レントゲンによるX線の発見とその科学史的背景

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ϨϯτήϯʹΑΔ

X

ઢͷൃݟͱͦͷՊֶ࢙తഎܠ

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େҪສلਓ ઐमେֶࣗવՊֶݚڀॴ2 ཁɹࢫɹ1895 ೥ʹ X ઢΛൃݟͨ͠Ϩϯτήϯ͸ୈҰճϊʔϕϧ෺ཧֶ৆Λड৆͍ͯ͠Δʹ ΋͔͔ΘΒͣ, ൃݟ·ͰͷܦҢ΍ͦͷධՁʹؔͯ͠ޡͬͨهड़͕ຮԆ͍ͯ͠Δɻ͜ͷঢ়گ͸, Ϩ ϯτήϯ͕ࣗ఻Λ࢒͞ͳ͔ͬͨ͹͔ΓͰͳ͘, ݚڀϊʔτͳͲͷॻྨ͕ࢮڈͱಉ࣌ʹম٫͞Ε ͯ࢒͍ͬͯͳ͍[1] ͜ͱʹ΋ىҼ͍ͯ͠Δ͕, ͜ΕʹՃ͑, ଞͷݚڀऀͷౄΈʹ༝དྷ͢Δ඄ᨱத ইʹຬͪͨෆਖ਼֬ͳจॻ, ͋Δ͍͸ X ઢൃݟʹΑͬͯ༗໊ʹͳͬͨΏ͑ͷҰൠͷਓʑʹΑΔࠜ ڌͷͳ͍ӟ࿩΍ͦͷྨͷจॻʹΑͬͯ, Ϩϯτήϯຊਓͷਖ਼͍͠ੜ͖༷΍ͦͷۀ੷ͷ಺༰͸૬ ౰ఔ౓ʹ࿪ΊΒΕͯ͠·ͬͨ͜ͱ΋ݪҼʹ͋͛ΒΕΔɻ͜ͷ࿦จͰ͸, ̎೥ؒʹ͓ΑͿจݙௐ ࠪΛجʹ, Ϩϯτήϯͷۀ੷ͳΒͼʹ X ઢൃݟʹࢸ࣮ͬͨݧͷ಺༰ΛͰ͖ΔݶΓਖ਼֬ʹهड़͢ Δ͜ͱΛࢼΈΔɻ 1. ॹݴ 1895೥ͷౙ,Ϩϯτήϯ(W. Röntgen, 1845-1923,ಠ)͸XઢΛൃݟͨ͠ɻਓྨ͕ॳΊͯݟ͚ͭ ͨʮ์ࣹઢʯͰ͋Γ,ͦͷൃݟ͸ՊֶऀͷΈͳΒͣ,Ұൠͷਓʑʹ΋ଈ࠲ʹͦͯ͠ڻ͖Λ΋ͬͯड ͚ೖΕΒΕͨɻݪࢠͷ࣮ࡏ͕2000೥Ҏ্ͷ೥݄Λ͔͚ͯΑ͏΍͘ೝ஌͞Εͨ͜ͱʹൺֱ͢Δͱ, X ઢͷൃݟ͸ରরతͳܦҢΛͨͲͬͨͱ͍͑Δɻ ݪࢠͷ࣮ࡏΛਓྨ͕ೝΊͨՊֶ࢙ΛޠΔͱ͖,਺ઍ೥ʹ౉Δ௕͍ྺ࢙͕ల։͞ΕΔͷ͕௨ৗͰ͋ Δ1ɻҰํͰ,์ࣹઢͷൃݟʹؔͯ͠͸,ʮਓྨ͸19ੈل຤·Ͱͦͷଘࡏʹؾ͔ͮͳ͔͕ͬͨ,ӄۃ ઢͷݚڀΛߦͳ͍ͬͯͨ”ฏຌͳ෺ཧֶऀ”ʹΑͬͯۮવൃݟ͞Εͨͷ͕XઢͰ͋Δʯͱ͍ͬͨఔ ౓ͷ؆୯ͳهड़͕Լ͞ΕͯऴΘΔ͜ͱ͕ଟ͍ɻ XઢൃݟͷܦҢʹ͍ͭͯ,΋͏গ͠ৄࡉʹ஌Γ͍ͨͱࢥͬͯϨϯτήϯࣗ਎΍ͦͷۀ੷ʹ͍ͭͯ ௐ΂Α͏ͱ͢Δͱ,ؔ࿈͢Δจݙ΍ॻ੶͕ͳ͔ͳ͔ݟ͔ͭΒͣʹۤ࿑͢Δਓ͕ଟ͍ͩΖ͏ʢචऀ΋ ۤ࿑ͨ͠Ұਓʣɻ໌Β͔ʹϑΝϥσʔ΍ΩϡϦʔ෉࠺ʹൺ΂Δͱͦͷྔ͸ѹ౗తʹগͳ͍ɻΠϯλʔ ωοτ্Ͱ΋ͦͷঢ়گ͸มΘΒͳ͍ɻͦ΋ͦ΋,Ϩϯτήϯ͕ͲΜͳ࣮ݧΛߦͳͬͯXઢΛൃݟ͠ ͨͷ͔Α͘Θ͔Βͳ͍ͷͰ͋ΔɻҎ্ͷΑ͏ʹɺ࠷ॳͷϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ऀͱͯ͠͸Ϩϯτήϯʹؔ ͢Δจݙ͸ҟ༷ʹগͳ͘,·ͨ͋ͬͨͱͯ͠΋൴ͷ෺ཧֶऀͱͯ͠ͷೳྗΛաখධՁ͢Δจॻ͕໨

1The discovery of the X-ray by Röntgen and its background from a science-history perspective 2Makito Oi, Institute of Natural Sciences, Senshu University

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Ͱ, 1907೥ʹϚΠέϧιϯ͸ϊʔϕϧ৆Λड৆͍ͯ͠Δɻ͜ͷΑ͏ʹ,Ϩϯτήϯ͸ి࣓ؾֶͷਂ ͍ཧղΛ࣋ͪ,૬ରੑཧ࿦΁ܨ͕Δઌ୺తͳݚڀςʔϚʹऔΓ૊Ή༏लͳ෺ཧֶऀͩͬͨ͜ͱ͕Θ ͔Δ3ɻ νϡʔϦοώ޻ՊେֶͰֶੜͩͬͨϨϯτήϯͷೳྗΛݟग़͠,ଔۀͱڞʹॿखʹ࠾༻ͨ͠Ϋϯ τ(August Kundt, 1839-1894)͸,Ϩϯτήϯͱͱ΋ʹԻڹֶ΍ޫֶͷݚڀΛߦͬͨɻ͜ͷݚڀΛ ௨ͯ͠ए͍Ϩϯτήϯͷ࠽ೳ͸ϕϧϦϯେֶͷॏ௟ϔϧϜϗϧπͷࣖʹಧ͍͍ͯͨ[1]ɻ࣮͸,Ϩϯ τήϯిྲྀͷݚڀͷॏཁੑΛ͍ͪૣ͘ཧղ͠,ͦͷݚڀ੒ՌΛ࿦จൃද͢Δ͜ͱΛקΊ͍ͯͨͷ͕ ϔϧϜϗϧπͰ͋ͬͨɻ·ͨ,ϔϧϜϗϧπ͸ϨϯτήϯΛυΠπ࠷ݹͷ໊໳େֶͰ͋ΔΪʔηϯ େֶͷ෺ཧओ೚ʹ΋ਪન͍ͯͯ͠,͜ΕʹΑΓϨϯτήϯͷܦྺ͸͔֬ͳ΋ͷʹͳͬͨ4ɻϨϯτή ϯͷධՁ͸౰࣌ͷ෺ཧֶձͰ͸ʮୈҰڃʯͰ͋ͬͨ͜ͱ͸ؒҧ͍ͳ͍ɻ ϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ʹؔͯ͠΋,ʮฏຌͳ෺ཧֶऀʹΑΔۮવͷൃݟʯͩͬͨͱͨ͠Βड৆͸ͳΒͳ ͔ͬͨͩΖ͏ɻ௕೥ʹ౉Δ୎ӽͨ͠෺ཧݚڀͱೳྗΛೝΊͨपғͷ෺ཧֶऀͨͪ͸,Ϩϯτήϯʹ ΑΔXઢͷൃݟΛʮ͍ͭʹେ෺Λ௼Γ্͔͛ͨʯͱ͍͏ײ֮Ͱݟ͍ͯͨͷͰ͸ͳ͍ͩΖ͏͔ʁ5 ͔͠͠,ݱࡏ༰қʹखʹೖΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δจݙ΍จॻΛݟΔͱ,ͦͷධՁ͸ඞͣ͠΋ߴ͘ͳ͍ɻ

ͨͱ͑͹,࠷ۙ์ө͞ΕͨӳࠃBBCͷυΩϡϝϯλϦʔ൪૊”The Story of Science”ͷ಺༰Λݩʹ

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ೖͬͨͷͰ͋Δɻʢதུʣ൴͸࣍ʑʹ͍͔ͭ͘ͷେֶΛҠΓ, 1888೥ͷळʹϰϡϧπϒ ϧάେֶͷڭतͷ৬ʹ͍ͭͨ7ɻ͜͜͸࠷ߴਫ४ͷେֶͱ͸ݴ͑ͳ͍8ʹͯ͠΋,ͳ͔ͳ ͔Α͍େֶͰ͋ͬͨɻ1895೥11݄ͷॳΊ·Ͱʹ,Ϩϯτήϯ͸48ฤͷ࿦จΛॻ͍ͯ ͍Δ͕,͜ΕΒ͸ࠓͰ͸๨ΕΒΕͯ͠·ͬͨɻ͔͠͠ୈ49൪໨ʹ,൴͸ԫۚΛ۷Γ౰ͯ Δ͜ͱʹͳͬͨͷͰ͋Δɻ” ॹݴͰ΋ड़΂ͨΑ͏ʹ,ΞϝϦΧʹ͓͚ΔϨϯτήϯʹ͍ͭͯͷؒҧͬͨೝࣝ͸๺ถΛத৺ͱ͠ ͨӳޠݍʹ޿·͍ͬͯΔՄೳੑ͕ߴ͘,खʹೖΕ΍͍͢จݙ΍ωοτ৘ใ͚ͩʹ΋ͱ͍ͮͯ҆қʹ ఻ه΍ਵචΛॻ͍ͨՊֶऀ΍δϟʔφϦετ͕ͨͪ,Ϩϯτήϯʹ͍ͭͯͷޡղΛ࠶ੜ࢈͍ͯ͠Δ Մೳੑ͕͋Δ9ɻ Ϩϯτήϯʹ͍ͭͯͷਖ਼͍͠هड़͕ͳ͞Εͨ࠷ॳͷ఻ه10͸1931೥ʹग़൛͞Εͨάϥοαʔ(O. Glasser, 1895-1964,ಠ,ޙʹถ΁Ҡຽ)ͷஶॻͰ͋Δ[11]ɻυΠπޠͷݪஶ͸1934೥ʹӳޠʹ຋༁ ͞Εͨɻάϥοαʔ͸υΠπੜ·ΕͰ͋Γ,υΠπͷϑϦʔϕϧάେֶͰ෺ཧͷത࢜߸Λऔಘͨ͠ ޙ,ΞϝϦΧʹ౉Γҩྍ෺ཧͷݚڀʹैࣄͨ͠ɻಛʹ, Xઢͷઢྔଌఆثͷ։ൃͰ஌ΒΕ͍ͯΔɻ͜ ΕΒͷۀ੷ʹΑΓ,ΫϦʔϒϥϯυҩྍࡒஂͷੜ෺෺ཧ෦໳ͷओ೚ڭतͷ஍Ґʹब͍ͯ,௕͍ؒ׆ ༂ͨ͠[12]ɻXઢଌఆثͷݚڀͷ๣Β,Ϩϯτήϯͷۀ੷΍ҝਓ͕ਖ਼͘͠ੈͷதʹ఻Θ͍ͬͯͳ͍ ͜ͱΛෆຬʹײ͍ͯͨ͡൴͸υΠπޠͱӳޠʹתೳͳ͜ͱΛੜ͔͠,ಠถ྆ࠃͰग़൛͞ΕͨࢿྉΛ పఈతʹूΊ,ͦͷ಺༰Λ෼ੳ͠,ຊʹ·ͱΊͨͷͰ͋Δɻ άϥοαʔͷຊ͕ग़൛͞ΕΔ·Ͱͷؒ,Ϩϯτήϯʹؔ͢Δޡղ΍ޡೝʹجͮ͘ࣄ࣮ແࠜͷ಺༰ ΛؚΜ༷ͩʑͳจॻ͕େྔʹग़ճͬͯ͠·ͬͨ݁Ռ,ݱࡏͰ΋ͦͷӨڹ͕࢒͍ͬͯΔͷͰ͋Δɻά ϥοαʔͷஶ࡞ʹج͔ͮͣʹॻ͔ΕͨϨϯτήϯͷهड़͸,ߋͳΔޡղΛ͍·ͩʹੜΈग़͠ଓ͚ͯ ͍ͯ,ͦͷ୅ද͕ઌʹҾ༻ͨ͠BBCͷυΩϡϝϯλϦʔͰ͋Ζ͏ɻάϥοαʔͷ఻ه΍ͦͷଞͷ ਖ਼֬ͳՊֶ࢙త෼ੳʹجͮ͘ߟ࡯Λߦ͏લʹ, 1920೥୅ΑΓ΋લͷΞϝϦΧͰϨϯτήϯʹର͢Δ ޡͬͨೝ͕ࣝͲ͏ͯ͠޿·͔ͬͨݟͯΈ͍ͨɻͦͷओͳ෼ੳ͸άϥοαʔͷখ࿦จ[8]͓Αͼ੨༄ ͷஶॻ[3]ʹه͞Ε͍ͯΔɻ 1923೥ʹϨϯτήϯ͕ࢮڈͨ͠ࡍ,ΞϝϦΧͰ΋௥ౣߨԋձ͕։࠵͞Εͨɻओ࠵ͨ͠ͷ͸๺ถ์ 7͜Ε΋ෆਖ਼֬Ͱ͋Δɻਖ਼֬ʹ͸୯ͳΔڭतͰ͸ͳֶ͘௕Ͱ͋Δɻ 8Ϗϡϧπϒϧάେֶ͸ϑϥϯΫϑϧτ͔Β50km΄Ͳͷ৔ॴʹ͋ͬͯ, 15ੈل૑ཱͷ໊໳ߍͰ͋ΔɻηάϨͷ͍͏ʮ࠷ ߴਫ४ͷେֶͱ͸͍͑ͳ͍ʯ͜ͷେֶ͸ࠓ·Ͱʹ14ਓͷϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ऀΛഐग़͍ͯ͠Δʢ෺ཧֶͰ͸ྔࢠྗֶͷॳظ ͷൃలʹߩݙͨ͠Wien΍Stark,࠷ۙͰ͸੔਺ྔࢠϗʔϧޮՌͷݚڀͰ஌ΒΕΔVon Klitzing͕͍Δʣɻࢀߟ·Ͱʹ,೔ ຊਓͷϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆͸શମͰ23ਓͰ͋Γ,ͦͷதͰ΋ͬͱ΋ൺ཰ͷߴ͍౦ژେֶͷग़਎ऀͰ͢Β11ਓ͔͍͠ͳ͍ʢจ ֶ৆ͱฏ࿨৆Λআ͘ͱ9ਓͰ͋Δʣ͔Β,ηάϨͷج४Ͱ͸౦ژେֶ͸࠷ߴਫ४ͷେֶͱ͸ݺ΂ͳ͍͜ͱʹͳΔɻ 9ϢμϠਓͩͬͨηάϨ͸ୈೋ࣍େઓͷͱ͖ΞϝϦΧʹ๢໋͠,Ϛϯϋολϯܭըʹ΋ࢀՃ͍ͯ͠Δɻ·ͨ, BBCͷυΩϡ

ϝϯλϦʔͷ੡࡞ऀͨͪ͸ਓؾͷ͋ΔՊֶ൪૊ʢྫ͑͹Walking with DinosaursͳͲʣΛ࡞ͬͨ༏लͳํʑͰ͸͋Δ ͕ɺՊֶݚڀʹ௚઀ܞΘͬͨ͜ͱͷͳ͍จܥத৺ͷδϟʔφϦετͨͪͰ͋ͬͨɻ

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͋ͬͨɻӄۃઢ͕ಁաͰ͖ͳ͍Ψϥε΍ਫথ,μϯϘʔϧࢴ͸΋ͪΖΜ,ް͍ࣙॻ΍໦ࡐͳͲ༷ʑ ͳ΋ͷʹର͢ΔಁաੑΛௐ΂Δͱ, Xઢ͸ͦͷͲΕΛ΋ಁաͯ͠ޙΖͷܬޫ൘ΛޫΒͤͨɻΞϧϛ χ΢Ϝ͸1.5ηϯνϝʔτϧͷް͞ʹͯ͠΋ಁա͠, 1ϛϦϝʔτϧఔ౓ͷಔ,ۜ,നۚ,ԖͳͲͷۚ ଐ΋ബ͍൘ͳΒ༰қʹಁաͨ͠ɻʢԖ͸1.5ϛϦʹͳΔͱෆಁ໌ʹͳ͕ͬͨ,ͦͷଞͷۚଐ͸ಁաΛ ڐͨ͠ɻʣͦͷଞʹ΋ΰϜ,ӷମͷਫ,Ӣ฼,ؾମͷਫૉ,͞·͟·ͳ෺࣭ʹ͍ͭͯಁաੑΛௐ΂্͛ ͨɻ͜ΕΒͷ݁Ռ͸ӄۃઢͰ͸૝૾΋͔ͭͳ͍΄Ͳͷڧ͍ಁաੑೳΛXઢ͕΋͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱΛࣔ ͍ͯͨ͠[3, 23]ɻ ࠷େͷڻ͖͸,༷ʑͳ෺࣭ͷಁաੑΛௐ΂Α͏ͱඪຊΛ௫ΜͰ͍ΔखʹۮવXઢ͕রࣹ͞Εͨͱ ͖ʹ๚Εͨɻࣗ෼ͷखͷࠎʢͷӨʣ͕ܬޫ൘ʹࣸͬͨͷͰ͋Δɻࣗ෼͕ݟͨ΋ͷ͕৴͡ΒΕͣ,ͦ Ε͔Β਺೔ؒͱ͍͏΋ͷಉ࣮͡ݧΛͳΜͲ΋܁Γฦͨ͠ɻ಄͕ڰͬͨͱݴΘΕͦ͏Ͱ୭ʹ΋ʢಛʹ ಉ྅ͷ෺ཧֶऀʹ͸ʣ૬ஊͰ͖ͳ͔ͬͨͱ͍͏ɻ ਌༑ͷ෺ཧֶऀθϯμʔʹ΋ ୭ʹ΋͜ͷݚڀͷ͜ͱ͸஻͍ͬͯͳ͍ɻ࠺ʹ͸ɺʮϨϯτήϯ͸͍ͭʹ಄͕͓͔͘͠ͳͬ

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5. ݁࿦ ʮຊདྷͷݚڀ໨తΛ੒बͰ͖ͣ,ͨ·ͨ·ݟ͚ͭͨಾͷޫઢXઢͷൃݟʹΑΓʰ୨͔ΒԴ୮໫ʱ తʹ༗໊ʹͳͬͨ,૖೥ظͷී௨ͷ෺ཧڭतʯͱ͍͏ޡͬͨΠϝʔδΛృΓ͚ͭΒΕ,ͦͷʮ޾ӡʯ ͚ͩʹਓʑͷ஫໨͕ू·Γ,Ϩϯτήϯ͕ͲΜͳ࣮ݧΛ͍ͯͨ͠ͷ͔ৄ͍͠આ໌͕ॻ͔Εͨจݙ͕ ݟ͚ͭʹ͍͘ঢ়ଶ͕ൃੜͯ͠͠·ͬͨɻυΠπࠃ಺ʹ͓͚ΔϨφʔτͷωΨςΟϒΩϟϯϖʔϯ΍ ๺ถʹ͓͚ΔޡղͳͲ΋,ͦͷঢ়گʹഥंΛ͔͚ͨɻ͜ͷঢ়گ͸͋Δҙຯݱࡏ΋ଓ͍͍ͯΔɻ ·ͨ,άϥοαʔͷ఻هΛ͸͡Ί,ॾʑͷจݙΛಡΜͩͱͯ͠΋,Ϩϯτήϯ͕ԿΛ͍ͯͯ͠,Ͳ ͷΑ͏ʹ޾ӡʹܙ·Εͨͷ͔ͳ͔ͳ͔Θ͔Γʹ͍͘ɻӄۃઢͷݚڀ͕׬શʹղܾ͞ΕԼՐʹͳͬͯ ͠·ͬͨ݁Ռ,ݚڀͷഎܠʹ͍ͭͯͷهԱ͕ࣦΘΕͯ͠·ͬͨͷ΋ݪҼʹ͋ΔͩΖ͏ɻචऀ΋౰ॳ ͸Ϩφʔτͷ໊લΛฉ͍ͯ΋ϐϯͱ͜ͳ্͔ͬͨ,ϊʔϕϧ৆Λड৆͍ͯ͠Δ͜ͱ΋஌Βͳ͔ͬͨɻ ·ͯ͠΍ड৆ཧ༝͕ӄۃઢΛ֎քʹऔΓग़ͨ͢Ί͚ͩͷσόΠεͷ։ൃʹա͗ͳ͍ͱ஌ͬͨͱ͖ ͸,ϊʔϕϧҕһձͷ൑அΛෆՄղʹײͨ͘͡Β͍Ͱ͋ΔɻͦͷҙຯͰ͸,ϔϧπͱϨφʔτͷݚڀ ʹ͍ͭͯͷՊֶ࢙Λ஌Δ͜ͱ͸,Ϩϯτήϯͷۀ੷Λਖ਼͘͠ཧղ͢Δ্ͰඇৗʹॏཁͰ͋ͬͨɻ͜ ΕΛ஌Δ͜ͱͰ,Ϩϯτήϯ͕ԿΛ໨ࢦ࣮ͯ͠ݧΛ͍͔ͯͨ͠Α͏΍͘ཧղͰ͖ͨͷͰ͋Δɻ Ϩϯτήϯ͸ϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ߨԋΛஅ͍ͬͯΔɻ͜Ε͸൴ͷड৆ʹҟٞਃཱͯ͠Λͨ͠Ϩφʔτ Λࢥ͍΍ͬͯͷ͜ͱͰ͸ͳ͍͔ͱචऀ͸ߟ͑ΔɻϨϯτήϯ͸Xઢͷൃݟͱͦͷҩֶ΁ͷԠ༻ʹ ؔͯ͠ಛڐ͸औΒͣ,ສਓʹͦͷ࢖༻Λڐͨ͠ɻϊʔϕϧ৆ͷ৆ۚ͸શֹϏϡϧπϒϧάେֶ΁د ෇ͨ͠ʢड৆ͨ͠ͱ͖,Ϩϯτήϯ͸ϛϡϯϔϯେֶʹҠ͍͕ͬͯͨ,ݚڀΛͤͯ͘͞Εͨײँͱ͠ ͯϏϡϧπϒϧάେֶͷΈʹد෇ͨ͠΋ͷͱࢥΘΕΔʣɻϨφʔτ΍ͦͷऔΓר͖͔ΒͷݴΘΕͷ ͳ͍඄ᨱதইʹ͸ແݴͰ଱͑ͨɻ গ೥ظ,٧໰͢ΔڭࢣʹޱΛดͯ͟͠༑ਓͷ͍ͨͣΒΛ͔͹ͬͨϨϯτήϯ͸໨Λ͚ͭΒΕ,ୀֶ Λڧ੍͞Εͨɻܦྺʹই͕͍ͭͨͷΈͳΒͣ,৺ʹ΋ਂ͍ইΛෛͬͨ͸ͣͰ͋ΔɻυΠπࠃ಺ͷେ ֶ΁ਐֶ͢ΔՄೳੑΛઈͨΕͨϨϯτήϯ͸ۤ࿑ͯ͠εΠεͷνϡʔϦοώ޻Պେֶʹೖֶ͢Δɻ ࣮͸,υΠπ෩ͷݫ֨ͳڭҭʹೃછΊͳ͔ͬͨΞΠϯγϡλΠϯ΋গ೥ظʹڭһͱিಥ͠,υΠπͷ ໊໳େֶͰ͸ͳ͘,νϡʔϦοώ޻Պେֶʹೖֶ͍ͯ͠ΔɻϨφʔτʹ଀·Εͨ͜ͷೋਓͷఱ࠽͸ ࣗ༝ͳֶ෩ʹೃછΈ,ฏ࿨Λ޷Ήؾ࣭ͩͬͨͷͰ͋Ζ͏ɻͦΕ͕ఱ࠽Ͱ͸ͳ͔ͬͨϨφʔτͷᚒʹ ͻͲ͘োͬͨͷͰ͸ͳ͍ͩΖ͏͔ɻ ͨͩҰ఺චऀ͕ϨϯτήϯΛ੹Ί͍ͨͷ͸,ΞΠϯγϡλΠϯͱҧͬͯ,Ϩϯτήϯ͸͋·Γʹ ΋ແޱա͗ͨ͜ͱͰ͋Δɻ൴ʹؔ͢Δਖ਼͍͠Պֶ࢙͕ͳ͔ͳ͔׬੒͠ͳ͍ͷ͸ͦͷॴҝͰ͋Δɻ ࢀߟจݙ

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[2]େҪສلਓ,ʮϑΝϥσʔͷਅۭ์ి࣮ݧͷಈػʹ͍ͭͯͷՊֶ࢙తߟ࡯ʯઐमࣗવՊֶلཁ

ୈ50߸(ฏ੒31೥3݄ʣ

[3]੨༄ହ࢘,ʮϨϯτήϯͱXઢͷൃݟʯ߃੕ࣾްੜֳ(2000೥)

[4] W. C. Röntgen, Ann. Phys., 35, p.264 (1888)

[5] A.Sommerfeld, “Elektrodynamik” (1948); English translation, “Electrodynamics, Lectures on the theoretical physics”, Academic Press (1952)

[6]ϚΠέϧɾϞʔζϦʔ,δϣϯɾϦϯνʢٱ๕ਗ਼඙༁ʣ,ʮՊֶ͸ྺ࢙ΛͲ͏ม͖͔͑ͯͨʯ౦

ژॻ੶ʢ2011೥)

[7]ΤϛϦΦɾηάϨ,ʮXઢ͔ΒΫΥʔΫ·ͰʯΈͣ͢ॻ๪(1982೥ʣ

[8] O. Glasser, Am. J. Roentgenolgy and Rad. Therapy , 25, 437-450 (1931) [9] I. S. Hirsch, Radiology, 4, pp.63-66,139-142,249-253 (1925)

[10] E.E. Burns, Popular Science Monthly, 73, pp. 554-556 (1908)

[11] O. Glasser, “Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen und die Geschichte der Röntgen Strahlen”, Springer-Verlarg (1931); English translation, ”Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the early history of the Röntgen rays”, Springfield (1934)

[12] Encyclopedia of Clevland History,

“Glasser, Otto”, https://case.edu/ech/articles/g/glasser-otto

[13]ϊʔϕϧࡒஂ, https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1905/lenard/biographical/

[14] J. C. Maxwell, “A treatise on electricity and magnetism” (1873) [15] P. Lenard, Ann. Phy. Chem., S1, 225-267 (1894)

[16]࠭઒ॏ৴,ʮి࣓ؾֶʯ,ؠ೾ॻళ(1977)

[17] J. J. Thomson, Electrician, 3, 672-674 (1894)

[18] J. B. Perrin, Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci., 121, 1130-1134 (1895)

[19]ϊʔϕϧࡒஂ, https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1901/rontgen/facts/

[20]ΞϝϦΧ෺ཧֶձAPSχϡʔε, https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200111/history.cfm

[21] Wikipedia [EN], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Röntgen

[22]ٶԼ৾٢,Պֶ࢙ݚڀ, 21, pp.162-175 (1982)

[23] W.C.Röntgen, Sitzungs-Berichte Phy. med. Gesellsch., Würzburg, 28, pp.132-141 (1895) [24] P. Lenard, “Grosse Naturforscher”, J.F. Lehmanns (1930); English translation, “Great men

of Science”, G.Bell and sons (1933)

[25] P.Lenard, Ann. der Phys., 65, pp.593-604 (1921)

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