Fundamental studies on the utilization of olive fruits. IV. The pickling of green olives (2) Effect of the addition of supplementary sugar on the fermentation of spanish-type green olives-香川大学学術情報リポジトリ

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Vol坤7,Noい3(1.956)

FUN‘’D.AMENTAL S′‡、UDIES ON THE UT払‡ZAT互ON

OF OL‡VE FRtJ‡TS

213

‡V The picklingOf−green olives(2)Effect of the addition of supplementary 凱喝ar0て1the fermentation of Spanish・tyPe greenOlives

TeiitiNARASAKIand KeniiKATAKURA(LaboIatOry Of AgIiculturalProducts Technology) (Received November7,1955・・Accepted Februa王y4,1956)

It has been showninouヱpreVious paper・(1)that supplementarysugarisi,eCeSSa3・yforobtainingsu氏cient acidityin the fermentation cf Spanish−type greenOliveswiththe Missi抑fluitsunderJapanese conditions

CRUESS(2)IepOIted thatit was;ieCeSSary七O add suppエementa工y Sugarin o工deItO Obtain sati$factory acid

PrOductionin Caiifomiagreen olives,and the addition of glt王COSe Or StlC工OSe became a common practicein the U・S・AlHow■eVeI,the addition of sugaris not practisedinSpain(3)

Various factoIS aSSOCiated withthe sugar supplementation weIe Studied by CRUESS(2)and VAUGHN et al(ま),and_theimpo托anceo丈the timeintervalwas pointed out which must elaspe a壬ter the olives have been bIined befo王eitis safe to add sugar..Spoilage of the olive$WaS rePO王ted(2,4,5)tooCCur VeIy Often, if the supplementary sugaIWaS addedimmediately afte工brining..Thechie董problemisthebacterialpopula・

tionin the bIine solution of the stage at which the supplementary sugaImay be addedIt wiilbe safe

if the undesirable bacteria have been eliminated at the time o董supplementation.It wasobservedbymany

WOrke工S(2,4,5)that the spoilage bacteIia wereinactivated orcompletely eiiminated from normal董ermentation in about one to threeweeks小InthepIeSenteXperimentsglucosewasaddedattheeighthdayoffermentation

as the supplementaIy Sugar,and the e庁ect of sugar was followed on the acid pIOductionin green olives Theェesults obtained willbe descIibedin the present papeI

罷ⅩP認R‡1略取で寸甘ŇJ

The Mission blives usedin this study containedlユML3%of totalsugaIaS giucose per董resh Aesh at the age of haIVeSting fo【gleenpickling as showninthe丘rst pape工Oithis selies(6),butitgaveonlyO4%

Of reducing sugarin the bIine solution and piOduced Oh36%of totalacidity aslactic acid after about

three months of feImentation(1).CuBAS AI.VAREZ(7)(Peru)repoIted that gIeen Olives containeqll58−

2164% of total sugar and OA6−098%of reducir)g Suga工On fヱeSh basis,butl64%of reducing sugar was

described by FERNANDEZ DIEZ,et ai、(Spain)(8)苫rom these resuitsit willbe seen that the olivesin

Spain containmoreIeducing sugar thaninJapan or Peru”InUSS。R,ApT(9)obtainedonlyO1%acidity after three months of fermentationⅥhen the sugar suppiementation was not made一Therefore,the olives

in u S”S…Rseem to contain only a smallamount of reducing suga‡S aVailablein the鮎shitself

Thepresentexperiments weIe COnducted toincrease the maximum sugar concentration to aboutll2%

in the bIine solution by adding OS%sugar as supplement,and the following fermentations were studied

by analyzing the chemicalconstituents of the brine solutions comparatively with those ofnonsupplemented

ones.The stage of sugar addition was the eighth day of fe工mentation and no specialmanlpulation was

employedin controlling the fermentation

即a竜er主aland翫e蝕od.The几鮎siow olives usedin this experiment were treated similarly asin the previous paper(1)except the addition of supplementary sugarItO the testlot of experiment

Glucose of commercialCIP.grade was empioyed as a supplementar−y Sugar,andit was added at O8%

tothe brine solution on theeighth day cf fermentation.The stage ofsuga工 addition was taken as the

time when the favoIablelactic acid bacteria begin to predominateinthe brine solution of normalfermen・ ト′■

(2)

Tech.Bull= ⅩagawaAgr。Coll. 216

control,i..e。,39foIteSt and4.2for controllots of the experiments,but,aS the method of pH determjna・ tionitself showed alaIge deviation,the statisticalanalysis was not peIformed・

The acidityobtainedwiththeadditionofsupplementarysugarseemstobesu鍋cientforthepreservation(4) and forinhibiting the daIkeningOf the bIine solution(14).The factors whichinfluence the rate of feImen・ tation willbe studiedin the near future

S一丁MM■A R Y

(1)The addition of O8%glucose to the bIine畠01utiongaveaveryfavorablefermentationandproduced O.5%totalacidity(pH3”9)in about three months of fermentation of the green pickles with the Mission olives

(2)At the end of thIee mOnths of fermentation,the brine solution with added sugar reserved yet a COnSideIable sugar and thelactic fermentation seemed to be veIy aCtive at the stage

(3)It seemsto be necessary to studythe conditions a任ecting the favoIable‘rate of the fermentation underJapanese conditions

A(〕鼠N(〉Ⅵ7I」一既DGM.ENT

The authors wishto express theiISinceIe thanks toprof.Sin(itiroKAWAMURA,LaboratoryofBiological Chemistry,this College,for his helpfulsuggestionsinthis work

王一IT重:RÅ甘口R署CIT夏雲D A符αJβざ㌢βαJ5〃C・β・坤α乃./査ぶ.γ¢衰椚,鵡B,43フ (1952);C.A,48,4640e(1954). (9)ApT,F.S.:爪先点′■0∂よoJ曙よ.γα,20,415(195⊥);C. A,46,9227i(1952)・ (10)CRUESS,W.Ⅴ∴」拘〟査ねP′・od〝C≠一SJ,17,(1),1 (193フ) (lユ)D8LMOUZOS,,.G・,SrADMAN,FりH,VAUGHN, R、・H。:.Jい4gr,ダ00d Cカβ∽い,1,333(1953)・ (12)IzQUIERDO TAMAYO,A・:Grasasy aceiies,3,

79(1952);C.Aけ,47,12692g(1953).

(13)BoRBOLLA Y ALCALA,J.M.r R・DE LA, G6MEZHERRERA,C,GuTI宜RRl三ZG.QuIJANO, R:A柁αねぷγβαJぶクCり5ゆ朗.カ.ざ.γ ¢α∠∽,47遊, 515(1951);C…A・,46,7248c(1952) (14)MERZARI,A小H,MoLINA,J。S:Rev.aYgen− Jま〝ααgγ0〃,15,225(1948);CA,43,5511c (1949) (l)KATAKURA,K,NARASAKI,T.:Teck Bull 物仰α4許Cβ〟−,7,93(1955). (2)CRUESS,W.Ⅴ∴Ca14f.Agr.Exp.Sta,Bull 498,ユ(193Q). (3)JACOBS,M・B:r鹿C如戒,S如〃〃d7セcゐ乃OJ呼一γ 〃/爪〉Odα乃dダ0〃d動・Od〝C妬1918−26,NewYoIk, InterSCieれCePublisbeIS’1ncい,(ユ951). (4)VAUGHN,RH.,I)ouGLAS,H”C。,GzLILLAND, J・R、:CαJ≠/・Agタ・.及ゆ5fα,助〃678,3(1943) (5)IzQUIERかO TAMAYO,A.:α・α5〃.5∴γαCβ去ねs,4, 169(1953);C小Aリ48,⊥0251i(1954). (6)ⅩArAXURA,Ⅹり,NARASAXJ,T.,:Tcch.,BuH 勒gαぴαAg㌢■Co〃,6,1(1954) (フ)CuBAS ALVAREZ,JlA:Analesfdcfdrm.y 蝕叩め‰【肋〝〝〃CJ.∽α.γ0㌢・Sα〝肋㌢(0ざ,2,219 (1951);C.A,鯛,3589h(1954). (8)FERNAユヾDEZD‡EZ,M,JリGoNZAIEZPELl王SSO,

Fい,BoRBOLLA Y ALCALA,,.M“Rh DEI.A:

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Vol・7,No。3(⊥956) オリブ果実利用に関する基礎的研究

ⅠⅤ オリブの緑果塩蔵

(2)スぺイン塑グリーンオリブの発酵に対する補糖の効果

217

楢崎丁市,片倉健ニ

ミ.ッシ∴ヨン種を用いたグリ−ンオリプでほ3カ月の発酵後でも約○い35%の全酸度が得られるのみで保存のために 11 ( 十分な酸度即ち015−−1・0%を得るにほ補糖が必要である事を前報において指摘したが,本報でほグルコース添加の 効果について報会したぃ 糖を添加する場合ほ,その時期及び方法が極めて壷要で乳酸発酵が十分盛になっていない場合ほ腐敗の危険性が 2 (,4,10〉 ある挙が報告されている 本実験では前報と同様に処理した墟蔵の発酵8日員にグルコ−スを食墟水に対し0.8% 添加した1p王壬の調節,スターターの添加等の処理ほ全く行わなかったが,非竃に優れた発酵経過を示し,3カ月後 にほ全酸度0・5%,pH3・9が得られた猶発酵は沼俄に行われており残糖も0・4%認められたから更に相当の生酸が 期待され,恐らく喋存に・必要な0い5−1%の酸度ほ達成し得るものと思われるい (8) (13) 発酵速度ほAr⊥等の結果に比較して非常におそいようであるが,ゆっくり発酵した場合良い製品が得られ易い (1:う と言う報告もあり,ヌ発酵が遅いと発酵食塩水の綬衝作用がアルカリ側に傾いて好ましくないと言う相矛盾した結 果も得られているので,適当な発酵速度を設定するためには更に研究が必要であると思うい 本実験を行うに当り有益な助言を与え.られた本学生物化学研究窒の川村信一・部数授に深く感謝します.

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