-environmental behavior in children”;130 contexts were extracted with16codes,twocategories,and fivesubcategories.

Thecategoriesand subcategories wereextracted by summarizingthecontentanalysis.Codeswereextracted throughanexplicativecontentanalysis.Categoriesare expressedusing[];subcategories,<>;codes,{};and speech,“”.

2)Explanationofcategories

(1)[Necessityofsymbiosiswithinthecommunity]

Forty-sevencontextswereclassifiedunderthecategory of[Necessityofsymbiosiswithinthecommunity].This category consists of two subcategories: <necessity for cooperative system for home and community on environmental education> and <necessity for environmentaleducationsysteminschools>.Teachers feelthat{parentalparticipationinenvironmentaleducation

isnecessary}:“sincechildrenspendmoretimeathome thanatschool,parentsneedtocontinueeducatingtheir childrenasinschool,”and“Ialsohopeparentswouldtake timeeverydaytocontroltheirchildreninkeepingaclean environment.”Teachersalsofeelthat{thereisashortage of materials for environmental education in school}:

“Preparingsomesupportingmaterialsforenvironmental education,moretrashcans,andmoreplants.”

(2)[Education as people concerned with the environment]

Forty-sevencontextswereclassifiedunderthecategory [Educationaspeopleconcernedwiththeenvironment].

Thiscategoryfeaturedtwosubcategories:<education toimprovefamiliarenvironment>and<educationto recognizeissuesoflivingenvironmentasone’sown problem>.Someoftheresponses{recommendplantinga largenumberofplants}:“Plantsarethelungsoftheworld.

Themoreplants,thegreaterbenefitsweget,”and“Plants plantedbythestudentscanreducedust.”Anumberof teacherswereencouragingthestudentsto{considerglobal warmingasone’sownproblem}:“Theschoolprovides environmentaleducationtothestudentswithregardto Table 1.Characteristic of teachers

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Table 2.Household sanitation system via junior high school students’ parents (N = 350)

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Table 3.Awareness of environmental education for junior high school students among teachers

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globalwarmingastheirownproblem.”

(3)<Difficultieswithpollutedlivingenvironment>

Therewere36contextsinthissubcategory,which consistedoffivecodes.Theresponsesdescribedissues, particularlydamagetohealth,causedbythecurrent environment:“Waterpollutioncausesdiarrheabecause sometimestapwaterispollutedanditscolorisyellow orbrown,”and“Toomuchgarbagecausesoutbreaksof mosquitos,andmosquitoscausedenguefever.”There wereconcernsthat{unlesstheenvironmentchanges, itwillcontinuetocauseillnesses}:“Theinfluenceof theenvironmentonhealthisextremelylarge.Aclean environmentisgoodforthehealth,anddirtysurroundings willnegativelyaffecthealth.”

Discussion

1. Junior high school students’ actual household sanitationsituations

Despitethat90%ormoreofparentshadaninterestin environmentalproblemsandsomeknowledgeofwater pollution,thepercentagesofthosewhoregularlysorted garbageandcarriedoutproperdisposalofprocessedoils werelow,at35.3%and42.1%,respectively.Therewasa higherpercentageofindividualswithknowledgeofwater pollutionthanintheresultsofa2001survey7)carriedout inJakarta,whichmayindicateincreasingawarenessof environmentalproblemsinIndonesia.However,wealso identifiedalowpercentageofchildrenpracticinggarbage separation13).Consequently,wepredictedineffective garbageseparationinMakassarCity.

Parentswithahigheducationallevelconstituted60.6%.

ThisisquitehighconsideringIndonesia’scountrywide universityentrancerateof12.0%19).Webelievethat thisisduetotheconsiderableeconomicdevelopmentof MakassarCityandtheabundanceofhighereducational institutions,bothpublicandprivate.Inourstudy,there wasasignificantlylargernumberofhighlyeducated parentswithawarenessofenvironmentalconcernsand waterpollutionthanlowlevelsofeducation.Also,there wereasignificantnumberofparentswithoutahigh educationallevelwhosortedgarbagewithoutareason comparedtothosewithahigheducationallevel.These findingsindicatethatindividualswithhigheducational levelsliveinenvironmentswhereitiseasytoobtain informationonenvironmentalproblems.However,the resultsalsoindicatethatthenumberofparentswho

“regularly”sortedwasteandproperlydisposedofoil waslowregardlessofacademicbackground,andour participantsincludedindividualswhodidlaundryatwells.

Additionally,therewasnomethodofgarbageseparation commontothoseparentswhoseparatedthegarbage regularly,andsomeassumedthatgarbageseparation wasineffective.Previousresearchfoundthatconcerns about environmental issues have an impact on the implementationofpro-environmentalbehavior20,21).Anew curriculumforenvironmentaleducationwasimplemented inIndonesiain201322),butmanyparentsdidnotreceive environmentaleducationalongwiththeirchildren.This studyfoundthatjuniorhighschoolstudents’household sanitationsituationswereinsufficient.

2.Teachers’awarenessofenvironmentaleducationand thesanitaryenvironmentofjuniorhighschoolstudents

In this study, teachers conducting environmental educationidentifiedthe[necessityofsymbiosiswithinthe community]and[educationaspeopleconcernedwiththe environment]asbeingnecessaryforpro-environmental behaviorinchildren.Also,itbecameevidentthattheissue of<difficultieswithpollutedlivingenvironment>existed.

Ithasbeenreportedthattheexpectationsofothershave astronginfluenceontheformationofattitudesinchildren’s pro-environmentalbehavior23),andwhileithasonlybeena shortperiodsincetheimplementationofthenewprogram forenvironmentaleducation,teachersplayasignificant role.

<Necessity for cooperative system for home and communityonenvironmentaleducation>and<necessity for an environmental education system in schools>

wereassociatedwiththe[necessityofsymbiosiswithin the community]. Many subjects teachers mentioned that{parentalparticipationinenvironmentaleducation isnecessary};however,duetothelimitednumberof parentswhoundertakeappropriatepro-environmental behavior,thesanitaryenvironmentsurroundingjunior highschoolstudentsisinadequate.Previousresearch13)

hasshownthatwhilejuniorhighschoolstudentsare awareandknowledgeableaboutenvironmentalissues, thisdoesnottranslateintopro-environmentalbehavior.

Pro-environmentalbehaviorinchildrenisinfluenced bythepro-environmentalbehavioroftheirparents14), and56%ofelementaryschoolchildrenathighgradedo nottelltheirparentswhattheylearnedinschoolabout hygiene24).Basedontheseresults,35.0%ofparentsdid

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notseparategarbagebytypeand57.9%ofthemdidnot properlydisposeofprocessedoils.Hence,theparents’

did not adequately demonstrate pro-environmental behaviortotheirchildren,andwepredictthatunlessboth childrenandparentsreceiveenvironmentaleducation, pro-environmentalbehavioroutsideofschoolwillnot bepromoted.Furthermore,science,socialstudies,and healthandphysicaleducationteachersmentioned{further developmentalmeasuresarenecessaryforcooperation withinthecommunity}anditisinferredthattaking initiativeofenvironmentaleducationbythesesubjects teachercarryoutsuccessfulresultinIndonesia.

Teachers felt the <necessity for environmental educationsysteminschools>:{thereisashortageof materialsforenvironmentaleducationinschool},and {environmentaleducationishandledasasinglesubject ratherthanbeingdisjointedlyintroducedasapartof variousclasses}.AlthoughtheIndonesiangovernment recommends integrating Education for Sustainable Developmentintouniversitycurricula,highereducation inIndonesiadoesnotincludetraininginEducationfor SustainableDevelopment25).Manyteachersofsubjects unrelated to environmental education mentioned

<necessityforenvironmentaleducationsysteminschools>

andthereisapossibilitythatlackingofenvironmental education and materials including textbooks made teachersfeeldifficulttoteachjuniorhighschoolstudents.

Notonlyintegratingenvironmentaleducationintoscience andothersubjectsbutalsotointroducingacurriculum andtextbookisnecessaryforeffectiveenvironmental education15, 16).Thus,cooperationbetweenschoolsand the governmentand preparationof materialsabout environmentaleducationisneeded.

<Educationtoimprove familiarenvironments>and

<educationtorecognizeissuesoflivingenvironmentasone’s ownproblem>wereassociatedwith[educationaspeople concernedwiththeenvironment].Inpro-environmental behaviorinstudents,thisisrelatedtobeingabletoobtain outcomesofpro-environmentalbehavioraswellasthe existenceofstrictrules20,26,27).TheAdiwiyataprogram, which the Indonesian government started in 2006, encouragesschoolstoadoptbehaviorsthatarerespectful towardtheenvironment.Itisassumedthatthismade teachersawareoftheneedto:{recommendplanninga largenumberofplans},{considerglobalwarmingasone’s ownproblem}.As18.7%ofparentssortthegarbage

withoutanyparticularreason,resultingininconsistent garbageseparation,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyexplainwhen andinwhatsituationstopromotepro-environmentalbehavior;

inotherwords,{guidanceintheuseoftheappropriate garbagedisposal}.InIndonesia,approximately120,000people fallilleveryyearduetoinadequatesanitationfacilities,and about50,000peoplehavedied3)asaresult.Therefore,as identifiedbyteachers,<difficultieswithpollutedliving environment>requiresapromptresponse.Inorderto reducehealthdamagecausedbyenvironmentalproblems, wesuggestthatnotonlyteachers,butalsopublichealth centersshouldraiseawarenessofenvironmentalissues andprovideenvironmentaleducationforchildrenand parentsincollaborationwithschools.

Limitations

The parents included in this study were parents ofstudentswhoattendedpublicjuniorhighschoolin MakassarCity,comprising1.6%ofthetotalpublicjunior highschoolpopulationofthecity.Surveysofparents andteacherswereconductedindifferentperiods,and thegovernmentpositiononenvironmentalissuesmight havechanged.Sincesurveyswerenotconductedamong illiterateparentsandthepercentageofhigheducated parents was higher than the Indonesian average, expansionofthestudyarea,anincreasednumberof subjects, and verification of the results is required.

Additionally,thecurrentfindingsarelimitedintheir generalizability,astheteacherssurveyedinthisstudy wereselectedfromjuniorhighschoolsthatreceived Adiwiyataaccreditationin2013;therefore,theresults cannotbeappliedtojuniorhighschoolteachersinschools thatdidnotreceiveAdiwiyataaccreditation.

Conclusion

Theaimofthisstudywastoconsiderwhattype of environmental education was needed to promote pro-environmental behavior among parents and studentsbyexaminingparents’perspectivesonhousehold sanitationsituationsandjuniorhighschoolteachers’

awareness of environmental education in Makassar City.Thefollowinghascometolightastheresultofour research:

1.Ahighpercentageofparentswereinterestedin environmentalissues(95.9%)andhadknowledgeabout waterpollution(90.2%).However,onlyafewfamilies

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wereengaginginappropriatepro-environmentalbehavior, suchasgarbageseparationandproperoildisposal.

2.Theteachersconsideredanassociationof[necessityof symbiosiswithinthecommunity]and[educationaspeople concernedwiththeenvironment]with<difficultieswith pollutedlivingenvironment>tobethetypeofenvironmental educationneededtopromotepro-environmentalbehaviorin

juniorhighschoolstudents.

Based on the above results, we recommend that environmentaleducationbeprovidedtostudentsandalso theirparents.Wefurtherrecommendthatenvironmental educationalmaterialswhichallteacherscanteachbe providedinordertopromotepro-environmentalbehaviors injuniorhighschoolstudents.

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インドネシアの中学校における環境配慮行動に必要な環境教育:

親の家庭衛生状況及び教員の環境教育に対する認識

斎藤 瑠華 *,木村留美子 **,津田 朗子 ***,シャハルール ****,スサントタントゥット *,*****,アグリナ *,******

要   旨

 インドネシアでは住民の生活様式を原因とする環境問題が発生しており、住民が環境配慮 行動を取るには、地域に適した環境教育の実施が必要である。そこで本研究は中学校におけ る環境配慮行動に必要な環境教育を検討するために、中学生の親 350 名と教員 17 名を対象 に横断研究を行った。親には家庭の衛生状況について質問紙票調査、教員には半構造化面接 を行った。その結果、親の 95.9% が環境問題に対して関心を抱き、90.2% が水質汚染に対し て知識を有していた。しかし、ゴミの分別を日頃から行えていた親は 35.3% であり、ゴミの 分別を行っている親のゴミの分別方法は親によって異なっていた。また、ゴミを分別する理 由を「nospecificreason」と回答した親は全体で 18.7% であり、非高学歴に有意に多かった。

更に、適切な油の処理を行う親は 42.1% と低かった。教員に対する半構造化面接を内容分析 した結果、[ 地域社会との共生づくりの必要性 ]、[ 環境に対する当事者としての教育 ] の 2 つ のカテゴリーが抽出された。適切な環境配慮行動をとる親の割合は低く、教員は環境教育シ ステムの課題を指摘していたことより、中学生を取り巻く家庭衛生環境や環境教育は整備さ れていないことが考えられる。また、インドネシアでは環境教育に直接関連のない教科を担 当する教員も環境教育を担当しているため、全ての教員が環境教育を実施できるよう教材を 導入し、子どもだけではなく親も対象とした環境教育を実施する必要性が示唆された。

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