The Occurrence of Eothenomys smithi in Cultivated Fields at the Foot of the Sanuki Range, Shikoku, Japan-香川大学学術情報リポジトリ

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Vol.7,No.5,6 268

TheOccurrenceofEbthenomyssmithiinCultivatedFields

attheFootoftheSanukiRange,Shikoku,Japan

YukibumiKANEKO BiologlCalLaboratory,FacultyofEducation,KagawaUniversity, Takamatsu,Japan

ABSTRACT.− Forty−One SPeCimens ofEbthenof7V,SSmithiwere captured on paddy

fields dikes,afield ofredcloverinpaddyfields and othercultivatedfields at the

footofmountains(altitude70−350m)inShikoku.Amongthesespecimenscollected, therewerepregnantftmales,ParOuSftmales,maturemalesandyoungvoles・Itis likelythattheappearenceofE・Smithioncultivatedfieldsarosefromtheabsenceof

腫cJ′ロメ〟∫in Shikoku.

Introduction

Up to the present,theJapanesefield vole,Microtus montebelli,has not been

fbundonShikoku,thesmallestoffourislandsofJapan・OTA&JAMESON(1961)wrote

thatthered−backedvoleEothenomyssmithiwasmoreabundantathigherelevationsand

lived alikein forest and grassy slopesin Shikoku.Accordingto TANAKA(1962),

E.smithiisadominantspeciesalsoinhighlandsabovetheheightofabout800m・

ニー・ニ

三ミ‥∴

thisvoleinhabitedprincIPallyhighlandhabitatsinShikoku・

In1972KANEKOShowedthatapredominantspeciesonlowlandhabitats(0−50m)

ofnorthern Shikoku was Apodemus軍eCiosus,Which was caught mainly on river

banks,Paddyfields,Vegetablefields andfl00d grassland along river side,and

E・Smithididnotappearontheselowlandhabitats・However,atraPPlngSurVeyOf

smallrodentshasnotyetbeenmadeoncultivated丘eldsatthefbotofmountainsin shik。k。.Th。aim。fth。P,。SentPaPerist。rePOrt螢㌔apt。reOfE.smithion

paddyfieldsdikes,afieldofredcloverinpaddyfields and othercultivatedfields

atthefootoftheSanukirange(70−350m),Shikoku,Japan.

StudyAreasandMe仙ods

TrapplngS Were Carried outin Kagawa Pref.and Tokushima Pref・between

November,1976andApril,1977;inthefb1lowingsixlocalities(Fig・1):Sanuki−aioi

(altitude30−100m)(Platel−a),Seki(altitude190−220m)(Platel−C),Sanuki−Saita

(altitude180−260m)andMinoura(altitude70−110m)(Platel−d),inKagawaPref・;

Awa−6miya(altitude70−110m)and Nagatani(altitude300−350m)(Platel−b)in

TokushimaPrer.

The trappingmethodis the same as reportedin theprevious paper(Kaneko,

*ContributionNo.43fromtheBiologicalLaboratory,Faculty ofEducation,KagawaUniver−

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1979年3月 Ebthenof7V,SSmilhiinCultivatedFieldsattheFootoftheSanukiRange 269

Fig.1・MaptoshowsixlocalitiesinKagawaPref・andTokushimaPref・,nOrthern Shikoku,Japan.StippledareasindicatethealtitudeoverlOOm・

1979).Trapswerelaidinthemoleburrows.Stationsoftrapsweresetinlineswith

anintervalofaboutlOm.One stationwaslaidwiththreetraps atadistance of

onetotwometers.Ateachlocalitytherewere24to48trapstations,mOStfrequently

27・Traps were examined daily,When their catch was removed・Pumpkin seeds

were used as bait.

Thefbllowingllprincipalhabitatswererecognised;(A)ricestacks(Platel−g),

(B)red−CIover(升拘Iiumpratense)fieldsinpaddyfields(Platel・g・h)二(C)abandoned

fieldswithscatteredshrub,(D)slopesofdikes(Platel−C・g),(E)stone fences Plate

l−e),(F)chestnutorchards,(G)mandarin(Citrusunshu)orchards,(H)fieldsofthe

Japanesepampasgrass(Miscanthussinensis)(Platel−f),(Ⅰ)pinefbrest,(J)coniftrous

plantations,and(K)bamboogroves・Threehabitattypesof(G),(I)and(J)were

further dividedinto the fbllowing categories:(Gl)verge of mandarin orchards,

(G2)mandarin orchards other than verges;(Il)scattered shrubs anddenseferns

(Gleicheniasp.)inpinefbrest(Pla略1−d)and(I2)shrubbyvergesofpinefbrest;(Jl)

youngplantations oftheJapanesecypfess(ChamaeりparLyoblusa)or theJapanese

ceder(C7WtOmeriajqponica)and(J2)01dplantationsoftheJapaneseceder・

I Res山tsandDiscussion

鞋hedist,ib。ti。n。fsmallmammalsacc。rdingt。habitatsisgiveninTablel.

ApodemtIS3PeCiosuswascollectedonabandonedfieldswithscatteredshrub(C),Slopes

ofdikes(D),Chestnutorchards(F),mandarinorchards(Gl・2),fieldsoftheJapanese

pampas grass(H),Pine forest(Il・2),COnifもrous plantations(Jl・2)and bamboo

groves(K).Eothenomyssmithiwascapturednotonlyonpineforestwithscattered

shrubsanddenseferns(Il)(Platel−d)butalso onaredcloverfieldinpaddyfields

(B)(Platel−g・h),abandonedfields with scattered shrub(C),Slopes ofdikes(D)

(Platel−C),thelowerborderofstonefences(E)(Plateトe),thevergeofmandarin

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270 哺乳動物学雑誌

Tablel・Summaryofthenumberofsmallmammalscaughtand

traps ondi能rent types ofhabitatsinKagawaandToku−

sbimaPref−.

Vol.7,No.5,6

Habitats**

Locality Species*

− Total

Date A B C D E F GI G2 H Il I2 JI J2 K 1.Sanuki−aioi May5,1977 ASAa S

E汀EAS汀EASAaUCrrrEASAaU汀EASAaUrrEASAarrEASAaUひ汀EAAa汀

0 0 /0 0 0 0 0 0 ′0 0 1 0 0 っJ 2 0 0 /0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 月U 1 0 0 っ∠ 0 2 pU 4 0 0 0 0 っJ っ︺ 1 0 0 ∠・ 一ノ ノ今 っ∠ 1 0 0 っエ 0 0 0 0 0 ′0 0 2 0 0 07 1 1 0 1 月U rJ 1 0 /0 0 0 2 O 1 0 0 0 ■ヽJ TJ O 2 0 0 1 0ノ 0 0 1 1 0 ′P O l 1 0 rJ Tノ TJ O O O っJ O O っJ O O O O O っJ 0 2 3 1 っJ O 2 2 ハU O O ︻︺ っJ Tノ っ∠ 3 0 0 pU O O O O O フ一 丁− 7 2 2 βJ 1 3 βノ 4 3 1 1 1 May6,1977 O l †ノ 2.Seki Apr.15,1977 ハU ﹁−1 月U l 3.Sanukisaita Mar.30,1977 0 3 0 0 ハリ O O O O ∠・ 7J O 1 0 0 /O l つム 0 0 っJ

7421ノ411ノ15621〃

1 pO pU イT TJ 4.Minoura Mar,19,1977 0 0 0 0 フ一 4 1 つ︼ 0 ノT 4 1 1 TJ l てJ 月U 1 0 0 0 フ⊥ Mar.20,1977 5.Awa−6mlya Nov.13,1976 l 1 0 1 0 ハ︶ っJ 0 0 0 0 0 ′0 2 3 0 フ一 TJ O l 1 0 0 /0 っJ O つJ 5 1 1 クー 7 6.Nagatani Feb.19,1977 O 1 0 っJ O 1 0 分U γJ 5 5 3 フ〟 7 ブタ …−L:J・りJん′…叩、、′油症・\、‥I/い‘/川==/甘い、肌\こl:小へ∴′川′、….甘〃J川、.し:い刷・/./′′ハJ.小イ.い、 Cr:0′OCiduradsb2eZumi,TT:thenumberoftraps. **ForexplanationofsymboIsseetext.

Bothspecieswerecaughtinneighboringtrapsatthesamestationonfieldsof

theJapanese pampas grass,abandonedfields with scattered shrub,and scattered

Shrubanddenseftrnsinpinefbrest.

Among41specimensofE・Smithicollected,therewerethreepregnantftmales,

fbur parous ftmaleswith openpubic symphysis,SeVen mature males withtubular

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1979年3月 Ebtheno7WSSmithiinCultivatedFieldsattheFootoftheSanukiRange

271

epididymis,and seven young voles under20gln body weight・Therefore,it ap−

PearSthatbreedingwascarriedoutonthesehabitatsinthisvole.

ReftrringtothecollectionreportsofE・Smithi,therehasbeennoreport,eXCePt

YosHIDA(1970),Ontheoccurrenceofthisvoleoncultivated負elds.YosHIDA(1970)

ShowedthatonespecimenofE.smithiwastrappedatthecornerofvegetablefields

(altitude40−100m)atthefbotofMt.Kiyomizu,nOrthern Kyushu,buthe didnot

discussthematter.InhisreportMicrotusmontebelliwasnotcollected.

SincethereareseveraloplnlOnSCOnCernlngthegenusnameofthisvoleamong

Japanese mammalogists(IMAIZUMI(1949;1957;1960)insisted on Eothenomys,

ToKUDA(1955)adoptedthenameAnteliomysandTANAKA(1971)sufPOrtedPhaul−

OmyS),itisdi餓culttocomparethisvolewithotherspeciesrelatedtolt.Butithas

been considered by the mammalogists mentioned above that the present vole has

SOme a伍nities to Ckthrionomys rathern than to Microtus.Reftrring to collection

reportsofClethrionomys,KNOXJoNES&JoHNSON(1965)andMIZUSHIMA&YAMADA

(1974)showed that C.ndbcanus was obtained alongpaddyfields and abandoned

PaddyfieldsintheKoreanPeninsulaandHokkaidoIsl.,reSPeCtively.InHokkaido,

Japan,ル〃crotus does not occur.SAINT GIRON&BEAUCOURNU(1970)reported

that C.glareolusoccurred on opengrassland aswellasplneforestandmarsllOn

Belle−Isle,France・Theyfurthernoted thattheappearenceofC.ghlreOhLSinthese

habitatswasundoubtedlycausedbytheabsenceofMicrotusonthisisland.There−

fbre,itislikelythatthe occurrence ofE.smithioncultivatedfields aroseffomthe

absence of M.montebelliin Shikoku.Further collection studies are needed on cultivatedfields at the fbot ofmountains where Microtusis not found.

Acknowledgement

Mr.M.C.MoBBShas carefully checked the Englishlanguage,for whichIex−

PreSSmygratitude.

金子之史:四国・讃岐山脈山麓の農耕地とその周辺部における

スミスネズミの分布 1976年11月∼’77年4月にかけて,スミスネズミ 血血仰∽γ∫∫而′カブ計41頭を,四国の讃岐山 脈山渡部(標高70′}350m)にある階段状になった水田の堤の斜面,水田中のレソゲ畑,カン木の生 えた放棄水田,石垣の下部,ミカン畑の縁,ススキ原,およびカソ木とシダの生えたマツ林において 採集した。これらの標本のなかには,妊娠雌3頭,経産雌4頭,性的成熟雄4頭,および幼獣7頭が 含まれていた。上記の耕作地へのスミスネズミの出現は,l四国にハタネズミが棲息しないことによっ て生じたのかもしれない。

Refbrences

IMAlZUMI,Y.1949.ThenaturalhistoryofJapanesemammals.Yoy6shob6,Tokyo.(InJapanese.) .1957.Taxonomic studies on the red−backed vole fromJapan.Partl.Major divisions

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Vol.7,No.5,6 哺乳動物学雑誌

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1979年3月 Ebtheno11V,SSmithiinCultivatedFieldsattheFootoftheSanukiRange 273

0f the vole and descriptions 且Jthenomyswitha new species.Bu11.Nat,Sci.Mus. (Tokyo),3:195−216.

.1960.ColouredillustrationsofthemammalsofJapan.Hoikusha,Osaka.(InJapaneSe.)

KANEKO,Y.1972.OccurrenceofsmallmammalsfromthenorthernpartofShikoku.Mem.Fac. Educ.,KagawaUniv,,ⅠⅠ,(213):1p7.(InJapanesewithEngl.abstract.)

.1979.Habitat preference of Apodemus4,eCiosus and MicrotlLS mOntebelliinlowland habitatsin western Honshu and northern Shikoku,Japan.J.Mamm・Soc.Jap.7:

254−260.

KNOXJoNES,J.JR.,&JoHNSON,D.H.1965.SynopsisoftheLagornorphs and Rodents ofKorea. Univ.Kans.Publ.Mus.Nat.Histリ16:357−107. MIYAO,T.,AKAHANE,H.M6RI,T.&YAMAMOTO,Ⅰ.1966.Smallmamnals ofTsushima,Iki,Mt. HikoandMt.Kamegamori.J.Mamm.Soc.Jap.,3:30−39.(InJapanese.) MIZUSHIMA,S.&YAMADA,E.1974.Onthedistributionandfoodhabits oftheMuridrodentsin agrosystemsin Hokkaido.Jap.).appl.Ent.Zool.,18:81−88.(InJapanesewithEngl・ abstract.)

OTA,K.&JAMESON,E.W.,JR.1961.EcoIogicalrelationships and economicimportance of JapaneseMicrotinae.Ecology,42:184−186.

SAINT GIRON,M.−C.&BEAUCOURNU,J.−C.1970.Notes surles mammiferes deFrance.X.Le Campagnolroussatre deBelle−Isle(Morbihan),Clethrionof7V)Sglareolusinsulaebelk7eHEIM

de BALSAC,1940.Comparison avec une population continentale proche,Clethriono7rU,S glareolus glareolus(ScHREBER,1780)de Puceul(Loire−Atlantique).Mammalia,34:617− 621.

TANAKA,R.1954.[Thepopulationecologyofvolesandfieldmice.]Misaka,K.(Ed.)[Volesand 負eld mice and their controu:64−110.Nippon−Gakujitsu−Shinkokai,Tokyo.(InJapa−

nese.)

.1962.A population ecology ofrodents hosts of scrub−tyPhus vector of Shikoku district WithspecialreftrencetotheirtruerangeinJapan.Jap.J.Zool.,13:395」106.

.1971.AresearchintovariationinmolarandexternalfeattlreSamOngaPOpulationofthe SMITH’s red−backed vole for elucidation ofits systematic rank.Jap.J.Zool.,16:163− 176. .1973.[Insectivores,VOlesandmiceinKochiPrefbcture.1Kochiken−nO−Shizenkankyo:47− 51,(InJapanese.) 1 n THOMAS,0. mals 363. ToKUDA,M・1955・・Congenericspecies?モVOlesfoundinJapanandYunnan・13ull・Biogeogr・Soc・ Jap.,16−19:388−391.

YosfIIDA,H.1970.SmallmammalsofMt.Kiyomizu,FukuokaPref.1.EcoIoglCaldistributionof

thesmallmammals.J.Mamm.Soc.Jap.,5:8q14.(InJapanesewithEngl.abstract.)

Platel.Study areas andhabitats,WhereEotheno〝ぴSSmithiwas collected. a:Sanuki−aioi,Showing alluvialfan,Whichis exhibitedinthecenter ofthe

Photograph,andfaultscarp,Whichhasbeenformedbydiffbrentialerosion. Inthealluvialfanthereisthestudyareaofpaddyfieldsinterraces. b:Nagatani,Showingpineforestandshrubbyhillsideareas. C:Seki,Showingpaddyfieldsinterraces. d:Minoura,Showingplneforestareas.withscatteredshrub anddenseferns (GJeわ毎〃ねsp.).

e:Stone fense areas between abandoned paddyfieldsin terracesin Sanuki− aioi.

f:FieldsoftheJapanesepampasgrass(怖canthussblenSis)inS

g:Red−Clover(77・的Iiumpratense)fieldsinterraced paddyfields,with rice StaCks,Which are shown at theleft−hand side of the photograph,With mandarinorchardsinthebackground.

h:A red−Cloverfieldin abandoned paddyfield.Close−up Of the caudal POrtionofE.smithiinthetrappedpositioninthemoleburrow.

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