Electronic Journal of Differential Equations, Vol. 2012 (2012), No. 06, pp. 1–27.

ISSN: 1072-6691. URL: http://ejde.math.txstate.edu or http://ejde.math.unt.edu ftp ejde.math.txstate.edu

HOMOGENIZATION AND CORRECTORS FOR COMPOSITE MEDIA WITH COATED AND HIGHLY ANISOTROPIC FIBERS

AHMED BOUGHAMMOURA

Abstract. This article presents the homogenization of a quasilinear elliptic-
parabolic problem in anε-periodic medium consisting of a set of highly aniso-
tropic fibers surrounded by coating layers, the whole being embedded in a
third material having an order 1 conductivity. The conductivity along the
fibers is of order 1 but the conductivities in the transverse directions and in
the coatings are scaled by µ = o(ε) and ε^{p}, as ε → 0, respectively. The
heat flux are quasilinear, monotone functions of the temperature gradient.

The heat capacities of the medium components are bounded but may vanish
on certain subdomains, so the problem may become degenerate. By using
the two-scale convergence method, we can derive the two-scale homogenized
systems and prove some corrector-type results depending on the critical value
γ= limε&0ε^{p}/µ.

1. Introduction and statement of the problem

Homogenization of problems, in composite media with fibers, has been consid- ered in [2, 5, 4, 13] and further references therein. Most of the previous works dealt with the case of the fiber-reinforced composite materials without coatings. Moti- vated by the study of the effects of the combination of the insulating coatings and the high anisotropy of fibers in the overall behavior of composite media, we propose here, a special class of fibrous structure exhibiting non-standard effective models.

Especially, in the present work, we consider the homogenization of a quasilinear elliptic-parabolic problem in a three-phase conducting composite. One of the con- stituent materials corresponds to a set of fibers surrounded by a second material which works as an insulating or coated layers, and the whole is being embedded in a third material termed matrix. The fibers are considered to be highly anisotropic, with a longitudinal order 1 conductivity and a very low conductivity in the trans- verse directions. The conductivity of the matrix is of order 1 but becomes very small in the coatings. We shall refer to such material as a composite medium with coated and highly anisotropic fibers.

In [3], the author has dealt with the linear case. Here, we continue this inves- tigation by studying the case where the heat flux are non-linear functions of the temperature gradient. One common peculiarity of [3] and the present work is that

2000Mathematics Subject Classification. 35B27, 35B40, 35K65, 76M50.

Key words and phrases. Homogenization; correctors; monotone problem; composite media;

coatings; highly anisotropic fibers.

c

2012 Texas State University - San Marcos.

Submitted August 17, 2011. Published January 10, 2012.

1

the heat capacities cj, j = 1,2,3 are assumed to degenerate at some subdomains and even to vanish in the whole domain. Thus, our problem covers the quasilinear elliptic equation as well as the quasilinear parabolic one in a composite medium with coated and highly anisotropic fibers.

The geometry of the medium is the same as in [3]. We shall recall it and keep
globally the same notations. We denote by Ye and Y the cubes ]− ^{1}_{2},^{1}_{2}[^{2} and
]−^{1}_{2},^{1}_{2}[^{3}respectively, thusY =Ye×I, I =]−^{1}_{2},^{1}_{2}[. We assume thatYeis partitioned
as Ye =Ye1∪Ye13∪Ye3∪Ye23∪Ye2 where Ye1,Ye2,Ye3 are three connected open subsets
such thatYe1∩Ye2=∅,∂Ye∩Ye3=∅and whereYeα3, α= 1,2 is the interface between
YeαandYe3; thusYe3 separatesYe1 andYe2(see Figure 1). For i= 1,2,3 we denoteχi

the characteristic function of Y_{i} :=Ye_{i}×I and θ_{1}, θ_{2}, θ_{3} their respective Lebesgue
measures which are supposed to be of the same magnitude order. Let Ee_{i} theZ^{2}-
translates of Ye_{i} (i.e., Ee_{i} :=Ye_{i}+Z^{2}) and eΓ_{α3}, α= 1,2 the surface separatingEe_{α}
andEe3. We shall assume that onlyEe2 is connected. We introduce the contracted
setsYe_{i}^{ε}:=εYei,Ee_{i}^{ε}:=εEei,i= 1,2,3 andΓe^{ε}_{α3}:=εeΓα3,α= 1,2,whereεis a small
positive parameter. Now, letΩ be a regular bounded domain ine R^{2}. We denote by
Ωe^{ε}_{i} :=Ωe∩Ee_{i}^{ε}, andSe_{α3}^{ε} :=Ωe∩eΓα3. Finally, let Ω :=Ωe×I be the cylinder having a
baseΩ and a height 1 and Ωe ^{ε}_{i} :=Ωe^{ε}_{i} ×I,i= 1,2,3.

Henceforth,x= (ex, x3) and y= (ey, y3) denote points of R^{3} andY respectively
and byyeandxewe denote the transverse vectors (y1, y2) and (x1, x2) respectively.

We use the notation∂x_{i} for the partial derivative with respect toxi. LetT >0 be
given, we define, then, the corresponding space-time domainsQ= (0, T)×Ω and
Q^{ε}_{i} = (0, T)×Ω^{ε}_{i},i= 1,2,3.

Ye1

Ye2

Ye_{3}

Figure 1. A typical basic cellYe

Letp >1 be a real number and letp^{0}its conjugate: p=p^{0}(p−1). Fork= 1,2,3,
letc_{k} ∈L^{∞}(R^{3}) be the heat capacity of thek-th component. These functions are
Y-periodic with respect toy with a periodY and satisfy the following assumption:

(A1) 0≤c_{k}(y) a.e. y∈Y,k= 1,2,3.

The correspondingε-periodic coefficients are defined by
c^{ε}_{k}(x) =c_{k}(x

ε), x∈Ω^{ε}_{k}, k= 1,2,3. (1.1)

Concerning the heat flux, we shall suppose that they are given by three non-linear Y-periodic vectorial functions

Ak(y, ξ) :R^{3}×R^{3}→R^{3}, k= 1,2,3, (1.2)
satisfying the following assumptions

(A2) for all ξ∈R^{3}, the functiony7→Ak(y, ξ) is measurable andY-periodic,
(A3) for a.e. y∈Y, the functionξ7→Ak(y, ξ) is continuous,

(A4) there exist a constantc0>0 andp >2 such that, for all ξ∈R^{3},
0≤c_{0}|ξ|^{p}≤Ak(y, ξ).ξ

(A5) there exist a constantc >0 andp >2 such that for allξ∈R^{3},

|A^{k}(y, ξ)| ≤c(1 +|ξ|^{p−1}),

(A6) the operatorsAk are strictly monotone; i.e., for a.e. y∈Y,
(Ak(y, ξ)−Ak(y, η)).(ξ−η)>0, ∀ξ6=η inR^{3}.

To prove the corrector results, we need to assume stronger hypotheses of mono- tonicity:

(A5’) there exist a constantK_{1}>0 such that, forξ, η∈R^{3} and a.e. y∈Y,

|Ak(y, ξ)−Ak(y, η)| ≤K1(|ξ|+|η|)^{p−2}|ξ−η|,

(A6’) there exist a constantK2>0 such that, forξ, η∈R^{3} and a.e. y∈Y,
(Ak(y, ξ)−Ak(y, η)).(ξ−η)≥K_{2}(|ξ|+|η|)^{p−2}|ξ−η|^{2}.

(A7) The function A1 is independent of the vertical coordinate and has the fol- lowing form

A1(y, ξ) :=A1(ey, ξ) =

Ae^{1}(y,e ξ)e
A^{13}(y, ξe 3)

. Obviously, the functions

Ae^{1}(ey,ξ) :e R^{2}×R^{2}→R^{2},
A13(ey, ξ_{3}) : R^{2}×R→R

satisfy assumptions (A4)–(A6) by choosingξ= (eξ,0) and (0, ξ3) respectively.

An example ofAk satisfy the assumptions (A2)–(A7) is
A^{1}(y, ξ) =

|eξ|^{p−2}ξe

|ξ3|^{p−2}ξ3

, A^{α}(y, ξ) =|ξ|^{p−2}ξ, α= 2,3;

i.e., the correspondingp-Laplacian operators.

Then, the diffusion through the material filling the sets E_{1}^{ε}, E_{2}^{ε} and E_{3}^{ε} is, re-
spectively,

A^{ε}1(x, ξ) :=

µ(ε)eA^{ε}1(x,ξ)e
A^{ε}13(x, ξ3)

, A^{ε}2(x, ξ) :=A2(x

ε, ξ), A^{ε}3(x, ξ) :=A3(x
ε, ξ),
where

Ae^{ε}1(x,ξ) =e Ae1(xe

ε,ξ),e A^{ε}13(x, ξ3) =A13(xe
ε, ξ3).

The global diffusion and the heat capacity of the medium is respectively
A^{ε}(x, ξ) =

2

X

k=1

χ^{ε}_{k}(x)A^{ε}k(x, ξ) +ε^{p}χ^{ε}_{3}(x)A^{ε}3(x, ξ),

c^{ε}(x) =

3

X

k=1

χ^{ε}_{k}(x)c^{ε}_{k}(x).

Let us assume that the lateral and bottom boundaries of Ω are maintained at a fixed temperature (homogeneous Dirichlet condition), while the top boundary is insulated (homogeneous Neumann condition), and that the initial distribution of the temperature on Ω is given for everyεas

u^{ε}_{0}(x) =

3

X

k=1

χ^{ε}_{k}(x)u^{ε}_{0k}(x).

Then, the evolution of the temperatureu^{ε}(t, x) is governed by the following initial
boundary value problem, being in fact, a sequence of problems (Pε) indexed byε:

∂

∂t(c^{ε}(x)u^{ε}(t, x)) = div(A^{ε}(x,∇u^{ε}(t, x))) +f^{ε}(t, x), x∈Ω, t >0,
u^{ε}(t, x) = 0, x∈∂Ω∩ {−1

2 ≤x_{3}<1

2}=: Γ_{LB}, t >0,
A^{ε}(x,∇u^{ε}(t, x)).n= 0, x∈∂Ω\ΓLB, t >0,

u^{ε}(0, x) =u^{ε}_{0}(x), x∈Ω,

(1.3)

wherendenotes the outward normal to the boundary of Ω, the subscript L(resp.

B) stands for lateral (resp. bottom) boundary andf^{ε}∈L^{p}^{0}(0, T;L^{p}^{0}(Ω)) represents
a given time-dependent heat source. The precise meaning of the initial condition
will be done in the following section.

In the linear context, models of particular interest are developed by Mabrouk- Samadi [9], Mabrouk-Boughammoura [8] and Showalter-Visarraga [10] for the so- called highly heteregeneous medium which consits of two connected “hard” com- ponents having comparable conductivities, separated by a third “soft” material having a much lower conductivity. The common point of these works is that the three phases have only highly contrasting isotropic conductivities. These models do not display a directional dependence of the effective fields in the resulting limit problems. However, in the present model and in [3], one of the phases (the fibers) have also highly anisotropic conductivity. This “partially” highly anisotropy in the fibers leads to some kind of directional dependence on the macro and micro variables.

Mathematically, the combination of the “partially” highly anisotropy and the
insulating coatings poses an interesting challenge in the homogenization process. In
particular, we will see, in the caseγ∈R^{∗}+, that the resulting two-scale homogenized
systems is “strongly” influenced by this combination : the effective temperature
field is obtained by solving a homogenized problem in the domain Ω and an auxiliary
problem in the coated fiberY1∪Y3with a non-standard boundary conditions across
the interface between the fiber and the coating (see (5.2) and Remark 5.2). Hence,
the main feature of the present work is to provide “rigorous” models for quasilinear
heat transfer problem in fibrous composite materials taking in account the influence
of the physical properties, at the micro-scale, of the coating and the fiber. In
particular, we derive some new effective interface conditions which describe the
interaction between the heat transfer processes of conduction in the fibers and the
coatings (see (5.3) and (5.4)). Furthermore, we improve these models by some
corrector-type results.

Finally, the closest work, as far as we know, to ours was done by Mabrouk [6],
in which the author studied the homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate heat
transfer problem in a highly heterogeneous medium. Although the mathematical
framework used in [6] is closely similar, the two situations are clearly distinct in
the geometry of the microstructure. Moreover, the homogenized results of [6] are
recovered, here, when γ := lim_{ε→0}ε^{p}/µ = 0 by replacing, formally, the operator

∂_{x}_{3} by∇. However, our results in the case 0< γ <∞can not be obtained by the
physical setting considered in [6]. The corrector results are not addressed in [6],
that is only weakly convergent results are proved. Yet, here we shall prove strong
convergence of the gradients of temperature as well as the heat flux by adding some
correctors (see Section 5). Thus, the present study is actually quite different and
can be considered as an improvement of [6] and a generalization of [3] to quasilinear
(monotone operators in the gradient) heat transfer problem in composite materials
with coated and highly anisotropic fibers.

2. Mathematical framework

Hereafter, various spaces of functions on Ω will be used. For eachp >1,L^{p}(Ω)
andW^{1,p}(Ω) are the usual Lebesgue space and Sobolev space respectively. IfRis
a Banach space, we denoteR^{0} its dual ; the value of x^{0} ∈R^{0} atx∈R is denoted
x^{0}(x) or sometimeshx^{0}, xi_{R}^{0},R. IfHis a Hilbert space, we denote its scalar product
(., .)_{H}, the dot denotes the usual scalar product in R^{3}. If Ris a Banach space and
X is a topological one,C(X;R) is the space of continuousR-valued functions onX
with the sup-norm. For any measure space Ω,L^{p}(Ω;R) is the space of p-th power
norm-summable functions on Ω with values in R. If Ω = (0, T) is the time space,
we shall often write L^{p}(0, T;R). In particular, spaces of Y-periodic functions will
be denoted by a subscript ]. For example,C](Y) is the Banach space of functions
which are defined onR^{3}, continuous andY-periodic. Similarly,L^{p}_{]}(Y) is the Banach
space of functions inL^{p}loc(R^{3}) which areY-periodic. We endow this space with the
norm ofL^{p}(Y) and remark that it can be identified with the space of Y-periodic
extensions to R^{3}of the functions in L^{p}(Y). Similarly, we define the Banach space
W_{]}^{1,p}(Y) with the usual norm ofW^{1,p}(Y).

As in [3], to have a weak formulation of the above problem we shall use the con- venient mathematical model built in [6], using the functional framework, developed by Showalter for degenerate parabolic equations (see [12], Section III.6). Let us recall the precise meaning of the weak formulation of the problem we investigate.

For more details see [7, 6, 3].

Letp≥2 andp^{0} its conjugate. We define the following Banach spaces
V =W_{Γ}^{1,p}

LB(Ω) :={u∈W^{1,p}(Ω) :u= 0 on Γ_{LB}}, V =L^{p}(0, T;V),
V^{0},V^{0} =L^{p}^{0}(0, T;V^{0})

be their dual spaces. For ε > 0, let C^{ε}, A^{ε} : V → V^{0} be continuous operators,
which are defined by the continuous bilinear forms onV ×V:

hC^{ε}u, viV^{0},V =c^{ε}(u, v) :=

Z

Ω

c^{ε}(x)u(x)v(x)dx,
hA^{ε}u, viV^{0},V =a^{ε}(u, v) :=

Z

Ω

A^{ε}(x,∇u(x))∇v(x)dx.

LetV_{c}^{ε} be the completion ofV with the semi-scalar product, defined by the form
c^{ε} and let V_{c}^{0}^{ε} be its dual. Then, we have V_{c}^{ε} = {u : (c^{ε})^{1/2}u ∈ L^{2}(Ω)} and
V_{c}^{ε}^{0} ={(c^{ε})^{1/2}u, u∈L^{2}(Ω)}. The operatorC^{ε}admits a continuous extension from
V_{c}^{ε} into V_{c}^{ε}^{0} denoted also by C^{ε}. Given f^{ε} ∈ L^{p}^{0}(0, T;L^{p}^{0}(Ω)) or more generally
f^{ε} in V^{0} and w_{0}^{ε} in V_{c}^{ε}^{0}, we are now able to give a weak formulation of the above
initial-boundary value problem as the following abstract Cauchy problem

Findu∈ V : d

dtC^{ε}u+A^{ε}u=f^{ε}∈ V^{0}, C^{ε}u(0) =w^{ε}_{0}∈V_{c}^{ε}^{0}. (2.1)
Here,A^{ε} andC^{ε}are the realization of A^{ε}and C^{ε}as operators fromV toV^{0}, that
is precisely (A^{ε}u(t),C^{ε}u(t)) = (A^{ε}(u(t)), C^{ε}(u(t))) for a.e. t∈(0, T).

Let us underline that, in the abstract formulation above, we implicitly require
that _{dt}^{d}C^{ε}ubelongs to V^{0}. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the initial
conditionC^{ε}u(0). Thus, given u^{ε}_{0} in V_{c}^{ε} and w_{0}^{ε} in V_{c}^{ε}^{0} related byw^{ε}_{0} = c^{ε}u^{ε}_{0}, we
can express the initial condition by one of the two equivalent equalities

(C^{ε}u^{ε})(0) =C^{ε}u^{ε}(0) =w^{ε}_{0}∈V_{c}^{ε}^{0} ⇐⇒(c^{ε})^{1/2}u^{ε}(0) = (c^{ε})^{1/2}u^{ε}_{0}∈L^{2}(Ω). (2.2)
We define the Banach space W_{p}^{ε}(0, T) := {u ∈ V : _{dt}^{d}C^{ε}u ∈ V^{0}}, then, the
abstract Cauchy problem can, thereby, be written more explicitly as: Find u in
W_{p}^{ε}(0, T) such that

d

dtC^{ε}u(t) +A^{ε}u(t) =f^{ε}(t)∈V^{0} for a.e. t∈(0, T),
C^{ε}u(0) =w^{ε}_{0} inV_{c}^{ε}^{0}.

(2.3)

The initial condition is meaningful since uis in W_{p}^{ε}(0, T) thenC^{ε}u∈ C(0, T;V_{c}^{ε}^{0})
by [12, Proposition 6.3].

For the present study, we need to recall some equivalent variational formulations of the problem (2.3) from [6, Proposition 1.2].

Proposition 2.1. The following statements are equivalent:

(1) uis the solution of (2.3).

(2) u∈W_{p}^{ε}(0, T)and for all v∈W_{p}^{ε}(0, T)with v(T) = 0, we have

− Z T

0

hu(t), v^{0}(t)iV_{c}^{ε}dt+
Z T

0

a^{ε}(u(t), v(t))dt=
Z T

0

f^{ε}(t)(v(t))dt+w_{0}^{ε}(v(0)), (2.4)
this, by density, holds for allv∈L^{p}(0, T;V) such thatv^{0}∈L^{p}^{0}(0, T;V_{c}^{ε}).

(3) u∈L^{p}(0, T;V)and for all v∈W^{1,p}(0, T;V),we have

− Z

Q

c^{ε}uv^{0}dx dt+µ(ε)
Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

Ae^{ε}1(ex,∇

xeu).∇

exvdx dt +

Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

A^{ε}13(ex, ∂_{x}_{3}u).∂_{x}_{3}vdx dt
+

Z

Q^{ε}_{2}

A^{ε}2(x,∇xu).∇xv dx dt+ε^{p}
Z

Q^{ε}_{3}

A^{ε}3(x,∇xu).∇xv dx dt

= Z

Q

f v dx dt− Z

Ω

c^{ε}u(T, x)v(T, x)dx+
Z

Ω

c^{ε}u^{ε}_{0}v(0, x)dx.

(2.5)

Remark 2.2. For eachε >0, the operatorA^{ε}:V → V^{0} is continuous, monotone,
coercive and bounded, and the operator C^{ε} : V → V^{0} is continuous, linear, sym-
metric and monotone. Hence, the Cauchy problem (2.3) admits, for each ε >0, a
unique solutionu∈W_{p}^{ε}(0, T) by [12, Corollary 6.3].

Throughout this work, we shall assume that
u^{ε}_{0}(x) =u_{0}(x)∈L^{p}(Ω).

Hereafter, letf ∈L^{p}^{0}(0, T;L^{p}^{0}(Ω)) be fixed.

Our objective is to study the behavior of the sequence{u^{ε}}as ε→0 moreover,
we prove a corrector results for the gradients and flux under the strong monotonicity
conditions (A5’) and (A6’). This will be achieved below, in particular, we will show
that the limit depends on the critical valueγ= limε↓0ε^{p}

µ.

Our further analysis will be, as in [3], based on the method of the two-scale convergence [1, 11]. For the sake of clarity, we recall its definition.

Definition 2.3. A functionφ(t, x, y)∈L^{p}(Q×Y,C_{]}(Y)) satisfying

ε→0lim Z

Q

φ(t, x,x

ε)^{p}dt dx=
Z

Q

Z

Y

φ(t, x, y)^{p}dt dx dy. (2.6)
is called admissible test function.

Definition 2.4. A sequence u^{ε} in L^{p}(Q) two-scale converges to a function u^{0} ∈
L^{p}(Q×Y), and we denote thisu^{ε}^{2s,p}→ u^{0}(u^{ε}→^{2s}u^{0}if p=2 ), if, for anyφ(t, x, y)∈
D(Q,C](Y)),

ε→0lim Z

Q

u^{ε}(t, x)φ(t, x,x

ε)dt dx= Z

Q

Z

Y

u^{0}(t, x, y)φ(t, x, y)dt dx dy. (2.7)
Throughout the paper, we denote by C a constant not depending on ε and
whose value may vary from one line to the next. From a bounded sequence in a
Lebesgue space, we can take a subsequence that converges weakly, but virtually
all the subsequences converge to the same limit as the limiting equations have a
unique solution, so we normally ignore to mention the term “subsequence”.

3. A priori estimates

First, we recall the fundamental lemma which generalizes to the case p > 2 lemma 2.1. of [3], proved for p= 2. We shall not give the proof since it involves only minor modifications of the casep= 2.

Lemma 3.1. There exists a constant C such that, for everyv∈V, we have
kvk^{p}_{L}p(Ω)≤C(k∂x3vk^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{1})+k∇vk^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{2})+ε^{p}k∇vk^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{3})). (3.1)
The above lemma is used for proving the following a priori estimates.

Lemma 3.2. Let f^{ε}=f, then, here exists a constant C such that

ku^{ε}kL^{p}(Q)≤C, (3.2)

(µ^{1/p}k∇

exu^{ε}kL^{p}(Q^{ε}_{1}),k∂x3u^{ε}kL^{p}(Q^{ε}_{1}))≤C, (3.3)
k∇u^{ε}k_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{2}), εk∇u^{ε}k_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{3})

≤C, (3.4)

µ^{1/p}^{0}keA^{ε}1(x,∇

exu^{ε})k_{L}p0

(Q^{ε}_{1}),kA^{ε}13(x, ∂x_{3}u^{ε})k_{L}p0

(Q^{ε}_{1})

≤C, (3.5)

(kA^{ε}2(x,∇u^{ε})k_{L}p0

(Q^{ε}_{2}), ε^{p}^{p}^{0}kA^{ε}3(x,∇u^{ε})k_{L}p0

(Q^{ε}_{3}))≤C. (3.6)
Moreover, if 0< c0≤c3(y), thenku^{ε}k_{L}^{∞}_{(0,T;L}2(Ω)).

Proof. First, let us assume that u^{ε} is a solution of (1.3). Sinceu^{ε}∈W_{p}^{ε}(0, T), we
can choosev=u^{ε}(t) in (2.4) and using the following identity from [12, Proposition
3.1], or [6, Proposition 1.1],

1 2

d

dth C^{ε}u(t), u(t)iV^{0},V =hd

dtC^{ε}u(t), u(t)iV^{0},V

after integration over (0, T), we deduce 1

2 Z

Ω

c^{ε}(x)(u^{ε}(T, x))^{2}dx+
Z T

0

Z

Ω

A^{ε}(x,∇u^{ε}(s, x)).∇u^{ε}(s, x)dx ds

= Z T

0

Z

Ω

f(s, x)(u^{ε}(s, x))dx ds+1
2

Z

Ω

c^{ε}(x)(u_{0})^{2}dx.

(3.7)

Thus, 1 2

Z

Ω

c^{ε}(x)(u^{ε}(T, x))^{2}dx+
Z T

0

Z

Ω

A^{ε}(x,∇u^{ε}(s, x)).∇u^{ε}(s, x)dx ds

≤ Z T

0

Z

Ω

|f(s, x)k(u^{ε}(s, x))|dx ds+C.

By Young’s inequality, for allη >0, Z T

0

Z

Ω

|f(s, x)k(u^{ε}(s, x))|dx ds≤η

pkfk^{p}_{L}^{0}_{p}0(Q)+ 1

pη^{p−1}ku^{ε}k^{p}_{L}p(Q).
Thus, using assumption (A5),

µ Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

|∇exu^{ε}|^{p}dx dt+
Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

|∂x3u^{ε}|^{p}dx dt
+

Z

Q^{ε}_{2}

|∇xu^{ε}|^{p}dx dt+ε^{p}
Z

Q^{ε}_{3}

|∇xu^{ε})|^{p}dx dt

≤ η
pkfk^{p}^{0}

L^{p}^{0}(Q)+ 1

pη^{p−1}ku^{ε}k^{p}_{L}_{p}_{(Q)}+C.

Sinceu^{ε}(t, .)∈V, using lemma 3.1 in the right hand side, we obtain
µ

Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

|∇xeu^{ε}|^{p}dx dt+
Z

Q^{ε}_{1}

|∂x3u^{ε}|^{p}dx dt+
Z

Q^{ε}_{2}

|∇xu^{ε}|^{p}dx dt+ε^{p}
Z

Q^{ε}_{3}

|∇xu^{ε})|^{p}dx dt

≤Cη

p+ C

pη^{p−1}(k∂x_{3}u^{ε}k^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{1})+k∇u^{ε}k^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{2})+ε^{p}k∇u^{ε}k^{p}_{L}p(Ω^{ε}_{3})) +C,
we can absorb the right-hand side by choosingη^{p−1}>1. Thus

ku^{ε}k_{L}p(Q)≤C,

(µk∇exu^{ε}k^{p}_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{1}),k∂x_{3}u^{ε}k_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{1}),k∇u^{ε}k_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{2}), εk∇u^{ε}k_{L}p(Q^{ε}_{3}))≤C.

The bounds of Ae^{ε}1, A^{ε}13 and A^{ε}α, α = 2,3 are obtained using H¨older’s inequality

and assumption (A6).

As a consequence of the a priori estimates mentioned above, we have the following result.

Lemma 3.3. Let γ:= limε→0ε^{p}

µ. Assume thatγ <+∞andf^{ε}=f. There exists
u2∈L^{p}(0, T;V), v1∈L^{p} Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Ye1)/R

, z∈L^{p}(Q×Y),
(v_{2}, v_{3})∈

3

Y

i=2

L^{p}(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y_{i})/R), g_{k}∈L^{p}^{0}(Q×Y), u^{∗}_{k}∈L^{2}(Q×Y), k= 1,2,3,
such that we have the following two-scale convergence holds:

u^{ε}(t, x)^{2s,p}→ χ1(y)v1(t, x,ey) +χ2(y)u2(t, x) +χ3(y)v3(t, x, y),
χ^{ε}_{1}(x)(u^{ε}(t, x), ε∇

xeu^{ε}(x))^{2s,p}→ χ_{1}(y)(v_{1}(t, x,y),e ∇

eyv_{1}(t, x,y)),e
χ^{ε}_{1}(x)∂x_{3}u^{ε}(x)^{2s}→^{,p}χ1(y)z(t, x, y), such that ∂x_{3}v1(t, x,y) =e

Z

I

z(t, x, y)dyN,
χ^{ε}_{2}(x)(u^{ε}(t, x),∇xu^{ε}(t, x))^{2s,p}→ χ2(y)(u2(t, x),[∇xu2(t, x) +∇yv2(t, x, y)]),

χ^{ε}_{3}(x)(u^{ε}(t, x), ε∇_{x}u^{ε}(t, x))^{2s,p}→ χ_{3}(y)(v_{3}(t, x, y),∇_{y}v_{3}(t, x, y)),
µ^{1/p}^{0}χ^{ε}_{1}(x)eA^{ε}1(x,∇

exu^{ε}(t, x))^{2s}^{,p}

0

→ χ1(y)eg1(t, x, y),
χ^{ε}_{1}(x)A^{ε}13(x, ∂x_{3}u^{ε}(t, x))^{2s,p}

0

→ χ1(y)g13(t, x, y),
χ^{ε}_{2}(x)A^{ε}2(x,∇xu^{ε}(t, x))^{2s}^{,p}

0

→ χ2(y)g2(t, x, y),
ε^{p}^{p}^{0}χ^{ε}_{3}(x)A^{ε}3(x,∇xu^{ε}(t, x))^{2s,p}

0

→ χ3(y)g3(t, x, y),
χ^{ε}_{k}(x)(c^{ε}_{k})^{1/2}u^{ε}(T, x)→^{2s} χk(y)u^{∗}_{k}(x, y), k= 1,2,3,

(c^{ε})^{1/2}u^{ε}(T, x)→^{2s} u^{∗}(x, y) :=

3

X

k=1

χk(y)u^{∗}_{k}(x, y).

Moreover, there exists a unique functionw3∈L^{p}(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y3))such that
v3(t, x, y) =u2(t, x) +w3(t, x, y)in Y3

w_{3}(t, x, y) =v_{1}(t, x,y)e −u_{2}(t, x)on Y_{13}:=Ye_{13}×I
w3(t, x, y) = 0 onY23:=Ye23×I

(3.8)

andu^{ε}converges weakly inL^{p}(Q)to the function
U(t, x) = (1−θ_{1})u_{2}(t, x) +

Z

Ye1

v_{1}(t, x,y)de ey+
Z

Y3

w_{3}(t, x, y)dy.

The proof of the above lemma is the same as that of [3, Lemma 2.3], we omit it.

Remark 3.4. Ifγ=∞, the sequence
εχ^{ε}_{1}∇

xeu^{ε}= ε

µ^{1/p}µ^{1/p}χ^{ε}_{1}∇

exu^{ε}

is not bounded inL^{p}(Q,R^{2}) in general. The scaled sequence ^{µ}^{1/p}_{ε} χ^{ε}_{1}u^{ε} converges
strongly to zero in L^{p}(Q) as ε → 0 since kχ^{ε}_{1}u^{ε}kL^{p}(Q) ≤ C. Thus, hereafter, we
shall consider only the most interesting casesγ= 0 and 0< γ <∞.

4. Homogenization in the caseγ= 0
Sinceγ= 0 and sup_{ε}

µk∇u^{ε}k^{p}_{Q}ε
1

≤C, the function

εχ1(x ε)∇

exu^{ε}(t, x) = ε

µ^{1/p}µ^{1/p}χ1(x
ε)∇

xeu^{ε}(t, x)
converges strongly to zero inL^{p}(Q;R^{2}). Thusχ_{1}(y)∇

yev_{1}(t, x,ey) = 0, then
χ1(y)v1(t, x,ey) :=u1(t, x)

and especially

U(t, x) =θ1u1(t, x) + (1−θ1)u2(t, x) + Z

Y_{3}

w3(t, x, y)dy. (4.1) Moreover, the sequence

µχ^{ε}_{1}Ae1(x,∇

exu^{ε}) =µ^{1/p}µ^{1/p}^{0}χ^{ε}_{1}Ae1(x,∇

exu^{ε})→0
strongly inL^{p}^{0}(Q).

Now, for every datumZ∈R^{3}, let
A^{hom}13 (Z) :=

Z

Yf_{1}

A13(ey, Z)dy,e (4.2) and letw2,Z be the unique solution (v2) of the following cellular problem

−divy

A2(y, Z+∇yw2,Z)

= 0 in Y2

A2(y, Z+∇yw2,Z).n(y) = 0 onY23

y7→w_{2,Z}(y), A2(y, Z+∇yw_{2,Z}).n(y)
_{∂Y}

2∩∂Y Y −periodic,

(4.3)

we define the function

A^{hom}2 (Z) :=

Z

Y2

A2(y, Z+∇yw2,Z(t, x, y))dy. (4.4)
Theorem 4.1. The functions(u_{α}, w_{3})∈L^{p}(0, T;V)×L^{p}(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y_{3})),α= 1,2
are the unique solutions of the homogenized coupled problems

ce1

∂u1

∂t (t, x)−∂x_{3} A^{hom}13 (∂x_{3}u1(t, x))
+

Z

Y_{13}

A3(y,∇yw_{3}(t, x, y))n_{3}(y)dS(y) =θ_{1}f inQ
ce2

∂u2

∂t (t, x)−divx A^{hom}2 (∇xu2(t, x))
+

Z

Y_{23}

A3(y,∇yw3(t, x, y))n3(y)dS(y) =θ2f inQ fcαuα(0, x) =fcαu0(x) inΩ, fcα=

Z

Yα

cα(y)dy,
u_{α}(t, x) = 0 onΓ_{LB}

(4.5)

and

c3(y)(∂u2

∂t (t, x) +∂w3

∂t (t, x, y))−divy

A3(y,∇yw3(t, x, y))

=f inY3

w_{3}(t, x, y) =u_{1}(t, x)−u_{2}(t, x) onY_{13}
w3(t, x, y) = 0 onY23

c3(y)w3(0, x, y) =c3(y)(u0(x)−u2(0, x)), y∈Y3

y7→A3(y,∇yw3(t, x, y)).n(y)
_{∂Y}_{∩∂Y}

3 Y −periodic

(4.6)

Remark 4.2. Let us comment on these results. These problems involve, roughly
speaking, three coupled fields : two macroscopic functions (u_{1}, u_{2}) and a micro-
scopic onew_{3}. Notice that, only the longitudinal heat flux in the fiber is shown to
be the unique factor contributing on the effective behavior of the composite (see
second term of the first equation in (4.5)). Moreover, the auxiliary problem (4.6)
is defined on the surrounding coating (Y3) of the coated fiber (Y1∪Y3). Besides,
there is no heat flux exchange across the fiber-coating interface.

Proof of Theorem 4.1. LetC_{LB}^{1} (Ω) = {v ∈C^{1}(Ω) :v = 0 on ΓLB}. We shall
consider test functionsψα, ψ, φ2defined as follows:

ψα(t, x)∈W^{1,p}(0, T;C_{LB}^{1} (Ω))

ψ(t, x, y)∈W^{1,p}(0, T;C_{LB}^{1} (Ω;C_{]}^{∞}(Y))), ψ(t, x, y) =ψ_{α}(t, x) in Y_{α} a.e.

φ2(t, x, y)∈ D(Q;C_{]}^{∞}(Y))

We define the functionv^{ε}(t, x) =ψ(t, x,^{x}_{ε}) +εφ2(t, x,^{x}_{ε}). Thenv^{ε}∈W^{1,p}(0, T;V),
hencev^{ε}is an allowable test function. By putting it in the formulation (2.5), using
the fact thatµ=µ^{1/p}^{0}µ^{1/p} and lettingε→0, we obtain

−

2

X

α=1

Z

Q

Z

Y_{α}

cα(y)uα(t, x)ψ^{0}_{α}(t, x)dt dx dy

−

2

X

α=1

Z

Ω

Z

Y α

c_{α}(y)u_{0}(x)ψ_{α}(0, x)dx dy

+

2

X

α=1

Z

Ω

Z

Y α

c^{1/2}_{α} (y)u^{∗}_{α}(x, y)ψ_{α}(T, x)dx dy

− Z

Q

Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)h

u_{2}(t, x) +w_{3}(t, x, y)i

ψ^{0}(t, x, y)dt dx dy

− Z

Ω

Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)u_{0}(x)ψ(0, x, y)dx dy (4.7)

+ Z

Ω

Z

Y3

c^{1/2}_{3} (y)u^{∗}_{3}(x, y)ψ(T, x, y)dx dy+
Z

Q

Z

Y1

g13(t, x, y).∂x_{3}ψ1(t, x)dt dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y2

g2(t, x, y).h

∇xψ2(t, x) +∇yφ2(t, x, y)i

dt dx dy +

Z

Q

Z

Y3

g3(t, x, y).∇yψ(t, x, y)dt dx dy

=X

α

Z

Q

Z

Y_{α}

f(t, x)ψα(t, x)dt dx dy+ Z

Q

Z

Y_{3}

f(t, x)ψ(t, x, y)dt dx dy.

(i) Takeψ1= 0 =ψ2 andφ2= 0. Then

− Z

Q

Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)h

u_{2}(t, x) +w_{3}(t, x, y)i

ψ^{0}(t, x, y)dt dx dy

− Z

Ω

Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)u_{0}(x)ψ(0, x, y)dx dy+
Z

Ω

Z

Y_{3}

c^{1/2}_{3} (y)u^{∗}_{3}(x, y)ψ(T, x, y)dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y_{3}

g3(t, x, y).∇yψ(t, x, y)dt dx dy

= Z

Ω_{T}

Z

Y_{3}

f(t, x)ψ(t, x, y)dt dx dy

for allψ∈W^{1,p}(0, T;C_{LB}^{1} (Ω;C_{]}^{∞}(Y))) withψ(t, x, .) = 0 inY1∪Y2. This remains
true, by density, for allψ∈W_{LB}^{1,p}(Ω;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y)),ψ= 0 onY_{1}∪Y_{2}. For a.e. x∈Ω,
we have, thus, a cellular problem onY_{3}: Findw_{3}=w_{3}(., x, .)∈L^{p}((0, T);W_{]}^{1,p}(Y))
such that

− Z T

0

Z

Y3

c3(y)h

u2(t, x) +w3(t, x, y)i

ψ^{0}(t, y)dt dy

− Z

Y_{3}

c3(y)u0(x)ψ(0, y)dy +

Z

Y_{3}

c^{1/2}_{3} (y)u^{∗}_{3}(x, y)ψ(T, y)dy+
Z T

0

Z

Y_{3}

g_{3}(t, x, y).∇yψ(t, y)dt dy

= Z T

0

Z

Y_{3}

f(t, x)ψ(t, y)dt dy,

(4.8)

for allψ(t, y)∈W^{1,p}((0, T);W_{]}^{1,p}(Y)), withψ= 0 onY1∪Y2.
Integrating by parts intand inysuccessively, we obtain

Z T

0

Z

Y_{3}

c3(y)∂

∂t h

u2(t, x) +w3(t, x, y)i

ψ(t, y)dt dy +

Z

Y3

c3(y)(u0(x)−(u2(0, x) +w3(0, x, y)))ψ(0, y)dy

− Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)(u_{2}(T, x) +w_{3}(T, x, y))ψ(T, y)dy+
Z

Y_{3}

c^{1/2}_{3} (y)u^{∗}_{3}(x, y)ψ(T, y)dy

− Z T

0

Z

Y_{3}

div_{y}

g_{3}(t, x, y)

ψ(t, y)dt dy

+ Z T

0

Z

∂Y∩∂Y_{3}

g_{3}(t, x, y)

.n(y)ψ(t, y)dtdS(y)

= Z T

0

Z

Y3

f(t, x)ψ(t, y)dt dy.

This is the variational form of an evolution problem onY_{3}which we write in a more
explicit form (xis a parameter): Findw3∈L^{p}(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y3)) such thatc3(y)w_{3}^{0} ∈
L^{p}(Q; (W_{]}^{1,p}(Y3))) and

c_{3}(y)∂u2

∂t (t, x) +∂w3

∂t (t, x, y)

−div_{y}

g_{3}(t, x, y)

=f in Y_{3}

w3(t, x, y) =u1(t, x)−u2(t, x) onY13

w3(t, x, y) = 0 onY23 (4.9)

c_{3}(y)w_{3}(0, x, y) =c_{3}(y)(u_{0}(x)−u_{2}(0, x)) y∈Y_{3}
y7→g3(t, x, y).n(y)

_{∂Y}

∩∂Y3 Y −periodic and the final condition

c^{1/2}_{3} (y)u^{∗}_{3}(x, y) =c_{3}(y)(u_{2}(T, x) +w_{3}(T, x, y))

which is however not a part of the problem. It will be only used below to identify the functionsg13, g2, g3.

(ii) Taking nowφ2= 0 andψ= 0 inY3∪Y1, and using an integration by parts and the initial and final conditions satisfied byw3, we have

− Z

Q

Z

Y_{2}

c_{2}(y)u_{2}(t, x)ψ^{0}_{2}(t, x)dt dx dy−
Z

Ω

Z

Y_{2}

c_{2}(y)u_{0}(x)ψ_{2}(0, x)dx dy
+

Z

Ω

Z

Y_{2}

c^{1/2}_{2} (y)u^{∗}_{2}(x, y)ψ_{2}(T, x)dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y2

g2(t, x, y)

∇xψ2(t, x) +∇yφ2(t, x, y)

dt dx dy +

Z

Q

Z

Y23

g3(t, x, y).n(y)ψ2dt dx dS(y)

= Z

Q

Z

Y_{2}

f ψ2dt dx dy.

(4.10)

Takingφ2= 0 andψ2arbitrary inW^{1,p}(0, T;V), we obtain the variational form of
the following initial-boundary value problem inQ:

ce2

∂u2

∂t (t, x)−divx

Z

Y_{2}

g2(t, x, y)dyZ

Y_{23}

g3(t, x, y).n(y)dS(y) =θ2f in Q

ce2u2(0, x) =ce2u0(x) in Ω, c˜2= Z

Y2

c2(y)dy (4.11)

u_{2}(t, x) = 0 on∂Ω
and the final condition

ce2u2(T, x) = Z

Y2

c^{1/2}(y)u^{∗}_{2}(x, y)dy.

Now, takingψ_{2}= 0 andφ_{2} arbitrary inD(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y_{2})), we have
Z

Q

Z

Y_{2}

g2(t, x, y)∇yφ2(t, x, y)dt dx dy= 0, by integration by parts iny, we obtain

− Z

Y_{2}

divy

g2(t, x, y) dy+

Z

Q

Z

∂Y_{2}

g2(t, x, y).n(y)φ2(t, x, y)dt dx dS(y) = 0

for a.e. (t, x)∈Q. This remains true, by density, for allφ2∈L^{p}(Q;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y2)) and
gives for each (t, x)∈Qthe variational formulation of a cellular problem on Y2,

−divy

g2(t, x, y)

= 0 in Y2

g_{2}(t, x, y)
.n(y)

∂Y2∩∂Y3 = 0 y7→g2(t, x, y).n(y)

_{∂Y}_{∩∂Y}

3 Y −periodic

(4.12)

Similarly, for allψ1∈W^{1,p}(0, T;W_{LB}^{1,p}(Ω)), we obtain

− Z

Q

Z

Y_{1}

c1(y)u1(t, x)ψ^{0}_{1}(t, x)dt dx dy−
Z

Ω

Z

Y_{1}

c1(y)u0(x)ψ1(0, x)dx dy +

Z

Ω

Z

Y_{1}

c^{1/2}_{1} (y)u^{∗}_{1}(x, y)ψ_{1}(T, x)dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Ye1

g13(t, x, y)∂x_{3}ψ1(t, x)dt dxdye
+

Z

Q

Z

Y13

g3(t, x, y).n(y)dS(y)

= Z

Q

Z

Y1

f ψ1dt dx dy,

(4.13)

which is the variational formulation of the following initial-boundary value problem inQ.

ce1

∂u1

∂t (t, x)−∂x_{3}(g13(t, x, y)) +
Z

Y_{13}

g3(t, x, y).n(y)dS(y) =θ1f in Ω

ce_{1}u_{1}(0, x) =ce_{1}u_{0}(x) in Ω, c˜_{1}=
Z

Y1

c_{1}(y)dy
u_{1}(t, x) = 0 on∂Ω

(4.14)

and the final condition

ce1u1(T, x) = Z

Y1

c^{1/2}(y)u^{∗}_{1}(x, y)dy.

From this, we obtain the homogenized problem (4.5). It remains to identify gk in terms ofvk, u2. Before proceeding, we prove the following useful identity.

Lemma 4.3.

2

X

α=1

1
2ec_{α}

Z

Ω

|u_{α}(T, x)|^{2}dx+1
2

Z

Ω

Z

Y_{3}

c_{3}(y)|v_{3}(T, x, y)|^{2}dx dy

−1 2

3

X

k=1

eck

Z

Ω

|u0(x)|^{2}dx+
Z

Q

Z

Y1

g13(t, x, y)∂x_{3}u1(t, x)dt dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y2

g2(t, x, y)

∇xu2(t, x) +∇yv2(t, x, y)

dt dx dy +

Z

Q

Z

Y3

g3(t, x, y).∇yv3(t, x, y)dt dx dy

= Z

Q

f(t, x)U(t, x)dt dx.

Proof. We start from the two-scale homogenized problem (4.7) and we consider the sequences

ψk,n, k= 1,2,3, φ2,n, φ3,n

such that

(1) ψα,n→uαin L^{p}(0, T;V), _{∂t}^{∂}ψ1,n→ _{∂t}^{∂}uα1 inL^{p}^{0}(0, T;V^{0}),α= 1,2,
(2) ψ3,n→v3 inL^{p}(0, T;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y3)), _{∂t}^{∂}ψ3,n→ _{∂t}^{∂}v3 inL^{p}^{0}(0, T;W_{]}^{1,p}(Y3)^{0}),
(3) ∇yφ2,n→ ∇yv2 inL^{p}(Q×Y2),∇yφ3,n→ ∇yv3 inL^{p}(Q×Y3).

Note that the smoothness of the above sequencesψk,n,k= 1,2,3,φ2,n,φ3,nimplies their two-scale convergence in strong sense to the corresponding limits [1, Theorem 1.8]. Therefore, passing to the limit with respect tonand taking in account of the final conditions, we obtain

−

2

X

α=1

Z

Q

Z

Y_{α}

cα(y)uα(t, x)u^{0}_{α}(t, x)dt dx dy−

3

X

k=1

Z

Ω

Z

Y α

ck(y)u0(x)^{2}dx dy

+

2

X

α=1

Z

Ω

Z

Y α

cα(y)uα(T, x)^{2}dx dy

− Z

Q

Z

Y3

c_{3}(y)v_{3}(t, x, y)v_{3}^{0}(t, x, y)dt dx dy+
Z

Ω

Z

Y3

c_{3}(y)v_{3}(T, x, y)^{2}dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y1

g_{13}(t, x, y).∂_{x}_{3}u_{1}(t, x)dt dx dy
+

Z

Q

Z

Y2

g2(t, x, y).h

∇xu2(t, x) +∇yv2(t, x, y)i

dt dx dy +

Z

Q

Z

Y3

g3(t, x, y).∇yv3(t, x, y)dt dx dy

= Z

Q

f(t, x)U(t, x)dt dx.

Integrating the above equality with respect to thetvariable, we obtained the states

result.

We are now equipped to identifyg13, g2 andg3.

Identification of g13, g2 and g3. Letφand Φ be inC_{0}^{∞}(Q;C_{]}^{∞}(Y))^{N} and
C_{0}^{∞}(Q;C^{∞}_{]} (Y)) respectively. Forε >0 andh >0 we define the test function

η^{ε}(t, x) =χ^{ε}_{1}(x)
0

∂_{x}_{3}

u1(t, x) +χ^{ε}_{2}(x)∇xu2(t, x)
+ε∇xφ(t, x,x

ε) +hΦ(t, x,x ε).

(4.15)

Note thatη^{ε} and (by the continuity assumption)A^{ε}k(x, η^{ε}) :=A^{ε}k(^{x}_{ε}, η^{ε}(t, x)), k=
1,2,3 are admissible test functions (inL^{p}(Q)) for the two-scale convergence and

η^{ε}(t, x)^{2s,p}

0

→ η(t, x, y) =:χ1(y) 0

∂x_{3}

u1(t, x) +χ2(y)∇xu2(t, x)
+∇_{y}φ(t, x, y) +hΦ(t, x, y).