つくばリポジトリ TSHG 8 33

Full text

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J apanes e Fl or i c ul t ur e i n Sout her n Cal i f or ni a :

Evol ut i on of an Et hni c I ndus t r y

著者

YAG

ASAKI N

or i t aka

j our nal or

publ i c at i on t i t l e

Ts ukuba s t udi es i n hum

an geogr aphy

vol um

e

8

page r ange

33- 57

year

1984- 03

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J apanese Fl ori cu

l t u

re

i n

Sout her n C

al i f orn

i a :

Evol ut i on o

f

an Et hni c I ndust r y

Nor it a k a YA G A SA KI I I nt r oduct ion

II J apanese Fl ori cul t ure in t he L os Angel es A r ea bef oreWor l d Wa r II

II- 1 Pi oneeri ng Phase

II- 2 L oca ti onal Patt ern

II - 3 C haract er i sti cs of Pr oducer s and Pr oduc ti on

II - 4 T he Sout hern Cal i f orni a Fl ower Ma r k et, I nc

II - 5 I nt er- et hni c Rel at i ons

五− 6 Gener at i onal Transi t i on

II- 7 Ret ai l Fl ori sts

Ill Rel ocat i onand Reconst ruct i on I V J apanese Fl ori cul i : ure i nTr ansi ti on

日T -1 L os Angel es Ar ea

日!−2 Ne w Devel opment in Coast al Sout her n Cal i for・nia

V C oncl usi ons

I. I nt r oduc t i on

Cal i f or ni a i s k n o wn f or ma n y uni que c haract eri st i cs. 1) A mo n g t h e m is i ts di ver se andhi ghl y pr oduct i ve agr i cul t ur ewhi c h has subst anti al l y s uppor t ed t he state

s ec onomy. 2) T h e cont r i but i ons of J apanes e i mmi g r a nt s and t hei r descendant s t o t he dev el opme nt of Cal i f or ni a agr i cul t ur e ar e we l l k nown, 3〕but car ef ul and det ai l ed case st udi es of ei t her an agr i cul t ural c ommuni t y or t he J apanes e rol e i na gi ven sect or of a g ri cul t ure ar e y et v er y f ew. The pr esent paper is a case st udy of t hesuccessf ul par t i ci pat i on of J apanes e i n t he s out her n Cal i f or ni a f tor ic ul t ur e f r omits beg i nni ng r i ght bef or e t he t ur n of t hec ent ur y t hr ough t he recent peri od.

J apanes e immig r ant agri cul t uri st s i n t he pr e

i Vorl d W ar II per i od had hi ghl y c ompet i t i ve powe r wi t h t hei r smal l but i nt ensi ve oper at i ons ev en under negat i ve soci al condi t i ons . On e of t he bi ggest f ac t or s of t hei r compet i t i ve success i n agr i cul t ur e wa s t hei r pr opensi t y t o or gani ze. Et hni c sol i dari t y is mai nt ai ned bot h i n f r at er nal a nd ec onomi c act ivi t i es by ma ny f i rst -ge ner at i on i mmi gr ant s of a ny et h nic bac k gr ound, but t he J apanes e agri cul t uri st s dev el oped t i ght and effi ci ent org a nizat i ons t o me e t speci al needs and t o pr ot ect t he ms e l ves i n t hef or ei gn set t i ng. T he s e assoc i at i ons u ni ted t he i mmi g r ant ag ri cul t uri sts , vi t h littl e k nowl edg e of Engl i sh, and be c a me a mot i v e f or ce of success ful J apanes e agri cul t ure. 4> Af t er ' Wor l d ¥i Var II, howev er , et hni c di mens i ons of t he i ndust r y hav e subst ant i al l y weak ened.

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34 J apanese Fl ori cul t ure in Sout her n Cal i f orni a

al so at t empt s t o ma k e ac ompar i s on bet ween t hese f l ower g r owi ng r egi ons of Cal i f or・ni a.

II.

J apanes e Fl or i cul t ur e i n t he L os Ang e l e s Ar e a bef or e Wo r ld 晴海r

II

II-

1

.

Pi oneer i ng Pha s e

T h e r api dl y expandi ng e c onomy of L os Angel es and vi ci ni t y ( Fi g. 1) at t r act ed I ssei i mmi -gr ant s, pr ovi di ng t h e m wi t h i ncr easi ng oppor t uni t i es, par t i cul ar l y i n f ar mi ng. Ac c or di ngl y t he J apanes e popul at i on of L os Angel es c ount y i ncr eased r emar k abl y af t er t he t ur n of t he cent ur y. Exper i enc i ng a hundr edf ol d i ncr ease f r om 1900 t o 1920, t he popul at i on r eached s o me 37, 000 i n 1940 whi c h ac c ount ed f or 39 per cent of t he t ot al J apanes e popul at i on of t he st at e, t he l ar gest cl ust er i ng of t hi s g r oup i n t he count r y.

F l owe r g r owi ng wa s one of t he ar eas whe r e ne wl y ar r i ved Issei be c a me wel l est abl i shed.

I n

ear l y 1892 Sot ar o E n d o f r omSai t ama pr ef ect ur e l eased t wo l ot s at t he cor ner of S out h Ma in a nd \:町est ] e百er son st reet s i nd o wn t o wn L os Angel es and st ar t ed pr oduct i on of gar den pl ant s, car nat i ons a nd vi ol et s t o pi oneer J apanes e 乱owe r gr owi ng.

I n

セQ。ケ@ of t he next year, J i nnos uke

10

MI L E S

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

35

Koba t a f r om Wa k a y a ma pr ef ect ur e j oi ned hi m, wh o had ar r i ved on Ame r i c a n shor es t wo year s earl i er a nd l i ved f or a t i me i nnear by Ri ver si de. Fus at ar o A d ac hi f r om Tot t or i pr ef ect ur e j oi ned t h e m t he next year , c omi ng f r om S a n Fr anci sco. T hes e t hr ee ar e r e me mbe r e d as pi oneer s a mo n g J apanes e 臼owe r gr ower s i n s out her n Cal i f orni a. Whi l e E n d o gav e up hi s oper at i on and mi gr at ed t o Me x i c o bef or e t he 自owe r i ndust ry had f ul l y devel oped i nt o a 臼our i shi ng busi ness, t he ot her t wo cont r i but ed a gr eat deal t o its ear l y evol ut i on. Kobat a and Adac hi ser ved as t he fi rst pr esi dent and vi ce- pr esi dent, respect i vel y, wh e n t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Mar k et , I nc. wa s or gani zed. 7) J apanes e f l ower gr ower s or i gi nat ed f r om humbl e begi nni ng, as di d ot her J apanese agr i cul t ur -i sts. R o u g h and unpai nt ed s hacks we r e one of t he vi sual charact eri st i cs of Issei agr i cul t ur e i n L os Angel es c ount y i n t he 白rst year s of t hi s cent ur y, ref l ect i ng t he l ow st andar d of l i vi ng of J apa-nese f ar mer s. 8)

[ F l owe r gr ower s]五rst l ease t hr ee t o f our acr es of l and and bui l d a si mpl e hut usi ng r ough l umber and canvas. T he r e is, of cour se, no dε c ent f ur ni t ure, except a ker os ene st ove f or cooki ng. T h e y bui l d s uc h st r uct ur es as s i l k wor mshel ves , whi c h ma k e beds. T h e ker os ene st ove is c on veni er〕l ty used t o ma k e cof f ee as wel l as hot ,;o.. rat er f or was hi ng handsand f eet ( t he aut hor ’ s t r ansl at i on) . 9)

T h e l ocat i on of fl ower gr ower s and t hei r mar k et i ng act i vi t i es depended on avai l abl e t rans-por t at i on. I n t hose ea rl y days of t he i ndust r y wh e n aut omobi l es had not yet gai ned popul ar i t y, str eet cars we r e t he maj or me a ns of t rans port at i on. Accor di ngl yst r eet car l i nes l ar gel y det e r mi ned t he l ocat i on of nur ser i es. Yanag£- l wr i ( wi c ker t r unks ) whi c h t hey br ought f r omJ apan we r e us ed as f l ower cont ai ner s. T h e y we r e wr apped wi t h a pi ece of cl ot h and car r i ed on t he shoul der s. A s 白owe r g r ower s t ook st r eet car s pas s enger s began t o c ompl ai n about t he i ncr easi ng numbe r of t hese gr ower s . Al t houg h t hey s omet i mes t i pped conduct or s , t hey we r e event ual l y pr ohi bi t ed f r om br i ngi ng t hose hug e basket s ful l of fl owers i nt o t he cars. Gr owe r s had t o c hange t hei r mea ns of t r anspor t at i on t o hor s e and bug gy and t hen t o mot or cycl e si de- car s. L at er t he aut om o-bi l e be c a me w i del y used.

Peddl i ng wa s t he maj or wa y of sel l i ng f l ower s wh e n t he ci t y had onl y hal f adoz en fl ori sts. Wh e n f l ower s we r e l eft over , t hey we r e peddl ed f r omdoor t o door . Thi s sur el y st i mul at ed peopl e

s C U I・i osi t y wh e n t hey s a w a J apanes e peddl er wi t h

s un司t anned and uns hav ed f ace,

s weat ed and unc l ean shi rt , and wor n- out shoes wal k i ng bandy- l egged. " 10) Pr i ces fl uct uat edgr eat l y dependi ng on d e mand and suppl y. T h e day

s pr oceeds mi g ht v ar y f r omt wo t o f i ve dol l ars but r ar el y exceededt en dol l ars. 11 )

T h e numbe r of J apanes e f l ower gr ower s i ncr eased cons ider ably bet ween 1905 and 1910.

T h e S a n F r a nci sco ear t hquake and fi re br ought a ma s s mi gr at i on of J apanes e f r o m t hedevast at ed nor t her n ci t y t o r api dl y g r owi ng s out her n Cal i f orni a, i ncl udi ng t hose wh o had a n i nt er est i n f l ower gr owi ng. Ot hers shi f t ed f r om veget abl e and s t r awber r y pr oduct i on and s o mest ar t ed ne wl y f r om_ scrat ch.

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36

J apanese Fl ori cul t ure inSout her n Cal i f orni a

Sever al at t empt s wer e ma d e t o est abl i sh a f l ower mar k et i n d o wn t o wn L os Angel es ev en i n t he

rst decade of t hi s cent ur y. A smal l mar k et wa s opened by J apanes e gr ower s i n1909, whi l e anot her at t empt s ¥vas ma d e at a near by l ocat i on l at er i nt he s a me year. 12) Al t houg h t hese ear l y at t empt s f ai l ed, t he gr ower s ’ concer ns f or a bet t er mar k et i ng s y s t em cont i nued.

Compet i t i on i nt ensi f i ed unt i l shor t l y af t er 1910 wh e n t her e wer e s ome 70 J apanes e gr ower s i n t he area. Grov- . rer cooper at i on and uni t y wer e st r ongl y advocat ed i n t he f ace of g r owi ng c om -pet i t i ve pr essur es and dubi ous c ommer c i al pract i ces of s ome ot her whol esal er s and ret ai l ers. A meet i ng wa s hel d i n Apr i l , 1912, i n whi c h t ent at i ve art i cl es of associ at i on f or t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl ov: , rer Gr o¥ver s Associ at i on wer e draf t ed. A we e k l at er t he i naugur al meet i ng wa s hel d at a J apanes e r est aur ant i n t he J apanese quar t er of L os Angel es wi t h 36自ov・l er g r ower s i n at t endance. T h u s wa s bor n

Na n k a Ka e ng y o Kumi ai , " a n excl usi vel y J apanes e g r ower or gani za-t i on. A t as ec ond gener al meet i ng hel d五ve mont hs l at er wi t h s ome 70 g r ower s i n at t endance, t he es t abl i s hment of a f l ower mar k et 1vas deci ded. T h e Cal i f or ni a Fl ov-. rer M ar ket , a J apanes e est abl i shment al r eady i n successf ul oper at i on i n S a n F r anci sco,part i cul arl y enc our aged t he openi ng of an et hni c mar k et i n t he s out her n met r opol i s. T h e fi rst Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t opened i n J anuar y of 1913 wa s a modes t f aci l i t y on Sout h L os Angel es st reet . T h e f or mal i n cor-por at i on of t he non- pr of i t Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Mar ket , Inc. wa s pr opos ed t o t he st at e a year l at er and appr oval wa s gr ant ed, t hus ma k i ng a n e w er a i n t he hi st or y of J apanes e fl . ori cul -t ur e i n s out her n Cal i f or ni a.

I I - 2. Loc at i onal Pat t er n

N o ot her f l ower - gr owi ng r egi on i n t he cont i nent al Uni t ed St at es can pr oduc e s uc h a wi de var i et y of pr oduct s ov er so l ong a g r owi ng season and under mi n imu m pr ot ect i on as s out her n Cal i f orni a. Mo s t cut f l ower s c an be c ommer c i al l y g r o wn successf ul l y al ong mos t of t he Cal i f or ni a coast s out h of Sant a Bar bar a. But mos t J apanes e f l ower gr ower s bef or e 羽Torl d Wa r II wer e l ocat ed i n L os Angel es and i ts i mmedi at e vi ci ni t y, cl ose t o t hei r maj or out l et ( Fi g. 2)

T h e di st r i but i on of pr e- war J apanes e f l ower gr ower s is expl ai ned by a c ompl ex of f act ors s uc h as cl i mat eand soi l s, avai l abi l i t y of l and, accessi bi l i t y t o t r anspor t at i on and soci al condi t i ons. Gr owe r s we r e not al way s abl e t o obt ai n t he best l ocat ed l and f or t he cul t i vat i on of 孔o we rs. They of t en had t o c ompr omi s e and t o ma k e ma x imu m use of what ev er l and w as avai l abl e. T h e maj or i t y of t he J apanes e gr ower s di d not o wn t he l and t hey want ed and t hus we r e suscept i bl e t o ext er nal i nf l uences be y ond t hei r cont rol . T h e y pr ef er r ed t o cl ust er wi t h t hei r o wn ki nd, s o met i mes because it o妊er eda mor e at t ract i ve soci al l i fe and f eel i ng of securi t y, and s omet i mes because t hey wer e expl oi t i ng t he di scover y of af avor abl e envi r onment al ni che by f el l ow gr ower s . L a nd wa s sel ect ed by gr ower s by exper i ence and s omet i mes by chance. T hes e deci si ons we r e s el dom besed o n sci ent i f i c k nowl edg e of l ocal soi l s and cl i mat e. T h e y k n e w by exper i ence t hat s andy l oa m or l oa m soi l s wer e gener al l y good f or f l ower s. T h e y s ought wes t er n expos ur es and f rost f ree t her mal bel t wher e ai r dr ai nage wa s good. Mo s t f l ower s g r o w best i n l i ght t o me d iu m soi l s wh e n s u伍ci ent f ert i l i zer is suppl i ed. Al kal i ne soi l s ar e part i cul arl y har mf ul . Li ght soi l s ar e best f or f l ower s g r o wn dur i ng cool and moi s t aeasons as t hos e soi l s ar e wa r me d qui ckl y by sunl i ght whi l e mai nt ai ni ng good dr ai nage. Wh e r e t he aver age t er mper at ur e is hi gher , heavi er soi l s ma y be c ome mo r e pr oduct i ve. T h e r egi on whi c h enj oys t he wi des t var i et y of 乱ower s year r ound ar e t he coast al zones, whos e rel at i vel y cool s umme r s ar e domi nat ed by ons hor e br eezes whi l e wi nt er s t end t o be f rost】f ree.

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

37

1924

J、川川、川,,

v

1950

• One gr ower

0 I0

MI L E S

Fi g. 2. Di st ri but i on of J apanese f l ower gr ower s i n t he Los Angel es area, 1905- 1950. Dot s i n asquar e s how t he Los Angel es f l ower gr ower whos e l ocat i ons are uni den-ti fi ed.

Sour ce: NaロkaHa na I chi ba ( 1952) : Hi s t or y o f t he Sout her n Cal i f oni a F l owe1・

Ma r k e t ( i nJ apanese) , Nank a Ha na I chi ba, Los Angel es, p. 13 ; T he J apanese Consul at e of Los Angel es, " Regi st r t ai on Cards, 1920- 1924,'’ inJA R P Col l ect i on ; Na nk a E. asho Kumi ai ( 1933) : Hi s t or y o f t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl or i st Associ at i on ( i nJ apanese) , Nank a Kas ho Kumi ai , Los Angel es, pp. 393- 401 ,

J aj Nmes e Tel eρhone Dh・ect or) i o f Sout her n Cal i f or ni a 1950- 1951, Los Angel es.

pr oduct i on, f l ower i ng wa s hi ghl y seasonal . S u mme r f l ower s c a me mai nl y f r omt he beac h areas, whi l e t he i nt eri or S a n F er na ndo Val l ey a nd ot her i nl and ar eas speci al i zed i n wi nt er crops.

On e of t he fi rst cent er s wa s t he ar ea at t he f oot of Si gnal Hi l l ( L oηg Beac h) whe r e t he T uj ung a f i ne s and and R a mo n a f i ne s andy l oams we r e i deal f or t he pr oduct i on of vi ol et s and car nat i ons. I n 1911, 75 acr es we r e under 妊o wer cul ti v a ti o n her e . 13)

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38 J apanese Fl ori cul t ure inSout her n Cal i f orni a

ast er s and p o mp o ns we r e mai nl y gr own. T h e ar ea is domi nat ed by t he s andy soi l s of ol d beac h r i dges ( Oakl ey 負ne s and). It is hi gh enoug h and cl ose e noug h t ot he Paci五c not t o exper i ence ex t r eme col d dur i ng t he wi nt er and enj oys rel at i vel y cool spr i ngs and s ummer s . Chr y s a nt he mums bl oom one mo n t h earl i er i n t hi s coas t al z one due t o t he cool er ear l y fal l t emper at ur es c ompar ed t o t he ar eas f ar t her i nl and. B y t he earl y 1900

s t he whi t e- owned Re dondo Beac h Fl or al C o mp a n y near Re dondo Beach, t hen t he l argest c ommer c i al cut f l ower pr oducer i n s out her n Cal i f or ni a, wa s g r owi ng car nat i ons on 30 t o 40 acres. Ot her f l ower on smal l er acr eages i ncl uded out door r oses , l i l i es and cent auri as. 14) Ar ound 1905》 t her e we r e al r eady f our J apanes e g r ower si nHe r mos a

Beach. I n t he mi d- 1920' s Re dondo Beac h and He r mos a Beac h c ount ed 16 gr ower s , whi l e 17 of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl o¥ver Ma r k e t me mbe r s wer e l ocat ed i n t hi s beac h zone, i ncl udi ng Manhat t an Beac h i n t he ear l y 1930’ s. T h e ar ea cont i nued t o be an i mpor t ant g r owi ng r egi on t hr ough t he pr e- war peri od, especi al l y s u mme r bl ooms .

Ho1l yv・r nod ha d been f amous f or r oses ev en bef or e t he advent of t he mot i on pi ct ur e i ndust r y. T h e sl i ght l y hi gher l and al ong L os Fel i z Bl vd. wa s a cent er of J apanes e gr ower s by t he 1920' s. Car nat i ons and s weet peas we r e mai nl y g r own here. T h e s andy soi l s ( Hanf or d s andy l oam) ' ¥Vere adequat e and f rost s we r e rare. Pr oxi mi t y to d o wnt o wn L os Angel es put L os Fel i z g r owe rs i n an espedi al l y advant ageous posi t i on. L at er, ¥'vi t h t he s ur ge of hous i ng devel opment , t hi s s a me f act or v wr k e d i nver sel y as f t o¥ver gr ower s began t o be dri v en out i n t he ear l y 1930' s.

T h e wes t sl ope of Domi ng ue z Hi l l al so had a cl ust er of J apanes e f l ower gr ower s bef or e Wor ld羽Tar II, pr oduc i ng fal l and wi nt er c hr y s ant hemums and wi nt er st ocks. T h e Whi t t i er ar ea al so pr oduc ed wi nt er bl ooms . T h e S a n F er nando Val l ey and its east er n f oot hi l l s wer e l at er added t o t he f l ower g r owi ng ar eas whe r e l and wa s sti l l easi l y avai l abl e. Ho t and dr y s umme r s wi t h t he aver age ma x i mu m t emper at ur e r eachi ng as hi gh as 93° F. i n J ul y and A u g ust whi c h is near l y t en degr ees hi gher t han t hat of L os Angel es , and occasi onal s t r ong wi nds, har s h t o ma n y sens i t i ve f l ower s, di d not al l O' ¥v t he successf ul g r owt h of a wi de var i et y of f l ower s her e dur i ng t he s u mme r season. T h e r egi on, t her ef or e, be c a me a successf ul wi nt er pr oducer .

II - 3. Char act er i s t i cs of Pr oduc er s a n d Pr oduc t i on

V e r y f e w J apanes e agri cul t uri st s o wn e d l and i n s out her n Cal i f orni a. I nst ead t hey r ent ed it. Ac c or di ng t o a s ur vey of ei ght s out her n Cal i f or ni a count i es i n Oct ober , 1911, 25, 620 acr es we r e under J apanes e cont rol . Of t hese, 81. 7 per cent wa s under cash rent al , and anot her 11. 9 per cent wa s shar e cr opped. T w o year s l ater, t he acr eage under J apanes e cont r ol had ri sen t o 32, 100 acres, onl y 1, 518 of t hese wer e di rect l y owned. 15) J apanes e agr i cul t ur e i n L os Angel es c ount y f ol l owed t he s a me pat t er n. Whi l e i n 1907 s ome 6, 300 acr es of cul t i vat ed l and we r e under t he cont r ol of 519 J apanes e f ar ms i n t he c ountうり about 5, 200 acres, or 82 per cent , we r e cash rent ed. 1 6) T hr e e year s l at er it wa s est i mat ed t hat J apanes e o wne d 1, 429 acr es of cul t i vat ed l and whi l e r ent i ng mor e t han 5, 000 acres. 17)

F l ower pr oduct i on f ol l owed t hi s gener al pat t ern. I n l at e 1911, 37 acr es we r e J apanes e- owned and 158 acr es we r e under cash r ent by f l ower pr oducer s i n L os Angel es. I n t he f ol l owi ng years, al t hough t he ar ea under cul t i vat i on i ncr eased enor mous l y, t he rat i o of o wne d t o r ent ed l and di d not c hange muc h. I n 1940 me mbe r s of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t cont r ol l ed 2, 549 acres, of whi c h 514 acr es ( 20. 2 per cent ) we r e o wne d and t he rest wa s l eased l and. Of t he o wne d acr eage at t hat dat e, 218 acr es we r e hel d i n t he n a me of Ni sei , and 170 acr es we r e hel d by compani es . T h e tol al cul t i vat ed ar ea wa s 1, 635 acres, s ome t wo t hi rds of t he totaJ . l B)

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHuma n Geogr aphy

39

t he si t uat i on i n t he S a n Fr anci sco Ba y Ar ea wher e g r o wers owne d mos t of t he l and t hat t hey

used. T h e nor t her n Cal i f or ni a i ndust r y, of course, had had a mu c h l onger hi st ory, bei ng wel l

es tabbs hed bef or e t he Al i en L a nd L a w of Cal i f or ni a wa s passed i n 1913. T h e s out her n Cal i f or ni a

count er par t exper i enced its maj or dev el opment mu c h l at er.

T h e wa r me r s out her n Ci l i f orni a cl i mat e enc our aged f i el d pr oduct i on of f l ower s i n t he J

apanese-domi nat ed i ndust r y i n s out her n Cal i f orni a, whi l e i n t he Ba y Ar ea gr eenhous es had been t he rul e.

T h e aver age J anuar y t emper at ur e of L os Angel es is ar ound 55° F ., s ome si x degr ees hi gher

t han t hat of t he Ba y Ar ea. L os Angel es

aver age ma x i mu m and min imu m t e mper at ures of t hi s

wi nt er mont h ar e 65° and 45° respect i vel y, w hi l e t hose of Oak l and are 56° and 38° and S a n

J ose, 57° and 40° . Si nce gr eenhouses r equi r ed hi gher capi t a l i nvest ment , cont r ol of l and t hr ough

f ee s i mpl e owner s hi p wa s pr ef er r ed wher e t hey we r e used, but t he s emi - pe r manent whi t e

st ruct ur es gav e Ba y Ar ea gr ower s cons i derably l ess mobi l i t y t han t he open fi el d oper at or s t o t he

sout h. Si nc e avai l abl e good l and wa s mu c h scar cer i n t he Ba y Ar ea, l and pur chase wa s of t en t he

onl y wa y t o acqui r e gr owi ng ri ght s. T h e gr eat er mobi l i t y of s out her n Cal i f or ni a gr ower s wa s

t o pr ove a si gni五cant advant age si nce ma n y 丹ower s ar e sensi t i ve t o r epeat ed pl ant i ng on t he s a me l and. Especi al l y wh en t wo or t hr ee cr ops wer e g r own dur i ng one season, har mf ul f ungi ,

bact eri a, and vi r uses mi ght devel op i n t he soil , ma k i ng cost l y st eri l i zat i on and ot her speci al car e

t echni ques obl i gat or y. I n t he end, Ba y Ar e a gr ower s persi st ed l onger even i n t he f ace of sur gi ng

ur bani zat i on, as si gni f i ed by t he gr eenhous e encl aves ar ound t he S a n Fr anci sco Ba y t hat sur vi v e

ev en t oday .

J apanes e t ended to speci al i ze i n annual 孔o wers g r own f r om seeds, whi l e non- J apanes e mor e c o mmo nly g r e w per ennial s . A s t he J apanes e of t en had di f f i cul t y i n pur chasi ng l and or even

obt ai ni ng l ong- t er m l eases, t hi s spec ial i zat i onin annual pr oduct s wa s i n part t hei r adapt at i on t o

a condit i on in whi c h t hey had no guar ant ee t ocont i nuous access t o t he ] and.

Fur t her , ma n y of t he ear l y gr ower s wer e not fl m, _ rer speci al i st s. T h e y of t en g r e w f l ower s

as a si del i ne t oot her agri cul t ural cr ops especi al l y i n t he fi rst decades of t he pr esent cent ur y.

St r awber r y and veget abl e gr ower s mi ght t ur n to f l ower pr oduct i on especi al l y bet weenN ov e mber

and Mar c h, af t er t he fal l har vest and bef or e a n e w season st ar t ed f or veget abl es or st r awber r i es.

Bus hber r y gr ower s rai sed 臼ower s bet ween ber r y vi nes. I n 1907, t he Bur net t ( no w Si gnal l Hi l l ) ar ea had 12 J apanes e f l ower gr ower s , a mo n g ¥v hom onl y f our ¥Vere f l ower speci al i st s, t he ot her s

g r owi ng bot h f l ower s and veget abl es. I n 1913, a mo n g 52 J apanese f l ower pr oduct i on uni t s i n

t he vi ci ni t y of L os Angel es, onl y 17 wer e f l ower speci al i st s ( Tabl e 1) . Thi s c ombi nat i on of cr ops

gav e ear l y g r ower s mor e secur i t y and bal ance, especi al l y wh e n t he mar ket i ng of f l ower s ・was

not yet wel l or gani zed. Gr ower s’ i ncr easi ng speci al i zat i on i nf l ower s c a me mai nl y af t er 1930. Sout her n Cal i f or ni a f i ori cul t ure bef or e V / orl d \町ar II wa s al so char act er i zed by t he c ul ti va-t i on of di ver se vari et i es of f l ower s whi c h by f ar exceeded t hose g r own i n t he Ba y Ar ea. O v er one

hundr ed ki nds wer e pr obabl y rai sed i n t he fi el ds. I nt er ms of pr oduct i on area, i n 1940, st ocks

r anked fi rst cover i ng 272 ac res , f ol l °' ved by pompons ( 188 acres) , ast ers ( 184 ac r es) , del phi nium

( 95 ac res) , and s "

suc h as car nat i ons , r oses, and chr y sant he mu ms appear ed at t he ver y lコot t omof t he list, occupyi ng 21, 10 and 31 acres, respect i vel y. 19)

Pr oduct i on val ue expanded r e mar kabl y dur i ng t he cour se of t i me. I n 1911 t he annual J

apa-nese pr oduct i on of f l ower s wa s est i mat ed t obe ar ound $130, 000. Six year s l at er it v.,ras r oughl y

est i mat ed t o be f r om$500, 000 to $700, 000. In t he ear l y 1930' s J apanes e pr obabl y pr oduced

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40 J apanese Fl ori cul t ur einSout her n C al i fornia

Tabl e 1. Acr eage of J apanese f ar ms gr owi ng f l ower sin t he vi ci ni ty of Los Angel es , 1913.

Tot al

i nat i on L os Al ami t os Bur nett El Mont e San Gabri el N

rk

セセ

far m

Fl ower s 5, 3

戸 r:: ;

:.:>,:.:>,「 9 0 + 17 175. 5十 17 159 8 126 8

10 2

5 1

13 F l owers &

berri es Fl owers, berri es, & veget abl es Fl ower s &

veget ables Gar den pl ant s Gar den pl ant s

& veget abl es Gar den pl ant s

& berri es Fl ower s &

nursery stocks

戸 り ハu

n uv可’ム

ー i

γA

e

I hu

mm 、 i vA l a 2 1 1rすよ

aar− 』

叫凶

α

TT

8, 8, 8, 7 13, 8, 5, 5, 5, 5, ?, ? 17, 17, 25, 16, 13,

13, 4 12, 11, 10,

10, ?, ? 14 45, 35, 25,

10, 10, 10, 10

10 40, 21, 10, 9, 6 5

13

ひ 8. 5, 9

20,10 0, 5 379+ 30 13 1 R U

ω

7

10 588. 5 +

2

37. 5十

8 56

Not e :Numbe r int he tabl e i ndi cat es acrege of each f arm. T he sur vey was made in Febr uar y, 1913.Compi l edf r om R a ju Ne nk a n 7 ( Los Angel es, 1914)

non- J apanes e gr own, a mount ed t o some $3, 550, 000, of whi c h nearly 80 per cent we r e shar ed by fi el d- g r own f l ower s戸) Ac c or di ng t o a n ol d- t i mer , t he J apanes e s eg ment of t he i ndust r y i n t he 1910' s const i t ut ed s o me 60 per cent of L os Angel es, 日or i cul t ur e i n t er ms of numbe r of gr ower s a nd 35 per cent i n t er ms of pr oduct i on, whi c h, by t he t i me of evacuat i on, had i ncr eas ed t o a l i ttl e over 50 per cent bot h i n numbe r s a nd val ues. 21) T he r e we r e over 200 J apanes e 乱o we r gr ower s i n t he L os Angel es ar ea at t he t i me i ncl udi ng s o me 150 Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F lo wer Ma r k e t member s , wi t h about 30 bel ongi ng t o t he Uni on F l ower Ma r k et, and addi t i onal 20 peddl er s.

F l owe r pr oduct i on wa s a f ami l y oper at i on. Regi st r at i on car ds at t he J apanese Cons ul at e of L os Ang el es as of 1924 c ount ed 144 i ndi vi dual s or f ami li es eng ag ed i nf l ori cul t ure i n t he area. Fi f t een we r e si ngl e mal es and el even we r e mar r i ed but wi t hout wi v es pr esent . Thi r t y - six we r e coupl es wi t hout chi l dren. Sevent y- s i x gr ower s had one t o ni ne chi l dren, t he av er age numbe r of chi l dr en of t hese f ami l i es bei ng 2. 8. 22) I n t he l at e 1930' s f l ower gr ower s i n s out her n C al i f onri a empl oy ed a n aver age of t hr ee wor k er s . T h e aver age si ze of f a r m wa s ni ne acres, of whi c h s even acr es we r e under cul t i vat i on. 23)

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

41 I I -4. T h e S out her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Ma r k et , I nc.

T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar k et , I nc. pl ayed t he cent r al rol e i n t he hi st or y of t he J apanes e f l ower i ndust r y i n s out her n Cal i f or ni a c ompar abl e t o t hat of t he Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t of S a n Fr anci sco. Al t houg h t hi s wa s a n or gani zat i on est abl i shed and oper at ed excl usi vel y by t he J apanese, t he et hni c excl usi veness wa s not expl i ci t l y st at ed. Ac c or di ng t o t he art i cl es of associ at i on t he pur pos es of or gani zat i on we r e t o oper at e a mar k et pl ace, t o i mpr ov e t he condi t i on of hort i cul t uri st s, agr i cul t ur i st s,自ori cul t uri st s a nd nur s er y men, to deal wi t h pr oduct s g r o wn by t he me mb e r s and t o ma na g e busi ness r el at ed t o t hi s oper at i on. Pr oduc t s g r o wn out si de s out her n Cal i f or ni a we r e not t o be handl ed. On e wh o s ought me mbe r s hi p had t o appl y wi t h t wo or mo r e si gnat ur es of me mb e r s and pay t he ver y consi der abl e ent r ance f ee of $2, 000. J apanes e wa s t he "of f i ci al " l anguage, all t he art i cl es of associ at i ons a nd ot her doc ument s hav i ng been wr i t t en i n J apanese.

T h e next year af t er i ts es t abl i s hment at i ts Sout h L os Angel es l ocat i on, t he mar k et mo v e d t o near by Wa l l St reet . Fi ve year s l at er anot her shi ft and f ur t her expans i on wa s di scussed, and t hr ee l ot s l ocat ed t hr ee bl ocks t o t he s out h on t he s a me st reet we r e l eased f or a t e r mof f i f ty year s begi nni ng i n Oc t ober 1922. 2' 1) T h e shi f t wa s c ompl et ed t he f ol l owi ng year and me mbe r s hi p at t he t i me numbe r e d 137. Wi t hi n l ess t han a decade, a f ur t her expans i on wa s consi der ed i n v i e w of t he g r owi ng numbe r of J apanes e 孔owe r gr ower s and t hei r i ncr eased pr oduct i on. Du r i n g t he ec onomi c depr essi on of t he 1930' s veget abl e gr ower s c hanged over t o f l ower pr oduct i on. T h e const r uct i on wo r k wa s done by t he Gol den S k y I nv es t ment Cor por at i on, a Ni s ei - owned hol di ng c ompa ny whi c h act ual l y o wn e d t he ma r k et bui l di ng and l eased it t o t he F l ower Mar ket . T h e n e w mar ket pl ac e ar ea c over ed s o me 20, 000 s quar e f eet at t he s a me l ocat i on. T h e me mbe r s hi p at t hi s t i me wa s 159 ( Phot o 1) .

Phot o 1. Sout her n Cal i f orni a Fl ower Mar ket in t he earl y 1930' s Repr i nt ed f r om Nank a Ha na I chi ba ( 1952) Hi s t or y o f t he Sout her n Cρl i f onziα F l owe r i¥11 m・ket , Nank a Ha na I chi ca》

Los Angel es.

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42

J apanese Fl ori cul t ure inSout her n C al i for ma

sa v mgs, s pons or i ng excur si ons, and 丹oral f ai rs as wel l as r ound四t abl e di scussi ons o n new

t echni ques of f l ower pr oduct i on, and pr ovi di ng me mbe r s wi t h ot her i nf or mat i on usef ul f or t he ma na g e me nt of nur ser y. T he J apanes e l ang ua ge F l owe r λ1ar het Ne・ws wa s publ i shed, fi rst as a mont hl y publ i cat i on but l at er onl y o n speci al occasi ons.

E x pandi ng t he out l et f or s out her n Cal i f or ni a f l ower s wa s one of t he maj or concer ns of t he mar k et f r om t he begi nni ng of its organi zat i on. 25) A sal es depar t ment wa s or gani zed i n late 1914 t o pr omot e s hi pment of fl owers t oeast er n ci ti es. T w o year s l at er t hi s depat rr ent , ¥vhi ch wa s f unct i oni ng unsat i sf act ori l y, pur chas ed t he Gol den Fl or al C o mp a n y whi c h had been earl i er or gani z ed by s ome me mb e r s of t he Ma r k e t t o under t ake s hi νment of f l owers t o Chi c ago and ot her mar ket s . Al t hough at t empt s at l ong di st ant s hi pment i n t hese ear l y years \∼rere not al wa y s successf ul , t hey of f er ed a basi s f or t he l arge- scal e expans i on of l at er years. B y t heout br eak of V¥Torl d Wa r II , l ong di st ance s hi pment s of 自ower s bec ame a commo n p l ace. Eas t er n d e mand f or s out her n C al i f orni a 司O¥Ver s vrns especi al l y l ar g e dur i ng t he wi nt er . I ce pac ki ng ¥Vas used, mo v e -me nt all bei ng by rai l . 26) Out - of - st at e shipment a mount e d t o some 500 car l oads annual l y, each car l oad cont ai ni ng 200 boxes. Sout her n st at es, i ncl udi ng Ok la homa and T e x as, rec ei ved asur pr i si ng 80 per cent of t hese s hi pment s , t he Mi dwe s t er n and E ast er n st at es bei ng mai nl y suppl i ed by Ba y Ar e a gr ower s .

T h e i dea of t he mut ual assi st ance depar t ment wa s besed upon aJ apanes e c o mmo n pract i ce of gi vi ng k ode叱 a mone t ar y o在er i ng f or t he dead, t o t he f ami l y of t he deceased. Thi s depar t ment of f er ed 500 dol l ar s hoden upon adeat h of a me mb e r or hi s spouse. T able rent wa s r ai sed by f i ve dol l ars and char ges f or pus h t r ucks i n t he mar ket pl ac e we r e accumul at ed, i nor der t o cr eat e ar eser v e f und f or t hi s ai dact i vi t y. F r o m 1934 t hr ough 1940, 15 me mbe r s r ecei ved k oden

f r omt hi s depar t ment . Al t hough t hi s pract i ce wa s c o mmo n a mo n g t he over seas J apanes e, t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl o¥ver Ma r k et w as t he onl y t r ade associ at i on i n s out her n Cal l i f or ni a whi ch pr act i ced t hi s mut ual assi st ance on a syst emat i c l :i asi s.27) It cr eat ed a sense of solidari t y and sec uri t y a gai nst a poss i bl e di sast er. Al t houg h t he act i vi t y had t o be i nt er r upt ed due to t he war t i me evacuat i on, one hundr ed dol l ars of k oden wa s o百er ed t o eac h of t he f ami l i es of t he t hi rt een me mbe r s wh o di ed dur i ng t he war . 28 N o si mi l ar pr og r a m s eems ever t o hav e been i n ef f ect i n any of t he Ba y Ar e a or gani zat i ons st udi ed.

Oper at i ng cost s f or t he mar k et we r e me t by member s hi p f ees c har ged accor di ng t o acr eage and ki nd of f l ower s gr own, and t abl e r ent 1i n t he mar ket pl ac e accor di ng t o l ocat i on.幻J ) O n t he c ement ed f l oor, 157 t abl es we r e ar r anged i n ・t wo ci rcl es, whi c h wer e di vi ded i nt o t wo gr oups, A and B accor di ng to t he pr oxi mi t y t o t he ent r ance o n Wa l l St reet . E a c h t abl e wa s number ed, as s i gnment of t abl es t aki ng pl ace at t he annual meet i ng of t he member s each J anuar y.

Al t houg h fi ow.::i:: mar k et s ar e k n o wn f or t hei r ear l y mor ni ng act i vi t y》t he openi ng t i me of t he Sout her n Cdl i f Srri i a F l ower Ma r k e t c hanged sever al t i mes i n r esponse t o c hangi ng rel at i on

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Ts ukubaSt udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

43

T h e ori gi nal art i cl es of t hi s J apanes e associ at i on st at i ng t hat " pr oduct s g r o wn out si de s out her n Cal i f or ni a s houl d not be deal t wi t h ( Gener al Rul es, Art i cl e2) , " shar pl y cont r ast ed wi t h t he pr esent si t uat i on i n whi c h all ki nds of f l ower s f r om t he wor l d over ar e handl ed. T his rest ri ct i ve pol i cy wa s t o pr ot ect l ocal f l ower gr ower s agai nst t he dumpi ng of nor t her n Cal i f or ni a 白ower s whi c h gr eenhous e owne r s mi g ht buy at l ow pri ces t o be kept i n t hei r gr eenhous es unt i l t he ma r k e t wa s good. : 31) T h e y appar ent l y had to k eep a n eye o n each ot her so t hat none of t h e m woul d undul y ex pand hi s acr eage. It wa s al so agr eed to sel l t he s a me qual i t y pr oduct s at t he s a me mar k et pri ce dur i ng t he mar k et hour s. T hus t he associ at i on oper at ed stri ctl y. I n 1917, t wo me mbe r s we r e di smi ssed f or behavi or t hat " negl ect ed t he mut ual benef i t of t he Ma r k e t and deci si ons of t he boar d of di r ect or s ." 32)

T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t had a rest ri ct i ve member s hi p pol i cy due to t he l i mi t ed capaci t y of t he mar ket . : B) T h e member s hi p st ayed at 159 f or a l ong t i me. T h e s l ow g r owt h di d not c o me cl ose to keepi ng pace wi t h t he t ot al numbe r of J apanes e f l ower gr ower s i n t he L os Ang el es ar ea . T h e rest ri ct i ve pol i cy wa s f ur t her mani f es t i n t he r emar kabl e i ncr ease i n t he associ at i on》s ent r ance fee. 34〕Thi s r est r i ct eve pol i cy wa s pr obabl y successf ul i n pr event i ng t hose al r eady i n t he busi ness f r omacut e compet i t i on and i n mai nt ai ni ng a cer t ai n l evel of ma r k et pri ces f or f l ower s. Wi t hout t abl e space i n t he f l ower mar ket , f l ower gr ower s wer e put i n al ess compet i t i ve and di s advant ageous posi t i on. Svens r ud, i nhi ss t udy of aJ apanese agr i cul t ur al c ommuni t y

X " i n t he s ubur bs of L os Angel es i n t he ear l y 1930

s, ment i oned : " Thi r t y of t he f ami l i es gr ow veget abl es. Mo s t of t he f ami l i es, pr evi ousl y rai sed f l ower s, but t hey ar e t endi ng t o c hange t o r ai si ng veget abl es as it cost s t he m mor e to mar k et f l ower s, due t ot he hi gh r ent s f or f l ower stal l s at t he publ i c mar k et whe r e t hey sel l t hei r pr oduce at whol esal e. " 35)

Thi s rest ri ct i v e admi ni t r at i on pol i c y evenual l y r esul t ed i n t he est abl i shment of a s econd J apanes e f l ower ma r k et i n L os Angel es and a n i nt r a- et hni c di sput e. T h e Uni on F l ower Ma r k e t ha d been or gani z ed by t wo doz en f l ower gr ower s , bot h J apanes e and whi t e, i n l at e 1930. S o me gr ower s , mai nl y ne wc ome r s i n t he busi ness kept f r om j oi ni ng t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t》 r ent ed space near t he mar ket pl ace and sol d t hei r f l ower s out door s bef or e t hey or gani z ed

t hi s s econd f l ower mar ket . A pr opos ed mer ger of t he t wo mar ket s whi c h ended i n a f ai l ure i n

1931 wa s t he pri nci pal cause of t he l ong t er m di sput e, whi c h l ed t o t he l argest l awsui t i n t he hi st or y of t he J apanes e c ommuni t y of s out her n Cal i f orni a. Bot h f l ower mar k et s publ i shed st at e-me nt s inaL os Angel es ' J apanes e ne ws paper , Ra ju Shi r nj >o, 36) v. rhi l e at t empt s wi t hi n t he J apanes e c ommunit y t o medi at e t hi s di sput e f ai l ed. I n t he spr i ng of 1934 t he Uni on F l ower Ma r k e t s ued t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t f or t he da me g e of s ome $300, 000. Thi s l egal di sput e l ast ed f or mor e t han t hr ee year s unt i l t he case wa s cl osed i n f avor of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar ket . B y t hi s t i me t he ill f eel i ngs bet ween t he t wo gr oups had f aded. 37) T h e i nci dent ¥;vell demons t r at es t he cohesi ve and excl usi ve nat ur’e of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t as a pr ot ect i ve t r ade or gani zat i on. Onl y cer t ai n me mbe r s of t he J apanes e c ommuni t y , t hose 150

wh o wer e its me mbe r s had access t o t he ec onomi c benef i t s it pr ovi ded. T h e cont r over s y cl earl y expos ed t he f act i onal i sm exi st i ng i n t he J apanes e c ommuni t y of s out her n Cal i f orni a.

I I - 5. I nt er - et hni c Rel at i ons

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44 J apanese Fl or i cul t ur e i nSout her n Cal i f or r na

bus i nes s gener al l y per c ei ved t hi s s ent i ment not as a pr oduc t of t hei r di st i nct et hni ci t y, lコut r at her as a r es pons e t o f ear s a n d j eal ousi es t o whic h t hei r act i vi t i es ha d gi v en ri se a mo n g non- J apanes e gr ower s .

S o me of t he c har ges br oug ht agai ns t J apanes e f ar mer s i nc l uded wo r k ing o n S unda y s a nd t he us e of f e ma l e f i el d hands . F o r t hos e di l i gent . i mmi g r a nt s t r yi ng ha r d t o ma k e e nds me e t a nd t o impr ov e t hei r e c onomi c condi t i ons, S u n d a y 羽r or k s e e me d a nor ma l act i vi t y, as di d wo r k ing w o me n i n t hes e f ami l y - t y pe oper at i ons. Re s pondi ng t o t hes e c har ges , t he S out he r n Cal i f or ni a F lo we r Ma r k e t at a n ext r aor di nar y me e t i ng hel d i n 1919 st at ed t hat 丹o we r g r owe r s s houl d r es pect t he Ame r ic a n c us t o m a nd abol i s h wo r k o n S unda y s a nd t hat w o me n s houl d not wo r k i n t he f i el ds. 39〕T h e J apanes e f l ower ma r k e t i n L o s Ang e l e s c ont i nued t o ope n e v e n o n Sunday s .

S u n d a y wo r k a nd wo me n wor k ing i n t he f i el d c ont i nued t o be a cont r over s i al i ssue f or J apanes e f ar mer s . I n 1920, f our J apanes e agr i cul t ur al associ at i ons i n s out her n Cal i f or ni a di st r i b-ut ed a not i ce a mo n g t hei r f el l ow me mb e r s,“ T a k e a D a y Of f o n S unday s . " Alt houg h l engt hy, it is wo r t h r epr oduc i ng it her e ( aut hor

s t r ansl at i on) .

キキネヰネ

TA K E A D A Y O FF ONS U N D A Y S

1. \ヘl e shoul d abol i sh Sunday wor k, except pi cki ng st r awber r i es, mel ons, veget abl es and ot hers for・t he Mo n d a y mar ket . I n t he Uni t ed St at es, Sunday i ssuppos ed to be t he cl ay f or rest wh e n peopl e rest t he m”

sel ves af t er a we e k of wor k. Wh e n y ou ¥vork, y ou mus t spar e no pai ns to wor k, and wh e n you rest, y ou shoul d t ake adequat e rest. Ot her wi s e your wor k e伍ci ency is af f ect ed. Tr ai ns and hor ses qui ckl y bec ome usel ess if t hey ar e used wi t hout any br eak t hr oughout t he year. If y ou over exer t your sel f t hr ough car el essness i n your yout h, y ou fai l i n heal t h and fal l t oo s oon i nt odot age. O n Sundays , it i snecessar y to rest your body, nour i sh your mi nd and enj oy life. Except i ons wi l l be unavoi dabl e, as t he pi cki ng of st r awber r i es, veget ables, mel ons, etc. whi c h mus t not be t oo ri pe, and i rri gat i on of t he fi el ds on ass i gned Sundays . But cl ever per sons wi l l be abl e t o avoi d wo r k on Sunday s by caref ul pl anni ng. Y o u mus t st op weedi ng and usi ng hor ses i nt he 白el ds on t hi s day under any cir cumst ances. D o y our wor k dur i ng t he weekdays . If y ou bel i eve y ou can cont i nue to cont r adict Amer i c an c us t oms and t hat y ou mus t over exer t yoursel f , y ou ar e ver y wr ong. Pl ease do not. Suc h vai n ef f ort s wi l l onl y pr omot e ant i”J apanese sent i ment . 2. Fi el d wor k by wo me n on Sunday s shoul d absol ut el y be abol i shed: Nei t her me n nor wo me n s houl d wor k on Sundays. It is especi al l y wr ong f or f emal es to wor k i nt he fi el ds on Sundays. A n y such wor k is l i kel y to be at t ended wi t h t roubl e, and wo me n’s pr esence i nt he fi el ds wi l l doubl e thi s. Thus , S unday fi el d wor k shoul d be abol i shed. If t he pr esent sit uat i on cont inues, it wi l l be i ncr easi ngl y di伍cul t todef end our sel ves bef or e t he J apanese excl usi on mov e me nt

3. Ev er y ef f ort shoul d be ma de t omi ni mi z e t he use of wo me n wor ker s i n t he 五elcls, even on week day s : It is a mi s t ake t o ma k e wo me n wor k i n t he fi el ds. Ther e is pl ent y todo at h o me as wi ves and mot her s. Thei r responsi bi l i t i es i ncl ude educat i on of t he chi l dren, pr epar at i on of meal s, doi ng t he l aundr y, r epai r i ng cl ot hes, and cl eani ng of t he house, as wel l as ma n y ot her t hi ngs that r educe l i vi ng expenses. It isa gr eat mi s t ake f or t he m towor k i nt he fi el ds all t he t i me, t hus negl ect i ng t he ot her wor k. Y o u do not hav e to al ways i mi t at e peopl e, lコut you ma y l earn good t hi ngsev en f r om Amer i cans . Y o u shoul d be car ef ul not to s ow t he seeds of your o wn excl usi on. It i s e mba rra ss i ng wh e n sl ovenl y behavi or of s ome J apanesegi ve ot her s t roubl e. F r o m n o w on, we mus t correct our bad pract i ces and pr omot e good c us t oms . Pl ease under s t and t he si t uat i on, obser ve t he above provi si ons, and be a good J apanese

J ul y 1920

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

45

Gr ower s Associ at i on of Sout her n Cal i f orni a

キヰ ヰユドキ

I n or der t o hel p ease t he g r owi ng ant i - J apanese sent i ment , t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t dr opped i ts J apanes e- onl y me mbe r s hi p pol i cy i n 1915. T h e ma r k et wa s opened t o non-me mbe r s , i ncl udi ng non- J apanes e》 wh e n space wa s avai l abl e, al t hough t he space l i mi t at i on di d not al l ow t h e m t o br i ng t hi s deci si on i nt o pract i ce.

T h e gr eat est c ompet i t or of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t wa s t he Ame r i c a n Fl or i st s E x c ha ng e est abl i shed i n 1921 i nd o wn t o wn L os Angel es by s o me 50 f l ower gr ower s of ot her et hni c st ocks. Lat er it r・el ocat ed t o Wa l l St reet , acr oss f r omt he J apanes e market pl ace. ・10) Whi l e at t he J apanes e ma r k et gr ower s t hems el ves br ought i n f l ower s and di spl ayed t h e m o n t abl es, c ons i gnment sal es domi nat ed t he t r ansact i on at t he A m白i can mar k et : H〕J apanes e gr ower s di d not

cr oss t he st r eet " unt i l t he ear l y 1930' s. On e ol d- t i mer i n t he busi ness recal l s t hat s o me a nd per haps mos t of t he pr obl ems we r e obvi ousl y der i ved f r om l anguage di伍cul ti es. 42)

I mpr ov e me nt i nt he r el at i onshi p bet ween J apanes e and whi t e f l ower mar k et s c a me i n t he ear l y 1930' s. T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl or al Associ at i on, I nc. wa s or gani z ed in Ma y 1933 under t he Nat i onal Rec ov er y Admi ni s t r at i on act t hr ough t he col l abor at i on of bot h J apanes e and whi t e 日owe r gr ower s . Thi s wa s r eor gani z ed f i ve mont hs l at er as a t r ade associ at i en. T h e boar d of di r ect or s wa s ma b e up of appr oxi mat el y equal numbe r s of J apanes e and Amer i c ans t hr oughout t he pr e司Wo r ld Wa r II peri od. 43)

II-

6. Gener at i onal Tr ans i t i on

Gener et i onal t r ansi t i on of l eader shi p f r omIssei t o Ni sei mai nl y t ook pl ace af t er t he war , but it wa s begi nni ng t o be evi dent i n pr e- war days. I n t he l at e 1920' s, onl y a n occasi onal Ni sei hel ped hi s I ssei f at her i n t he mar ket , i n t he spar e t i me f r om t hei r school . B y 1940》 mos t I ssei

had r eached t he r et i r ement age, whi l e t he second- gener at i on popul at i on i n L os Angel es c ount y numbe r e d s o me 25, 000. A mo n g Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Ma r k e t me mbe r s i n t hat year, hal f we r e ov er 50 year s ol d and 10 we r e Ni sei . Anot her 40 or mo r e Ni sei we r e engaged i n t r ans-act i ons i n t he mar ket pl ac e on behal f of t hei r I ssei member s .

A J uni or Fl or i cul t ur al Soci et y had been est abl i shed wi t hi n t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Ma r k e t i n 1933. It wa s des i gned t o pr omot e f r at er nal r el at i onshi ps and t o ex pand k nov dedg e of

白or i cul t ur e a mo n g Ni sei . It s omet i mes s pons or ed part i es and pi cni cs as wel l as l ect ur es and excur si ons. T h e Gol den S k y I nv es t ment Cor por at i on, a hol di ng c ompa ny of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar ket , ¥Vas o wn e d and oper at ed by Ni sei . Ar ound 1940, 484 Ni sei and Sansei we r e c ount ed i n t he f ami l i es of t he J apanes e f l ower gr ower s bel ongi ng t o t he Mar ket . Of t hese "Wer e 136 me n and wo me n aged 20 year s and over. 44)

II-

7. R抗ai l Fl or i st s

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46

J apanese Fl ori cul t ure inSout her n C al i forni a

f ound t hi s reati l busi ness wai t i ng t obe fi l l ed. Thei r act i vi t i es as f l ori sts wer e cert ai nl y s uppor t ed

by J apanese engaged i n t he 自o wer pr oduct i on and ret ai l i ng of f l ower s we nt hand i n hand f r om t he begi nni ng.

Si nce t he openi ng of t he fi rst J apanes e 自owe r s hop i n 1906, t he numbe r of J apanes e retai l f l ori st gr adual l y gr ew. T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl ori st Associ at i on wa s est abl i shed i n 1922 as

an et hni c or gani zat i on consi st i ng onl y of J apanese member s . A decade l at er its member s hi p

r eached 73. 46) Ri ght bef or e t he out br eak of Wor ld Wa r II, t her e ¥x. rere over 200 J apanes e retai l

f l ori sts i n t he L os Angel es area, account i ng f or one quar t er of t he t ot al s uch ret ai l ers.・H) T h e

g r owerゅret ai l er al i gnment wa s t hus obs er ved i n t he L os Angel es

J apanese f l . ori cul t ure to a

l i mi t ed ext ent . S uc h et hni c cont i nui t y of channel s exi st ed i n t he pr oduct i on and mar ket i ng of

f r esh pr oduce i n mu c h an exagger at ed manner .

I I I . Rel ocat t i on a n d Rec ons t r c t i on

T h e out br eak of t he wa r bet ween t he Uni t ed St at es and J apan had a gr eat i mpac t on t he

J apanese c ommui t y i n t he Uni t ed St at es. ・wi t h t he s ubs equent evacuat i on of t he gr oup f r om t he

We s t Coast , J apanes e agri cul t ural act i vi t i es, so pr osper ous pri or t o t hi s t i me, suf f er ed an abr upt

and ev en cat ast r ophi c i nt errupt i on. T h e evacuat i on exer t ed f ar r eachi ng psychol ogi cal as ¥vel l

as ec onomi c i nf l uences on t he J apanese i nvol ved and br ought about c hanges i n t he l ocat i onal

pat t er n of t he group. 48)

T h e per i od bet ween De c e mbe r 7, 1941, and t he ma s s evacuat i on wa s t hat of speci al t ur moi l

f or J apanese engaged i n t he f l oral busi ness. O n De c e mbe r 8, one f l ori st of Gl endal e, L os Ang e

-l es count y, r epor t ed a busi ness of onl y 50 cent s all day l ong agai nst t he usual 100 dol l ars of

sal es. T h e s ubs equent days wer e as bad, sal es s el dom r eachi g as mu c h as t wo dol l ars a day. A s

war t i me t ravel rest ri ct i ons i ncreased, c us t omer s cont i nued t o st ay a wa y unt i l he fi nal l y cl osed

t he s hop on Apr i l 7, 1942. B y t hi s t i me t he maj or i t y of t he J apanese f l ori st s had al r eady gone

out of busi ness. 49) T h e Amer i c a n publ i c nat ur al l y wa s r el uct ant t odo busi ness wi t h J apanese

f ol l owi ng Pear l Har bor . T h e war t i me e c onmy al so rest ri ct ed t he de ma nd f or f l ower s whi c h

wer e obvi ousl y s econdar y i t ems, readi l y di spensed wi t h.

T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t qui ckl y r es ponded t o t he abr upt shi f t i n out l ook

f or t hei r busi ness. Pr epar at i on wa s ma d e by t he me mbe r s t o t r ansf er all t he ri ght s of t he

ma na g e me nt of t he mar k et f r om I ssei t oNi sei hands. Reas onabl y enough, Issei as s umed t hat

Ni sel , wh o wer e Amer i c an- bor n ci t i zens pr es umabl y f ul l y pr ot ect ed by t he Uni t ed St at es Const i

-t ut i on, woul d not exper i ence t r eat ment as e ne my al i ens. E v e n if all t he Issei wer e evacuat ed, Ni sei ,

t hey t hought , coul d cont i une t o oper at e t he mar ket pl ace and t he aut o par k as wel l as f l ower

pr oduct i on. T h e y pr oposed t o est abl i sh a nonpr of i t cor por at i on, t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl or al

Exc hange, 100 per cent owne d by Ni sei . A l i cense wa s gr ant ed t o t he cor por at i on on J anuar y 26,

1942. 50)

Despi t e al l t hese ef f ort s t he si t uat i on wor s ened and t he Ni s ei - owned Sout her n Cal i f or ni a

Fl or al Ex c hang e never f unct i oned. Race, not ci t i zenshi p or l oyal t y, wa s t o bec ome t he cri t eri on

f or evacuat i on. Issei wh o set t hei r hopes on t hei r Ni sei chi l dr en to car r y on t he i ndust r y wer e

wr ong and so wer e Ni sei wh o t hought t hei r pat ri ot i c act i vi t i es and Amer i c an ci t i zenshi p woul d

f ul l y pr ot ect t hem.

Wh e n t he J apanese l i vi ng i n " mi l i t ar y ar ea no. l " al ong t he coast wer e advi sed t o evacuat e

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Ts ukuba St udi es inHu ma n Geogr aphy

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dol l ar s t o eac h me mb e r to f aci l i t at e t he evacuat i on process. T h e Ma r k e t al so ma d e a n ef f ort t o l ook f or l and to whi c h its me mb e r s mi g ht mo v e t o est abl i sh a f l ower gr ower s ' col ony out si de t he We s t Coas t mi l i t ar y areas. Repr es ent i ves we r e sent to We s t e r n and Mi dwes t er n st at es s ear chi ng f or possi bl e l ocat i ons. T he s e ef f ort s i na ny case ended up i n vai n wi t h t he f or ce mi gr at i on decr ee i n Mar c h, 1942.

T h e out br eak of t he wa r had sever el y rest ri ct ed t he oper at i on of t he J apanes e ma r k e t o n Wa l l St r eet i n d o wn t o wn L os Angel es . J apanes e we r e pl aced under a c ur f ew f r om ei ght i nt he ev eni ng t hr ough si x i n t he mor ni ng, and under a si x- mi l e r adi us t ravel rest ri ct i on unl ess wi t h speci a l per mi ssi on. F l owe r gr ower s wh o us ed to t ravel f r om15 t o 35 mi l es to t he d o wn t o wn f l ower ma r k e t t o whol es al e t hei r f l ower s suf f er ed gr eat i nconvei nces. Ma r k e t hour s, whi c h had been f r o mf our t o t en o’ cl ock i n t he mor ni ng, had t obe adj ust ed, del ayi ng t he openi ng t i me f or t wo hour s蜘Cr edi t rest ri ct i ons f or t he J apanes e t i ght ened. A mo n g whi t e cr edi t or s t her e wa s a

r el uct ance t o ext end credi t t o J apanese, gi ven t he uncer t ai nt y as t o h o w l ong t hi s et hni c gr oup coul d r ema i n at t hei r pr esent l ocat i ons and t he f act t hat t hey mi g ht not be abl e t o r et ur n agai n t o Cal i f or ni a onc e t hey we r e evacuat ed. At t empt s we r e ev en ma d e t odi scour age J apanes e f r om r emai ni ng whe r e t hey wer e.

Un d e r t hese ci r cums t ances mos t J apanes e f l ower gr ower s st opped pr oduc i ng f l ower s. Ma n y at t empt s we r e ma d e by out si der s t o t ake over t he J apanes e oper at i ons. I n t he end s ome ni net y per cent of J apanes e nur ser i es i n t he L os Angel es ar ea we r e t aken over b y whi t es, al mos t al way s at sever el y r educ ed pri ces. I n s o me cases, l andl or ds st epped i n and t ook over t he bus i nes s by cancel l i ng t he l ease. 51)

A t t he meet i ng of t he boar d of di r ect or s i n l ate Mar c h, it wa s deci ded t o i nvest t he l egal advi sor of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar k et , I nc. wi t h ful l power s c onc er ni ng t he ma na g e-me n t of t he mar ket . T h e 105 me mb e r s wh o had not yet been evacuat ed, s ubmi t t ed powe r of at t or ney t o hi m. It wa s al so deci ded t o gi ve me mb e r s a n ext ensi on f or payi ng of f t hei r debt t o t he Ma r k e t and i ts cooper at i ve pur c has i ng depar t ment unt i l t he r eopeni ng of t he ma r k et expect ed af t er t he wa r wa s over . S o me of t he st ock at t he cooper at i ve pur chas i ng depar t ment wa s r et ur ned t o whol es al er s whi l e s o me wa s cons i gned f or sal e. Al l t he account s we r e cl osed on Ma r c h

31, 1942. T h e Ma r k e t a nd aut o par k we r e bot h l eased t o t he Uni t ed Wh o!εsal e Fl ori st s, on t he condi t i on t hat t he l ease coul d be cancel l ed at si x mont hs ' not i ce. T h e par t of Apr i l s a w no J apanes e i n t he mar ket pl ace, unf ami l i ar non- J apanes e f aces hav i ng t aken over t he scene. 52)

Wh e n t he J apanes e di sappear ed f r omWa l l St r eet t he Amer i c a n- owned Ame r i c a n Fl or i st E x c ha ng e ex panded i ts oper at i on by pur chas i ng l and, expandi ng t he mar ket pl ac e a nd const r uct i ng a n aut o par k. Fl ovver s began t obe g r o wn mo r e by non- J apanes e et hni c gr oups s uc h as I t al i ans, Mexi c ans , Gr eeks , and Fi l i pi nos. S o me of t he n e w gr ower s had f or mer l y wor k e d at J apanes e f l ower f ar ms. T h e y t ook f u日 adv ant age of t hi s oppor t uni t y t o c l i mb t he l adder f r om ¥vor ker t o nur s er y owner , us i ng t hei r exper i ence wi t h J apanes e gr ower s . Ma n y of t h e m enj oyed a boomi ng bus i nes s dur i ng t he war . T h e f l ower busi ness di d not c o me under t he cont r ol of Of f i ce of Pr i ce Admi ni s t r at i on and no O PA cei l i ngs ・wer e est abl i shed on f l m, _1ers‘ T h e busi ness act ual l y di d not suf f er a ny of t he war t i me rest ri ct i ons whi c h ot her s exper i enced, except f or f ert i l i zer avai l abi l i t y whi c h di d not real l y be c ome a ser i ous pr obl em. T h e f l ower busi ness under non- J apanes e cont r ol t hus wa s boomi ng and t hose i n t he busi ness enj oyed a pr os per ous t i me a nd ma d e subst ant i al prof i t s. S o me of t he Mex i c a n a nd Fi l i pi no f l o¥ver噂 gr ower s est abl i shed at t hi s t i me event ual l y be c a me maj or pr oducer s.

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48

J apanese Fl ori cul t ure inSout her n Cal i f orni a

f or t hei r r et ur n t o t hei r busi nesses. T h e y c ommuni c at ed wi t h t hei r l egal advi sor a nd ot her r el at ed per s ons about t he si t uat i on of t he mar ket . ¥i ¥Then t empor ar y r el ease t o t he We s t Coas t be c a me possi ble, di r ect or s of t he boar d act i vel y c ommuni c at ed wi t h eac h ot her , s omet i mes vi si t i ng ot her s at ot her cent ers, a nd s omet i mes vi si t i ng L os A n gel es to hol d meet i ngswi t h t hose , vho ma na g e d t he mar ket pl ace. T h u s ec onomi c r econst r uct i on of t he f l ower busi ness st ar t ed ev eηbef or e t he evac uees physi cal l y r et ur ned t o t he W est Coast .

I n or der t o r e s ume b usi ness, l and had t o be acqui r ed a nd equi pment had t o be pur chased. Mo s t of t he J apahes e gr ower s i n t he L os Angel es ar ea di d not o wn l and bef or e t he v, rar. T h e Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Fl O¥ver Ma r k e t hel ped t hei r me mb e r s pur c has e necessar y equi pment and ] ease l and f or pr oduct i on. Nov " l acki ng t hei r o wn f l ower mar k et upon t hei r r et ur n, t her e wa s no al t er nat i ve but t o do busi ness wi t h whi t e whol esal er s. T o count er act t hi s si t ua t i on some t en Ni sei gr ower s or gani z ed t he Gol den St at e Whol es al e Fl or i st t o handl e t he whol es al i ng of J apa-nes e g r o wn f l ower s . Its ma na g e r t r avel ed t hr oughout t he c ount r y l ook i ng f or c us t omer s of J apa-nes e g r o wn f l ower s f r o m s out her n Cal i f orni a.

1可i t h t he i ncr ease of r et ur nees, t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t r eopened. Of f i ce space wa s leased i n No v e mb e r 1945, i n t he J apanes e quar t er of d o wn t o wn L os Angel es t oma k e pr epar at i ons. 53) Thi s t empor ar y of f i ce be c a me a f ocal poi nt of me mbe r s bot h f or t he ci r cul at i on of i nf or mt i on a nd soci al r euni ons. T h e ma r k et wa s r eopened i n Sept ember 1946

¥i ¥Thent he J apanes e f l ower gr ower s r et ur ned t hey f ound t hat i ndust ry had exper i enced s o me changes. T h e v a c uum cr eat ed by t hei r abs ence had been fi l l ed by ot her gr ower s , whi l e st r uct ur al c hanges ha d been t aki ng pl ace i n t he i ndust r y as wel l . I n or der t o cope w i tht hese c hanges and t o i ncrease t he compet i t i ve powe r of t he S out her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar k et , whi c h had been est abl i shed ov er t hr ee decades earl i er, r eor gani zat i on wa s cal l ed for. It ¥Vas t i me t o pass t he busi ness on t o t he Ni sei gener at i on, t he maj or i t y of w h o m had g r o wn up i n t he i ndust r y a nd we r e r eady t o t ake on r esponsi bi l i t y f or it. A non- pr of i t cor por at i on, t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Mar k et , I nc. wa s cl osed out , and i n i ts pl ace a n e w c ompany , t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l owe r Gr ower s , I nc. wa s est abl i shed i n Aug us t 1950. Al l t he asset s and bel ongi ngs of t he f or mer or gani z at i on we r e t r ansf er r ed t o t he n e w c ompa ny whi c h wa s t o be r esponsi bl e f or al l t he debt s of t he ol d. T h e book s of t he Sout her n Cal i f or ni a F l ower Ma r k e t we r e cl osed i n Oc t ober , 1950. T hi s successi on f r om I ssei l eader shi p t o Ni sei wa s suc cessf ul.54)

F l owe r g r mv er s we r e t he gr oup mos t qui ckl y r es umed busi ness a mo n g J apanes e engaged i n f ar mi ng i ns out her n Cal i f orni a. A J apanes et el ephone di r ect or y of 1950 l i st ed 103 f l ower nur ser i es i nL os Angel es. 55) Al t houg h J apanes e i nv ol v ement i nf l ower g r owi ng exper i enced a qui ck r ecover y, i ts l ocat i onal pat t er n s howe d s o me change. T h e y n o w had t o l ook f or space f or t hei r act i vi t i es bey ond t he i nner ur ban z one of L os Angel es . T he r e wa s a s har p decl i ne i n beac h ar eas as wel l as i n cent r al L os Angel se. S a n F er nando Val l ey, whe r e spac e wa s easi er t o obt ai n, s a w i ts f l ower日g r owi ng oper at i ons i ncr ea se . It wa s especi al l y t hose f l ower gr ower s wh o di d not hav e

ti tl e t o t he l and wh o had t o l ook f or n e w l ocat i ons as wel l as pur chas i ng n e w equi pment f or t hei r oper at i ons.

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I V. J apanes e Pl or i c ut ur e i n Tr ans i t i on

Af t er Wo r ld Wa r II Cal i f orni a' s f l oral i ndust r y expanded r emar kabl y f r omt he pr e- war f oundat i on. T h e dev el opment of t r anspor t at i on s ys t ems i ncr easi ngl y st i mul at ed it by enl ar gi ng mar k et s f or Cal i f or ni a- gr own f l ower s. Cal i f or ni a pr esent l y pr oduces near l y hal f of t he nat i on

s t ot al cut f l ower s. Wi t h t hi s expansi on, howev er , Cal i f or ni a f l ori cul t ure has exper i enced mul t i勾

f acet ed c hanges i n t he pos t - war decades. T h e st r uct ur e of t he i ndust r y has c hanged subst ant i al l y, whi l e its ori gi nal l ocat i onal pat t er n has been l ar gel y modi f i ed. I n s out her n Cal i t f orni a, t he L os Angel es ar ea bec a me exc eeded by t he n e w f l ori cul t ural r egi ons emer g ed al ong t he s unny coast of S a n Di ego, Vent ur a, and Sant a Bar bara count i es.

T h e J apanes e s eg ment of t he i ndust r y has exper i enced si gni f i cant qual i t at i ve t r ansf or mat i on i n t hi s c hangi ng pi ct ur e of t he i ndust ry. 57) T h e soci o- cul t ural mi l i eu s ur r oundi ng t he J apanes e i n thisi ndust r y has changed. I n addi t i on, t he et hni c cooper at i vi sm whi c h Issei gr ower s had nour i shed so ef f ect i vel y pri or t o t he wa r ha s l ost mos t of its vi t al i t y .

I V -1. L os Ang e l e s Ar e a

T h e J apanes e f l ower i ndust r y of L os Angel es has been exper i enci ng c hanges f ol l owi ng its r econst r uct i on i mmedi at el y af t er Wor ld V¥Tar I L T hos e c hanges are, fi rst of all, to be obs er ved i n t he cont ext of t he ar ea

s agr i cul t ur al t rends. T h e decl i ne of agr i cul t ur e i n L os Angel es c ount y bec a me mos t cons pi cuous af t er Wor ld Wa r II. Its agr i cul t ur al l and whi c h has l ong f ed t he rap-i dl y i ncr easi ng popul at i on of t he met r opol i t an L os Angel es ar ea has been const ant l y encr oached on by ur ban l and use. T h e acr eage of i nt ensi ve t ype f ar mi ng, i ncl udi ng ci t rus and ot her f rui t s and nut s, veget abl es and berri es, has cont i nued t o decl i ne si nce t he mi d 1940

s. Ci t r us f rui t s whi c h cover ed a l i ttl e over 55, 000 acr es i n 1940 and s ome 47, 000 acr es t en year s l at er had s hr unk t o mer el y 254 acr es i n 1980. Veget abl e acr eage has been r educed f r om 49, 000 acr es i n 1940 to 6, 446 acr es f our decades l ater. Fi el d cr ops and r ange l and still domi nat e t he c ount y

s agr i cul t ur e i n t er ms of area, but t hey ar e f ound i n t he per i pher y of t he vast c ount y’ s t erri t ory whi c h cover s 2. 6 mi l l i on s quar e mi l es. T h e pr oduct i on val ues of ci t rus and veget abl es s har ed 41 a nd 23 per cent r espect i vel y i n t he t ot al pl ant pr oduct i on of 1940, whi l e t hey we r e r educed t o onl y 0. 2 and 19 per cent r espect i vel y i n 1980.

Cut f l ower pr oduct i on i n L os Angel es c ount y has al so exper i enced si gni f i cant c hanges si nce Wo r ld Wa r II. Pr oduct i on val ues of cut f l ower s i ncr eased r i ght af t er t he wa r r eachi ng apeak of s o me $16 mi l l i on i n 1948. Val ues st eadi l y decr eased t hereaf t er. Cons i der i ng t he hi gh i nf l at i on rat es i n r ecent decades, t hi s cont i nui ng decl i ne f r om $ 1 6 mi l l i on of 1948 t o s ome $6 mi l l i on of 1980 mus t be mor e acut e t han t he f i gur es l i t eral l y s how. O n t he ot her hand, f ol i age and pot t ed pl ant and f l ower pr oduct i on has expanded si nce t he 1960’s and especi al l y dur i ng t he 1970’s. Thei r val ues exc eeded t hat of cut f l ower s by 1970 and hav e cont i nued t o ri se. I n 1980 f ol i age a nd pot t ed pl ant and f l ower pr oduct i on wa s val ued at s ome $13 mi l l i on.

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