Light resistance exercise therapy without food ristriction increases energy metabolism and reduces body fat in mildly obese women-香川大学学術情報リポジトリ

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The effects of light resistance exercise on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in twenty mildly obese women aged 19-20 years The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: a light resistance-training group(


= l o ) , and no-exercise control group (


= l o ) In the training group, subjects performed resistance exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb- bells everyday after supper for about 20 min All subjects were seen individually each week for nutritional counseling, with the emphasis on behavior modification that included recording daily food intake Subjects underwent several measurements(body composition, RMR and DIT test) before starting the experiment and after 12 weeks During the 12-week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in the training group without reducing fat free mass (FFM) The training group significantly increased RMR and DIT, adjusted for body weight Changes in metabolic parameters and body composition were negligible in the control group These results suggest that light resistance exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT

Key words


resistance exercise, resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis, fat free mass, young women


Obesity is a major health problem in advanced nations


It is associated with a significant increase in hypertention, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and mortality from certain types of cancer ' 1 3 ' It is important in developing

successful obesity treatment programs to define parameters that affect long-term treatment success For example, there is no agreement about the optimum diet therapy for maximizing loss of body weight and body fat and for long- term maintenance of weight reduction

Regular physical activity is widely promoted as beneficial for improving health and controlling body weight The American College of Sports Medicine advises adults to engage in aerobic exercise for 20 to 60 minutes,




days per week'"' Aerobic exercises such as jogging, cycling, or swimming, are generally recommended ('' because they result in greater utilization of fat stores and greater energy expenditure in a typical training session than does anaerobic training 'b' However, studies of aerobic exercise have shown equivocal results Some investigators report reductions in FFM " while others report no loss of

FFM beyond that caused by dieting without aerobic

exercise '942' Furthermore, it is difficult for many obese persons to develop the habit of aerobic exercise training because of mental stress or orthopedic lesions

Some recommend that, in addition to aerobic exercise, resistance exercise be included in adult fitness programs '4'

Resistance exercise is important in the development and maintenance of fat free mass (FFM) and in improving or maintaining muscular strength 'I3 14' Resistance exercise is also reported to have additional benefits, such as injury prevention, weight control, prevention of osteoporosis, and improvement of cardiovascular risk factors 'I5 16'

In theory, resistance exercise should be beneficial for weight control, because when FFM increases, resting metabolic rate (RMR)


and therefore energy requirements, should also increase "" However, the extent to which resistance exercise is able to increase RMR has not been documented Broeder et a1 "" compared the effect of

resistance and aerobic exercises on body composition and RMR in healthy, nondieting young men Resistance exercise was associated with increased strength and FFM, but body weight and RMR did not change significantly Aerobic exercise was not associated with a significant change in either FFM or RMR Women typically have


50 Tech Bull Fac Agr Kagawa Univ , Vo152, 2000

higher body fat and lower FFM and RMR than men Resistance exercise increased FFM in young 'I8' and older 'Ig'

women However, the effect of resistance exercise on RMR in women is not clear The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of light resistance exercise on RMR, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition in mildly obese young women


1 . Subjects

Twenty young Japanese women, aged 19-20 years, who did not have a habit of daily exercise were recruited to participate in this study All procedures were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983 After a detailed explanation of this study, each subject gave her informed written consent. Except for obesity, the subjects were determined to be free of disease by a medical examination before the study No subjects were using illegal drugs or taking medications that affect body weight The day in the menstrual cycle at the beginning and end of the study was noted because fluctuations in metabolic parameters can occux during the cycle "O'

Subjects started the exercise program immediately after pre- metabolic tests Because the study period was 12 weeks, most of the women were at about the same point of their cycle (mid-follicular phase) when RMR, DIT and body composition were remeasured as they were at the beginning

The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: light resistance training group (


= l o ) , and no-exercise control group (


= l o ) The base line characteristics of the subjects in both group are shown in Table 1

2 . Resistance exercise

The subjects in both groups performed light resistance

Table 1 Initial physical characteristics of the subjects Variable Training group ( n Control group

=lo) ( n =lo) Age (y) 1 9 6 t 0 5 2 0 3 f 0 6 Height (m) 161t-008 1 5 9 3 ~ 0 08 Weight (kg) 61 1 + 5 3 60 8 f 6 2 Body fat (%) 3 0 9 + 3 6 29 8 + 4 1 (kg) 1 8 9 + 2 9 1 8 1 f 3 2 Fat free mass (kg) 42.2 t 3 6 4 2 7 f 4 O Values are means


standard deviation

exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumbbells everyday after supper A warm-up of


min of stretching preceded the dumbbell exercise The resistance exercise consisted of 12 movements used to exercise the large muscle groups of the upper and lower body The exercises were standing shoulder press, bent dumbbell row, squat, upper body twist, butterfly, bent lateral raise, simultaneous curl, concentration curl, one hand draw up, kickback, front dumbbell raise, and arm extension "' 23' The resistance exercises targeted the chest, shoulders, biceps, triceps, back, thighs and abdominals Subjects performed 15 repetitions of each exercise, with 30 sec of rest between the different exercises Subjects grasped the dumbbell bars firmly, then ~aised and lowered the weights slowly in a continuous motion If subjects grew fatigued during the exercise, they performed a stretching exercise until they recovered their strength Total exercise time each day was about 20 min

3 . Diet

The subjects received normal Japanese food ad lzbitum Food consumption by the subjects is shown in Table 2

Subjects were seen individually each week for nutritional counseling, with emphasis on behavior modification that included recording daily food intake Behavior modifica- tion has been shown to improve long-term weight loss programsz4 25' Subjects were asked to record and maintain

their usual sedentary activity pattern during the study except for the exercise prescribed Body compositions (body weight and percentage of body fat) were measured

Table 2 Mean energy consumption of subjects per week Training group

Variable Control group

( n =lo) ( n =lo) week M Jlday 1 7 7OfO 70 7 38t-0 61 2 7 49+0 52 7 46+0 69 3 7 4 5 t 0 7 5 7 2 1 f 0 6 9 4 7 32fO 72 5 698f 0 5 7 6 7 26+0 92 7 7 3 3 r t l 0 7 8 6 9 1 2 1 44 9 702+102 10 7 3 1 3 ~ 0 9 0 11 7 09+0 89 12 7 36t-0 92


weekly to observ the development of the experiment

4 . Measurement procedures

Subjects underwent several measurements before starting the experiment and after 12 weeks while still dieting Measurements at the end were conducted >24 h after the previous exercise session Subjects were requested to fast for 12 h beforehand and void bowels and bladder in the morning The technicians performing the procedures were blind to the subjects' group assignments The procedures were performed in the following order: RMR, DIT, and body composition All procedures were performed in a laboratory under the uniform conditions (temperature: 22+

1 "C, humidity: 60%)



RMR and DIT tests

The DIT test meal consisted of bread and butter, boiled egg, bone less ham, orange juice, apple, and yogurt It provided energy as carbohydrate (58%), fat (24%) and protein (18%) The energy of the test meal was 2 53 MJ RMR and DIT tests were determined at 10:OO-13:45 h after the subject rested comfortably for 45 min, in a supine position, while trying not to move or fall asleep The subjects were fed a test meal at 10:30-10:45 h The subjects then rested for 3 h (10:45-13:45 h) During rest, oxygen uptake and respiratory quotient (RQ) were mea- sured Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein at the level of the forearm to obtain serum and plasma at 10:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:00, 12:30, and 13:30 h

6 . Measurements

Indirect calorimetry was performed by the ventilated hood technique. For measurement of oxygen uptake and RQ, the subjects wore face masks ( ~ a k e i Co., Ltd., ~ o k y o ) continuously for 225 min, except for meal time (15 min).. All expired gas was collected into a Douglas bag ( ~ a k e i Co., Ltd


~ o k y o ) , and the bag was changed every 15 min during rest. The concentrations of' oxygen and carbon dioxide in the expired gas were immediately analyzed by a gas analyzer (Model RAS-30, RAS-40, AIC C o , Ltd.., 'Tokyo) E,nergy expenditure was calculated from oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, corrected for urinary nitrogen loss as described by ~errannini'~~'. The RQ was also calculated and used as an index of' carbohydrate and fat utilization. Energy expenditure of DIT was determined by the formula: postmeal total energy expendi-

ture (PTEE~~~,,,) - RMR180mm

Plasma glucose was assayed by a glucose analyzer with electrochemical detection (Model GA-1140, Kyoto Daiichi Co


Ltd, ~ ~ o t o ) and a kit (GLC-C) purchased from Kokusai Shiyoku Co




Kobe Serum triacylglycerol (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined enzymatically with kits (TG-A, NEFA-~5) purchased from Kokusai Shiyoku Co


Ltd, Kobe and Nippon Shoji C o , Ltd , Osaka, respectively Serum immunoreactive insulin was determined by radio-immunoassay (two-antibody system) with kits (~nsulin 'Eiken') purchased fiom Eiken Chemical Co




Tokyo The 3-hr area under the curve for glucose, insulin, TG and FFA was calculated by time integration using a personal computer (Macintosh LC 575, Apple Japan, Inc )

7 . Body composition

The subjects' height and weight were measured by conventional methods Percentage of body fat, fat mass and FFM were determined by bioelectrical impedance analyzer

(Model TBF-102, Tanita Co


Ltd., ~ o k y o )



Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was conducted using a personal computer (Macintosh LC 575, Apple Japan, Inc ) with a statistical package program (Stat View 4 02, Abacus Con- cepts, Inc, Berkeley, CA) Data were analyzed by the Student's unpaired t-test to show differences in variables between groups Changes in variables within groups fiom baseline to 12 weeks were compared using Student's paired t-tests




Body weight and body composition

Mean body weight and body fat weight were signifi- cantly reduced (p<O 05), whereas the change in FFM was negligible in the training group (Fig 1) Body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat were also reduced (23 6 f 2 7 to 2 2 9 f 2 4 kg/m2 (p<005) and 3 0 9 f 3 6 to 2 8 2 f 3 3 % (p<O 05)) No significant differences in body weight and body fat weight were observed in the control group(Fig 1)

2 . RMR and DIT

Oxygen uptake before and after the test meal ingestion was measured for


h to assess the RMR and DIT The


52 Tech Bull Fac Agr Kagawa Univ , Vo152, 2000



Training Control

1 Changes in body weight, body fat weight and fat free mass in the training and control groups Before and


after experiment Values are means and standard deviation *Statistically significant differences from baseline (p<O 05, Student's paired t-test)

average values for oxygen uptake are shown in Fig 2 . RMR and DIT adjusted for body weight increased significantly in the resistance-trained group (p<0.05), whereas no significant differences in RMR and DIT were observed in the control group (Fig. 3) .. On the other hand, the change in basal and postprandial RQ were negligible in both groups for the 12-week experimental period (Fig. 2)

3 . Plasma glucose, serum insulin, TG, and FFA Fasting plasma glucose concentration and 3-hr glucose area (calculated from glucose concentration


time curve) significantly decreased in the training (p<0.05), but not in

Before After


+- Training + + Control


Meal 0 7 0 L ' n ' ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' 1 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

Time after ingestion (min)

Fig 2 Oxygen uptake (top) and respiratory quotient (RQ, bottom) at rest and after meal ingestion before and after 12-week experimental period The RQ was calculatred from oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production Each point represents the mean value for ten subjects.

the control group for the 12-week experimental period ( ~ i g 4) Fasting and 3-hr area of serum insulin did not in either group for the 12-week experimental period (Fig 4). Fast- ing serum TG concentration and 3-hr TG area significantly decreased in the training group (p<O 05), but not in the control group for the 12-week experimental period (Fig


Fasting and 3-hr area of serum free fatty acids did not change in either group for the 12-week experimental period

( ~ i g 5)


The results show that light resistance exercise for 12 weeks without energy restriction significantly decreased body weight and body fat without reducing FFM. The decreases in body weight, percent body fat, body fat






Changes in resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis in the training and control groups Before and


after experiment Values are means and standard deviation *Statistically significant differences from baseline (p<0 05, Student's paired t-test)

weight and BMI were not shown in the control group These results support our previous findings '"I 22'

The subjects in the training program were young women who reported moderate levels of aerobic activity estimated by V02,,, tests before the study Mean BMI was within the range 2 0 0 to 24


associated with the lowest health risks "" However, the mean percent body fat for the

subjects in the training group was above the desirable range (30%) for women aged 20 years before the study '2' Thus, on average, although these women were not overweight, could be considered overfat.

Subjects did not appear to alter dietary intake in response to resistance exercise during the 12-week experimental period However; there was a favorable change in body composition. After 12 weeks, the subjects in the training group maintained FFM and lost body fat such that the mean percent body fat of' this group was

within the recommended rage. Thus, favorable body composition was obtained using a light-intensity resistance exercise without imposing an energy restriction

Cullinen et a1


reported that a moderate-intensity resistance training program increased strength and FFM, and decreased body fat during a 12-week experimental period The disagreement between their study and ours concerning the effects of resistance exercise on FFM may be due to the quality and quantity of training during the experimental period The resistance-exercise program of Cullinen et a1 lasted approximately




How- ever, it is difficult for many obese, non-trained persons to develop the habit of extended (aerobic or resistance) exercise training because of mental stress or orthopedic lesions Our resistance exercise program was much easier to instill as a habit compared with aerobic exercise or heavy resistance exercise The light resistance exercise in this study is safe, and anyone can do it any time and any place

No clear method for resistance exercise training while dieting has been established Because a fixed light weight (2-5 kg) was used for the present study, little or no weight gain by muscle hypertrophy was produced However, light resistance exercise does stimulate protein turnover and energy metabolism 25 29 30' We recently reported that iron binding proteins in serum were increased with 12 weeks of light resistance exercise 'jO' Our present

findings demonstrate that light exercise significantly increased


and DIT without energy restriction Since it has been reported that


and DIT are mediated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), '3133' the effects of light resistance exercise on energy metabolism may be related to SNS activity It has been suggested elsewhere that light exercises increase SNS activity in rats '34' and humans '35'

Glucose and TG disposition from blood after test meal ingestion were significantly increased with resistance exercise without altering serum insulin (fasting and 3-hr

area) These findings suggest that insulin sensitivity to glucose and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activy in peripheral tissues, especially heart or skeletal muscle, are increased by resistance exercise The site of physiological action by LPL is the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells where the enzyme hydrolyses the triacylglycerol compo- nent of circulating lipoprotein particles, chylomicrons, and very low density lipoproteins


On the other hand,


Tech Bull Fac Agr Kagawa Univ , Vo152, 2000


3-hr glucose area 3-hr



r r

Fasting glucose Fasting insulin After


Training Control Training Control

100 80


6 0 - 0


4 0 - 20

Fig 4 Changes in plasma glucose and serum insulin (fasting and 3-hr area) in the training and control groups Before and after experiment Values are means and standard deviation *Statistically significant differences from baseline (p<O


Student's paired t-test)



o - -

Fasting triacylglycerol Fasting free fatty acids Before






3-hr triacylglycerol area 3-hr free fatty acids area

25 r


50 r 100


80 E 0


s o -



40; 20 0


Training Control " Training Control

Fig.5 Changes in serum triacylglycerol and free fatty acids (fasting and 3-hr area) in the training and control groups Before and


after experiment. Values are means and standard deviation *Statistically significant differences from baseline (p<O .05, Student's paired t-test)

- 500 - 400 5 300 r 200 - 100


0 - - - - - -


resistance exercise without energy restriction did not alter basal and postprandial RQ levels, indicating that the fat oxydation rate did not change In this context, it should be noted that the fasting and 3-hr area of serum FFA were not altered by 12-weeks of resistance exercise

In our present study, the subjects performed resistance exercises every day after supper It is recognized that exercise timing is important to fat utilization, glycogen synthesis, and muscle reproduction '3' j8' Exercise after

meals burns chylomicron-triacylglycerol from dietary fat more than exercise before meals


Moreover, exercise after supper is best for maintaining muscle protein because muscle protein synthesis is higher during sleep '39'

In conclusion, the present study suggests that light resistance exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in mildly obese young women in relation to increasing RMR and DIT


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