Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Premotor Area Following Ablation of The Motor Area in Primates

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全文

(1)

Title

Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Premotor Area

Following Ablation of The Motor Area in Primates

Author(s)

NAGAYAMA, YKIYA

Citation

日本外科宝函 (1965), 34(2): 310-327

Issue Date

1965-03-01

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/2433/206470

Right

Type

Departmental Bulletin Paper

Textversion

publisher

(2)

310 日本〉ト件宝函第34巻 ~~2 号

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Premotor Area

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The Motor Area i

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by YKIYミ入'AGAY,¥'¥1.¥ From the ll<'partment川 Orthopaedic,;,Him,hima Univer<it1・ i¥ledic;ilぬh印ii (Dire℃tけr,Profe

rTETSUO ho I Department of ( lrthopaedic'. Kyけtollniver~.ity Medical~ ・h《川I,Kyりto.Japan I~尻町、 ied fけrl'uhlici:山けnJan.18, 1965

Cerebral "P;川icpal-;,・ is in most in只tancesdue to lesion in the motor and premotor

areas or the frontal lobes. Out of 353 cas引 of cerebral palw, 2 cases showed clinicallv

the signs of low decerebration and 33 cases the si宮nsof high decerebration. In cases of high decerebrate type, voluntary activitv was completeh-abolished and the postural reflexcべ were steadily demonstrated. ¥Vhen 九了目只 4 and 6 are bilaterally removed, primates,

including man, are virtually reduced to the thalamic reflex status, exhibiting all the po只− tural reflexes. Howen•r, in cがesof ι・erebral spastic paralysis showing the signs of para -plegia, diplegia and hemiple只ia,some part of the precentral area seems to remain intact. In these cas明, isolated movements are somewhat vigorously performed at the proximal joints, thouεh mm・ements which乱reperformed at the distal joints are the flexor and ex・ tvn吋>rsynergies and, frequentlv, the distal joints are rigidly held in the decerebrate attitudes. FULTON proved in monkey that, if in one hemisphere as little as

1

5

to 20 per cent of the agranular frontal cortex remained intact, the animal ultimately regained some degree of¥'Ol:tional movement in all four extremiti引 TAKAHASHI found in monkev with bilateral

ablation of area 4 that passive flexion and extension movements of each joint of the affected limbs were followed hy flexor and extensor synergies of the adjacent joints. These clinical and experimental findings sug只estthat, in spastic paralysis, the extrapyramidal motor areas. especially the premotor area, play the role in performance of volitional movement in the affected extremiti引

Though many reports have been made concerning the functions of the premotor area, there吋illremain several problem只whichshould be elucidated. The results of an electri -cal stimulation of the cerebral rnrt ic引 inprimates were reported by C. VoGT, 0.VoGT,

PENFIELD and others in detail. h< 1 and MURAKAMI also performed experimental study in which an electrical stimulation of area 6 a wぉ carriedout under awake state in monkev with bilateral ablation of area 4. In ITO and MurnKAMI‘R experiment, three different kinds of movement wぞれる evokedfrom many points diffusely scattered over area 6 a: 1)Variou日 combinations叶 flexor and extensc庁

vnじ印l引 of the bilateral or contralateral limbs. 2)

Contnl¥-er;,ion and ipsi¥・ersion of the head and eyes. 3) Turning of the head and eyes accompanied withべtcTc・ot,・ped flex or乳n【

1

exten~or syner只i引 ofthぞ limbsidentical in pattern

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STJMI 'L.¥TI<J'¥<】F THE PREM( >T< !i'入RE.¥ 311

immobilized, an electrical stimulationof area 6 a no longer e¥・okedre刈J(ll1町 ofthe limbs.

This fact suggeststhatwhen area4 i><bilaterallyrぞ 川rwed,111<l\'t•rnent只 induced from arL・1; 6 a are followedhv the tonic neck reflexes. It is the purposeofthis paper toelucidate the neural mechanism responsible forcomplicated pattern只ofvoluntarymovement, posturむ

and rdlex found in仁 川 町 ofs1x1sticparalysis. In thisexperiment, inmonkev with hiL1ter:tl

ablation of area i,re弓ponsese¥・oked by an electricalstimulation of area 6 a with implant巳cl l'i七・ctrodesunder awake state were observed. Furthermore, ther引pc川 崎 、 obtainedwere 汀nal,.:zed h,・ bilateralsection ofthe upper threetでn・ical posteriornen・ぞ れ 川 、 andbila1じral destruction ofthefastigialnucleus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of

1

2

monkeys (rnacaca"¥'llけmolo山)

wert・ usedin this experiment. Afterarea 4 w:ト

hihterallyremoved, Delgado‘只 plate electrodes Wl・re

placed on both areas6 a. Electrodesconsisted of刈X 吋Iver wires which were arranged inparall with

theirtips at a distancl' of:=imm. from one another and cemented to昨ther (Fig. 1). Operation was done under thiopenthalsodium anesthesiawiththe

aidof a cytoarchitectural map ofthe prεcentralarea

which was made by ho and MurnKAM!. Responses inducecl by an electricalstimulationofarea 6 a were observed and recorded by movie. And then theseanimalswere div.dee! into two groups. Inthe firstgroup, theupper three cen・ical posterior nぞれ’ぞ rr川ts through which the afferent fibersfor thetonic、neckreflexes passwere sectioned. Inthesecond group, bilateral electrolyticdestructionofthe fasti広ialnucleus of the cerebellum was carried out throughstereotacticall・¥ oriented electrode. In both groups, respり11可 、 evoked h~· dectrical stimulation ofarea6 a after the secondoperation were compared with those after the first operation. An electrical stimulation of area 6 a wasperformed witha 60-cyclealternatingcurrentat1 to '.2.5voltswith theanimal held in a r引tr;iining chair under awake state (Fig. 2) After theanimals wereぉ1じrificecl,thecortical stimulationpoints were accurately recorded. Inthe second εroup,the location and theextent of fastigiallesions were routinelv controlled on serial histological?決・けions (Tahle1). RESULTS Fig.1 |ゴ

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Plate electr刊lぃ Fig. 2 Re,tr"ining chair. 日町tredes a rec•川 II円 tげ|

1th rトl川 ti,・e lamps

hich江reilghted up 幻口1tdta11

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1th stimuh tion of corrトー pondingιt’I tic.iipoint Experiment I. Stimulation ofarea 6日 after bilateralablation of area~1. 1.

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’mptom, 雪 followingbilateral ablationof areaιL

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312 日本ン卜h宝 函 況31王子第2号 Table 1. ( lptT,tti,・e Prけceclurが Perfけrmedand Peri川Iof (JIN Hιl(¥ll日ofI '"'t'刊T,1¥i日iFind1n日、 Period《d(JIN白r -九J,,llkt'¥ Penocl of ( llNT -¥¥'i'Jピlit J 't (Jpn1¥1tt11 I q1tion after l叫 2nd ( lpe1:it1• 川 ,・;1t l llll after 2nd ¥Ltrl、 1 rK日} ( lpn:it1•>ll

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,】1'rat1on Hilateral Removnl of Area 1 Bilateral内'l'tittnof Upper I I and Implant;山口nイ Three Cervic日l!'"'↑刊\ llf ¥ 1.5 Plate Elel'lrod田 口nBoth 8 (fl;,、、) 入lerveR" >I' 60 ) f);円、l '¥awa、6a B LO II 8 15

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IIιlei ト Lo E I 1.0 ,, I II 10 I/ I

11 G 1.2 // 6 II H II 9 /I 11 1.8 8 13 1.3 ノγ 7

18 K 1.2 ! // 8 // 14 1.5 II 日 II p in a lateral or crouchin只position for 1 to 2 days after operation. Thereafter, purposeful movements reappeared at the proximal joints, which allowed the animal to use the extre -mi ti引 inrhythmic progression. However,乱ctiw movements of the distal joints, especially

of the fingers, were profoundly affected and dexteritvりffiner movements of the fingers

was never re宗ained. The tonic neck reflexes were demonstrated in

8

out of the 12 mon-keys for3 to4 days after operation and disappeared with the restoration of voluntary movement. The rightin只reiiexが wereelicitahle in 9 animals for

5

to 7 days after opera

-tion and disappeared thereafter. The positive supporting reactions of the legs were also demonstrated in

8

animals and re汀iained in the刈me state up to the time of the second operation. Durin日thecourse of experiment, p;1ssivゼ flexion and extension movements of each joint of the involved limhs were followed lw flexor and extensor syner問自 ofthe adjacent joints (Table 2).

2. The results of an electrical stimulation of area6 a in monkev with bilateral ahla -tion of area4.

The rがul

of this experiment were hrieflv summarized in Tahles

3

and l. ¥'anous

tvp引 川 movementwere induced from 99 points in and around areas6 a of 2 i hemispheres : 日

) Turning of the head and l'\’e~ was evoked from 91 of the 99 stimulation points. (λmt r川 町 メion of the head was induced from 87 points and ipsiversion of the head from the remainin只 lpoints.

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ST!¥ll 'L \下If>:¥ OF THE PRE¥1< 1T< 11¥ .¥ lくE.礼 313 Table 2 c;,・111pt<>川、 foll< 川in.I! B1hll'r:d.\lil:iti"11 什lλr~: 1 4 λl<>llk

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(ー} ¥1 l土 Both upper limbs R C+J I

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D SP (+1 、 、 ー ︶ I 3 [)川、 h<+J k<+1 ﹁ j w ト + + 一 ︶ 土 い 同 一 川 川 一 ー 十 ’h H 一 − 一 り 一 SLH 5 J)川 、 Rhythmic戸川l h 1+1 k (+1 只(+) 1-J ' s w1+1 J i (I +1 (+) 7 [)川、 ︶

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<\〆土f S '.+, e'.+1 Iν土J (土 ) ' ( ) : (ー) Bけthlo¥¥er limbs ( 土 ) ( 士 ) ' (土) Both lower limh> 只−wl+J Rー日(+) s -¥¥'( +J h al+) h-a(十l h-a<+ J 入1 R 7

同I' (+) \ ア (ー) (+} 九f R (+) ? 、 > ¥¥'I+) h-at +l (土) SP (ーー)

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(土) Both lower limbs 只日(+) R

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thm1c耳目I¥ h (十) k (

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(土} '-) 土 九 −w(

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h日(+) メ − ¥¥'(十) h-11I十j (土1 (土) 仙 川micgait ~;1~:~: 1れ of ~ml operat1on日;ト h ( + ) k ( + ) h ! +) k ( + ) rl<>lle8 d‘り、;1fter ド 士l

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(土)e(+)日〔+ 1、t"]X'l'lil in11 (-I Lーノ J土) ]',,>(Ji J >,¥¥(I limbs (+1 1-1 S f I+' {I+ I h-al+J h-al+J L土 ) ( 土 ) !<.hythmic g;iit Rhythmic gait h C+) k C+) h.(十J k r+J st+) e (土) fー) {一一) s -\\〔+) f土) 1-1 只−f I +J (土) い-It' h-a 1+) (土) h I+) kt+) '1I+) \\'(士) ド +1 e t+l ( - 1

s-f(+1 ( 土l

(6)

314 F M R 、h G 1-1 ( SP M J K (ー) ¥' l¥1 l土) ll<>t Ii1,川円 11111、》! 1+1 > f '+I h-; I+ i I (+) (ー) (ー) 只−\\(+I R ? 、 メl》 ¥ 六I' (+} ¥' 入1 (-' 「土) l弘,thJ,川げ hml、》 h-a(+1 (土j h (土) R 戸 、 ¥' {ー) R Bハt(hl土)ower limbs h-ai+) (+) ? え SP ¥' {ーー) 1+1 ¥1 ? 、 只一日(+) h-t i+J I (土} 同l' ¥' ¥I B≪th !土)J,川円 !1111ト! R 日木ヤト H'rf1羽合'\31 巻~:n2号

C+

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I Rhythmic gait h r+1 k 1+1 (ー) I s -¥¥・I+) (土) Rhythmic g;iit h・1+1 kr+) 1土1 (ー) l<h¥'thmic gait 1 l<hythm1じ 符Ill I h(+) kr+1 h1+1 k1+〕! 、(+) ιar+1 引+) e I+ I ¥¥'I士l ︶ 川 + 一 一 川 + + + 必 1 1 一 サ 一 日 い ↓ 一 川 い い 一 む 一 町 川 刊 一 ︶ ﹁ 一 一 山 土 山 川 ︶ 一 、 引 ︵ 一 て ︵ 一 い + ︵ 一 ︵ 一 寸 l h + + ︵ eh 一 t ト 一 十 1 ︵ 一I H E n −n 1 n t 、 3 、 、 J ゼ 、 (ーー) // (ー} e f 1+1 h-t I+ I (土) 日ndoperati<》n、\''1'cl川ie8 rl川 、 after I st operntinn Iミiηthm1c日‘il h 1 +) k ( + ) '.::nd operation\\'川 、{十) done 10【l川 、after (ー) l叶{刊川inn (-1 h-;i(+) h a(+1 ( 土 ) ( 土 ) I< !1

thmic山川 l¥l11tl1111ic g;11t h I+ I k I+ I ,, I+ I I、(+) ( ー ) | (ー) (土) h-t I+ I 「土) h1+1 k r+J (土J !),•1 h 1,,いn limbs

w1+1 hーtI

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(土) (ー) (ー) (ー) h t <+I (士) I¥ hvth1nic g;11t hC+1 I《(+) ,_ー) J i a(+ I (士) h'.h

tillllll'日‘ill h ( + 1 k 1 +) '.'rnl operation wa> 'I+ I "'州 、9d:1" after (ー) I、I"I川 1ti<川 (ー) h-t

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(7)

六T!M¥TL¥TIO:¥ OF THE l'rn:¥I<IT

I-.'..¥RE.¥ 315 トベ h-a (+I メ!》

v

(ー) M (ー) L (土) R B<>1h I什 日 肝 limb、: s h-a(+J メド 〔+) V : Voluntarv rnov日nents. メ:Flexornnd extensor叫nergtr> s ・ Shoulder. e : Elbow. a : Ankle. t ・ T川 h-a(+) (土) h-t (+) h-t I+) (土) f土) i<.!1¥tl 2nd operation was h I+ I k I+; I done10 cl川 、after 1 _) [ Rhythmic gait ノ I h<±l kCト) \ BJ 、 h a J

一 一

(ー) ] 、topernt1on (ー) ! (-I r-1 h-a(+) : hーt1+〕 hーt(十) ( 土 ) ( 土l f土) ' M : Tonic neck rぞflexe;;. R : Ri日htingref!川、 メド Positive叩ppxtingreaction w : ¥¥"ri日 f: Finger. h : Hip. hy stereotvpγd flexor and extensor syner只iesof the limhs identical in p日ttern with the tonic neck r・tイlex刊 九1oreover, in stimulation of 35 of the 50 points, the responses evoked in the limbs w七rethe typical flexor and extensor synergies of all four limbs ( F 1g. 3) .

Fiε.4 is a summarized diagram showing the location of the 35 stimulation points in24

hemispheres from which movements of the head and limbs were induced. Furthermore, in stimulation of the remaining15 points, the responses were evoked in one to three limbs. In these cases, when the head was passively immobilized, an electrical stimulation evoked no response of the limbs. However, if the head was released, turning of the head accom『

panied with movements of the limbs promptly appeared. (Fig. 5).

c) ¥'ari竹uscombinations of flexor and extensor syner印引 ofthe bilateral or contra

-lateral limbs were evoked fro口18 stimulation points. Moreover, similar responses of the

limbs accompanied with turning of the head were evoked from 13 points.

Fig. 6 is a summarized diagram showing the location of the 99 stimulation points in24

hemispheres from which various kinds of movement were induced. As seen in this figure, these stimulation points of six kinds are diffusely scattered in and around area 6 a mingled with one another. From these facts, it is thought that area 6日 ismade up of sev出 1!

small circumscribed anatomically and functionally homologous areas, each of which is capa -ble of inducing movements of the head and limbs.

Experiment II. Electrical stimulation of area 6 a in monkey with bibteral ablation of are在 4and bilateral section of the upper three cnvi;じipi osterior

nerve roots.

In 3 monkeys with bilateral ablation of日rea 4, turning of the head accompanied with

flexor and extansor synergies of all four limbs identical in pattern with the tonic neck re -flexes was evoked by an electrical stimulation of11 points. In these monkeys, the same cortical points as those inducing movements mentioned above ¥Verぞ again stimulated after

bilateral section of the upper three cervical posterior nerve roots. 1. Symptoms following the second operation.

Voluntary activity which had heen regained after the first operation, bilateral ablation of山rl';1I,remained unchan貯ιlafter bilateral section of the upper three cen・ic:il posterior

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Table 3. I~トprnNC"ド of M"n

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fhemisphere, and numbers for electrode number.

C:λch-n'"" mりvementof the head. I . I 1川、刊・,1、・ movemc 臼】t'd tlic head.

F E,tc11'1'川 F ・ Fle,u川 λ1 T11111仁 11~c1、 rdle"・'引け kcd in all f11ur limbs. m T111111・ ""'・k 1elle:−.小引けkeel

m

けneto three limbs

Table 4 R出pons白 ol Mord

to汁lllltll.1!11’11 "I .¥w11 6aιdt《rBilat町 汁I.¥liLrt1onりI. ¥rc.i '1. I心不!”川、れ i¥u111l>t"r'》IStimulation l'11111t 1 l",1ntr川 円 、iり11of the h出1cl.111d

.

ι'"11tr川 守 トIT川 (orl[N、町、1TJ11r of the head and r ¥I、

lffl川1p;111Jt"ll、1、th flexor and t「lt'll叫川町IJLrgiぞ、"I the limbs ident1山l Illい.1llt111、1、tl1 thr tonic neck rel le町 、 .!I l./.e'I”川、,., of all four limbs. h I I\亡、pt川司、111'川ie t" three li111li、 3. Various c1 Hnl川Jd(IT刷、"Iflexor and extensor sy11c1gicsけ1bilateral t’!日川 tralateral hml》、 I.Various rn111li111.itu川 ト けfflex《irand extensor叫ncrgic

ol bilateral or rnn→ tralateral '1111!" ;ic山>lll[J江111ed "1tl1 turning of the head. Total .¥ 日 Fig. 3 入J,川、川 K. .-¥,l'r1st11rc before stimulation. B, Turning TJf head and I lじM 》!日nd exte11吋 江 川l1l'1gies けi four limbs identical in patt町n with the ti】11ic necl、:dlcx仁、日luch .ire induced h、、timulationof point K16 in arc:1 6

i 28 35 15 8 13 99

(10)

318 日本外科宝函 J;i:i;3l巻 第2号 •o,s _

!

• es13 I 8c4 ~,同副旬、ーー-・’F

.

~

.

仁,5•s11 eAIS r 『 Sulcl-JS precentralis jSuperio「 inf.,,

f

013

Ac5 J

l5 eFl2

015 "16

F13 •E12

c1s •c1s •c12

Cll

LI之 eHl4 .J,3 I I e e eEc4 1¥Kc3悶 .A12 ‘ • G/4 eEc6

Gii

s

a

に d r ’ j 川 凶 c d + し は 同

tun

L

a

c

e

c d ・ −

c

αue

t F f h コ﹁

S

乱 れ P

. .

f i t

− ’ ’

Fig 4 ろummariLeddiagra口1showingthe lrn:at1<J11 "f35 ,timulation points in ~I hemispheres from wl11ι,, turning of the head accompanied with

11cr以ic111りvernents of the li111b, identical in pattern

1th the tonic neck reflexes"''"evoked.

A B ぐ

Fig. 5 Mり11!札 、 礼 入, Posture I背,f

.

l1111td;il11111inmonkey with bilateral .1!-.l.111<>11けfarea!. B,¥Vhen 111℃ head is imm•わilizecl, ι"" ピ|町lrl山|、t111111lation"1f>》int.-¥ 15evれke,norトI'川、仁 川 thelimbs. C.\∼hrn the heacl i;,released,turning of the lie.1CI and flexor and extensor引11erM げiesof allfour Jim!同identicalin

(11)

e 112 0Hcl

DH/2

l!llHI I 0Kcl

ろTI:-..Jl’L¥no:¥ ( >FTHE PR,λJUTυI¥.λR・! ト;\

一 −

阻~ぷ士一貫亘

:

μ

DL'4

l,2- J:11•11 0A,6'' I A, l

J13 AcS Jl5’ a

n

113 0 @! '"..

Jl6

'L~ "'・・ F'"l2 目K13 Ke"申 Ll4On~戸。Hc~16o°,!ろ・9~6.816! 円, J ’‘ 14 ・ Dl3 ・~12 孟i i 0 I R

Cl6 ・宅 Cc39~!」~K さ・E'16 ロLl3 0

Cl5E川 O

固C,2 日 目 OG

M

時日’

Clle乱, G ,.9,3-u' R,4 圃~ . Hl3 .Hl4 w Jc4 る 『 回 しC4 }:I, 09,2

0

oc,占臼,5 Kc4.J,2

J,3Fl5A~ ;'!;・Bll

2

与 え −

0固Dc3 c:S lilHl5. eA/5

r

;

Jcl .K,3 Fl6-.Ec4 ~ I 0012 Su kus precentra I 1s n

E,5

ド 回1,1 ¥ 0 E0 A:,2 l2 A13 C -M 固 目 / Superio「 •Gii E'I 01,2

Gl4

F晴 ! .,,3 0 .-,5

i

lc4 0 I c6 I

I I

J〆 Sulcus

319

arcuatus

(Sulcus precentra Ii s inf.

I I

I Fig. 6 Summarized diagram sho

・ing thej, 巴1t1

nof99叫1mulati<Jnpoints in

lliemi

p}ll'I出 from

hich 山 riflLISkinds of movement日・ereinducl'rl. Tlir・"・戸)inトofsix kinds are diffu可h叱dtlLTl'riin川 【laround area 6a mingled日ith'me another. ~. C.•11tr;刊行、 j ,》11 of the h白dand e)ト • cυntraversion of the head accompanied ¥¥'itlifie~けr and extensor

ynerg1い ofthe limbs iιlentical in pattern

ith the tonic neck reflexes.

!1川町川け11川 thehead accompanied "it h flexor and れte1i,or叫nerg1esof the limb、:ident1calrn pdttcrn川ththe tonic neck refle

Vλflけuscombinations of flexor and e~tensor 日nergi明。i the bilateral or contraL1tnd! limbs. Various cornb111atl

of flexor and e入ten・寸》r叫ner日1

dthe bilateral

tr;cl.1terallimbs ac -kリmpaniedwith contra

er叶<Jn'》ithe head. 込iVarious c111nbinat1<

tflexor and , .入It'll

lllf日1

fthe flexor and c~tc1ts<>t s¥・1tergtcs of the bilateral limbs accompanied日・1thipsi

1けIL',f the head.

nerve roots. The animals were able to run or climb, feed with their hands and carried out other fairly well executed movements of moderate complピxity.

~- Results of an electrical stimulation of area6 a.

The results of an electrical stimulation of area

6

a after the second operation were ~umrnarized in Table

5

.

Instimulation of

1

0

of the

1

1

point

turning of theIi仁川d1川 、

no longer followed by response of the limbs (Fig.7) and, in stimulationυf the rじIl l<lirト ing one point, it was followed lヲv slight extension of one upper limb.

Experiment

I

I

I

.

Electrical stimulation of area

6

a in monl、町v with bilateral ablation of area4 and bilateral destruction of the cerebellar fastigial nuclew∼ In9 monkeys with bilateral ablation of area -1, turning of the head accompanied with flexor and extensor :-;ynヒr印刷 identical in pattern with the tonic neck reflexes wa~ じHiked by an じlヒ仁tricalstimulation of 24 points. Inthese monkeys, the same じortical pointsa~ those inducing movements mentioned above were again stimulated after bilateral destruc -tion of the fastigial nucleus.

(12)

320

’Table 5.

日 本 外 科 宝 函 日31巻 第 2号

l心、ulト リfStimulation of .¥r山 6ain:V1• 》11 !、引、\'Ith Bilateral .-¥blation olλr"" I and Bilateralえ"l'tion of the l l pper Three L、円、1c.d !'o,ten•>r :−.;ιr、じ].(,川b

l°< Ki(' .¥rill'''り f i¥I,,nk<、、 and Electnxles .-¥r5 .-¥I 2 ¥I 5 Br I Bl l Bl 3 L' r 6 Cl 1 Cl 2 Cl5 Cl 6

lくい!”川、亡、 りiλJoni、円 to Stirnu- R目pon哩sof Monkey to Stimulation of .-¥m1 6a after lation of . ¥re.1 6a .ifter Bilateral Section of Bilateral Upper Three I

•»ll'rn>1 L、円、1cal Removal of .-¥m1」 Nerve I<rxit' Responses ドt

ur Ik ι1d Limbs Stimula-ti on v,《Jt,《l日t cv) I 1.0 1.0 1.0 1

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Stimula ti口n Voltage 1V;

じ N 1 、 , x l h t ︿ l Head lipper limbs L川l'r Limbs Right Left Ri日ht Left 、 L ぐ t t 、 ︵ C C L ︵ L C M M M M M M M M M M M n v n H 山 口 U 山 n u n u n u n u n u n u n u n U 2 2 2 1 L I L I − − ト ぐ 仁 ぐ ︵ ︵ ︵ t じ 仁 、 ︵ ︵ E

l" >ril' .-¥ddre''<》fi'vl"'1k灯、andIうle<廿υdes:L1r同白letters、L111cl f<>r Ill<

n

l

叶n,ill ktt< I

iりrside of hemisphere, and numbers !》re< b・tr吋enu ml背r. (' しIn-川 口imけvementof the head.i¥J : T<>111c neck reflexes.

.¥ B

Fi耳 7 入1・・111、円(' .\。!な、,,>ll吐 e、oked li1 an electn山| 、tirnulationりfr川intCl l ol area 6a after hi lateral ablation ol arぞi卜 Co11lr川'C1'iけnof head accompanied with fll's•>r an《I'入illN>I叫!Hrι1れ ol all four lunlb 1clγIll!ι11 m patt肝n with ti"'t• 旧ic Ii札l、Iけた町、"可℃ IL B, Resp<旧seevok町1 |円、t1111ulatiりnof point Cl lιii ter bilateral吐ιli<山 ofthe upper three cer・11c;il!• "t' ,−;,げI川、じい川ト (,旧trave"1'>11 '>I till' he川ii、日り longer loll.,、、円lhi'"'白、!”>JN・ of the limbs

(13)

只TIMl↑I. ¥TIO¥' OF THE PRE:¥i<!TOI~ .-¥J'i':.¥ 321 Table 6. Result出ofStimul孔tionof .¥re"'6‘:1 in,¥1,l什 ! 、 門 研ithBilateral.¥lilati什nof. ¥ '"" ・1 andwithBil.11≪ral Destruction円ftheド4川i日i:il¥'1.1deu,. : Re台P《】11川 、 けlMonke

toS1nnu -i lntionけf.¥rr.1 6aυftl'rBilat~ral RemoYal ,,fλm14 Codeadr~,, of 九l1ml

and Electr川Je, 一 定 J q J RUAt 氏 υ 勺ゐつ ι q u −3 1A4tquqdA “ 1 1 U 1 勺ゐ﹃ υqu 内 J F O n d 氏 U 勺 ゐ つ ん − r l l r ﹁ l i l i − − r l l r l f l 一 D D O L L E 引 刊 刊 G G H H H K U H L 山

n

n

− k k b u 山 同 ︶ l i v − − k n H n H

d 川 l e i − 白 川 仏 J-J,.ad i{t"V>ll'I"、ofM1,ril、円 toStimulation of . ¥ ren6ard tcr !lilat"'"lIJ1へ\111c・t11111円f1,:川!日lι1l :¥11clt'i RE"ponseぉ Four Limbs メtimu la -lion Voltage r’\j ぐ

C

︵ ︷

CC

tccr

tfICccrcc

lミι

J>JJ1、 ト Head l lppぞr Li111lト レ 川 げ Limbs J{I日ht Left l~ight Left F

i

凸 u n U 日 unununununununununununu つ ん ηLRU ワムハ U A リ ハ U ? 旬 。 ム n u − − − − a ・ ・ 目 − − − a ・ 0 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ 一 ’ E 1 4 守 i s − − ム 唱 1 t 1 1 ﹄ ’ 1 2 A η ’u つんの白。 , bti1ι ’ I 1 ム内﹄ワ︼つ臼 113Ati .

tC

ぐ ︵ ハ t . ︷

c

cccc

I

仁 、 ︵

CC

ぐ ぐ ︵ ︵ ド ︵ ︵ M M M M Y M M M M M M M M M H 川 M M M M M M M M M 一 日 ununUAununu つL つ LAununu n u n u n υ ハ U AUAununu 一 − − − − − − − − E 且 1 A 1 l ’ A1i ’ I 1 A 1 i ’且。“。ム η ︼ つ 臼 A リ ︼ つ ん つ 白 A リ ︼ ウ ︼ 九 二 F P ﹄ r ﹄ E F E F nUAununU − − − − つ ω つ uη ︼ A E ︼ F F E E F E E F E

cccc

F (,‘,[.,Ad,ィ,.,.,、of:¥!11111、川、;111dElectr"'I、、:" Lrr日el川tn'叶 '"" fけrmonke1・、mnIIletters for町le of hf'misphere, .md number for electrodenumber. t ・ .. ¥rh円 、 刊 で 111りvement'》lthe head. I Jp

u、movem町1!r

r

.

the head. h’I : Tonic neck reflexe.s E E '1什 トj, 川 F : Flexion 1.

mptom

followingthe second operation.

Inall

9

monkeys, ¥Olitionalactivity which had heen re同inedafterbilateralablation of area 4 was completely abolishedforabout

3

days after thesecond operation,bilateral destructionof the fastigialnucleus. Se¥'er;ildays thereafter,the animals were abletopropel themselv引 incrouching position. Finally, theanimals became able to刊 汁lk in <1taxic

fashion with gros日aberrationofmovement, frequently fell down. Tht>ycouldnot run or

climbduring thecourse of experiment.

2

.

Resultsofan electricalstimulationofarea

6

a.

The results ofthisexperiment were summarized in Table 6. As shown in1his table, instimulation of11ofthe24 points, turnin広ofthe head was 110 longer accompanied

(14)

322 A B 日 本 外 科 宝 函 第34巻 第 2号 Fig,9 Ph<巾引r;iphshmYing bi later日!日》mpleted<叶司 ruction of the f;i,-11戸1alnucleu、 Fig.8 λlけnkeyド λl Re

pけn'eevoked l川 >t1mul札tionりtCorti山|戸川ntFl~ ;ifter hilatt・r;il ahlat1on of area l (、ontr;i刊r-.;1onof the head accomp<εmied ¥¥"ith fle:-.or and nten同 汀 同nergi引 けifour limlト identicalin pattern "ith the tonic neck reflexes 品、肘n R,Iくれl川 口 町evokedh

、imu t I日tionof cortical point F15 after bilateral dトtnll"t1onof the f;"t'日JJlnucleus. Contraver川onl

no1《旧日erfollowed l刊 r円pけnseof the limbs

with response of the limbs (Fig. 8)日nd,in qimulation of the remaining

1

3

points, it was followed by reduced re弓ponseO'of one to four limbs. 人fterthese animals were sacrificed, the location and the l'Xtent of fastigial l刊ions were controlled on serial histoloどical sec” tions.

I

n

貯neral, in the ca.;;es in which re叩onseof the limbs w川 abolished, the histolo -gical sections also proved complete destruction of both fastigial nuclei, as shown in Fig. 9. On the other hand, in remaining仁 川 引 in which turning of the head was still followed by

respon'-'e of one to four limbs, the histological sections prm・ed partial or no destruction of the nuclei.

DISCt:SSION

¥Vhen the motor and premotor area只arebil乱terallyremoved from an adult monkev, rnluntary acti¥・it¥' is completely abolished and the animal is reduced to the high decereb・

rate status. Howt・n-r, if some part of the frontal motor area remains intact, the animal ultimately reg;1ins some degree of gross voluntary m川・ementin all four limbs. The move-ments which are performピd under these circumstances reveal the叩 氏ific functions of the

remaining part of thぞ frontal extrapyramidal area.

It is general!¥' recognized that faradic叫irnulation of area 6 art,the posterior part of the premotor area, gives rise contralaterallv to isolated mm・ements of the individual muscles, similar in character to those obtained from are;i 4, and area 6 a1,ゴtherostal part叶 the premotor ;irea, yields, in addition to stereotyped movements of the limbs, characteristic ach-ersive mnn:ments of the head and trunk ; turning of the head and ey円 tothe opposite side, with rotation of the trunk in the same direction. And also from the posterior part of area 6 1ぺ;1s; pecific ipsilateral area was found by Bue、Y. Furthermore, by making a superficial incision of the t川rtex between area 6 <11tand area ・f, the movements of indi¥'i・

dual muscles elicitable from area 6江川 are abolished, but certain of the sustained move-menh remain. In D1二:--.JNY-BRO\\でど5experience, the only consistent movement following ablation ofυrea 4 plu只the

tnpre只ionwerl' the stereotyped flexion and extension1110¥℃ー

(15)

子 .

;TJ入11'L ¥Tit>'¥ t >F TI-IE 1'1'1・::'1< !HW ¥l¥F.¥ 323

mo¥'ementぇofhead and L'¥'Lべ. IT<>, :¥ll'"・¥h: . .¥¥11 and the pre

t'Ill author performed experi -ment日lstudy in which area 6 a was stimubtecl with implanted plate l'iectrorle

under awake condition in monl

l'¥' wi1h bilateral ablation of area 4. The result只ofthis .;;turk are summarized as follows

1) Contra\·t·r~ion of the head ancl lツeswa~ induced from man¥・ poinl、 【liffusely

只catteredυ\・er area 6 a and also ips1¥'ers1011 of the head αncl l'¥'刊 was 仁川okt'<I from only

a few points of thi只samearea. l¥!loreover, turnin氏 。fthe head was freι1uently followed liy

flexor ancl L'Xtens< >r叩nergi刊 of the limhs identical in p;1ttern with the tonic neck rけlexl's.

2) ¥"arious combinations of flexor and extl'nsor問ner只iesof the bilateral or contra -lateral limbs were evoked from points sparse!¥- scattered over area 6 a. Furthermore, similar movements of the limbs were frequently accompanied with turning of the head. It is probable that the combined movements mentioned above are mducecl lw simultaneou.;; stimulation of two points havinεdifferent kinds of function of which the one is capable of inducing movement of the head and the other capable of inducinεmovement of the limhs. 3) These cortical stimulation points of different kinds were cliffuベelv scattered川 l'f

area 6a mingled with one another, ancl some of them were located around ;1rl':1 6a, 川 Area Sa NI nerve root

~

Upper cervical Vertebrae Fig.10 Diagram

hr川 in日 m'l1r;i[ mechanism r肝 ponsihle for turnin耳 t1iihe head""口、mp汁"""' with the tonic neck refl"'"、 ]111p11l吋 ヘ 汁口封in日 from area 6a :m白Ir汁nsmittedthrough extrapy r;i -midal patlrnι目、 from川 町 6a,、"' 111te"titiλI nu -仁le11s.t" the '"'' vical同g1m・nt

ofthe

p111;i[cりrd, causing turnin巨ofthe head

hichi

J,,[Jn¥¥'edl川 the tome neck rd[,.,ト ぇhけwn in Fig. 6.

I

n

this experiment, furthermore, an -alysi只ofthe neural mechanism responsible lけr combined movements of turnin巳of head ancl flexor and七xtensorS¥'flt'fどl明 of the limbs identical in pattern with the tonic neck reflexes was done.

I

n

this condition, when the head was passi\・ぞh

-immobilized, cortical叫imulationinduced no response of the limbs and, 1110了ぞ()\'l'f

the r引pりn蛇Q of the limbs were abolished hy bilateral section of the upper three 山 n・ic;t! posterior nerve roots or bilateral destruction of the fastigial nucleus. Rademaker found that the postural refle -xes were well demonstrated in dogs and cats with total chronic cerehellectomy. On the other hand, it has been realizl'd that the cerebellum act六a宍 are只ulatorof the intensity of the postural discharge. The results of this experiment also pr川 じ that the cerebellum exert a great influence upon the postural ref!山仁川. From tht刊ピ facts, it l只revealedthat activitil叫 《if the center for the postural reflexesαre released liy ablation of area 4 so that turning of the head ド followed h¥・ the tonic neck

(16)

324 日本外fl·宝函 ~1'.31 巻旬 2 号

reflex引(Fig.10).

The neural mechanism of characteristic1x1ttern~ of ,・nluntary movement, po只tureand

reflex found in~pa:ぇtic 1x1rλh-sis in man should he considered on the hasis of the results

什btainedfrom these experiments. As proved lw FuL TON, when areas 4 and 6 arehilaterall~·

remm・ecl from an adult monke\’, the animal is reduced to the thalamic reflex status.

However, if in one hemisphere some p札口 of the agranular frontal cortex remains intact, the animal regains some degree of volitional movement in all four limhs. This is the same also in man. Volitional movements performed under this condition depend upon the integrity of the frontal extra1】vrnmidal motor area, particularly of area 6a. As proved

in thi式: study,area 6a is made up of崎wr;d small circumscribed anatomically and fun

-ctionally homoloεous areas, each of which is capahle of producing turning of head and

げnergiじ mm・ementsof the limhs. Impul、 引 arising from re矢pecti ,.e functional units of

e1rea 6a are transmitted through the extrap\’ramidal pathways from area 6a, via the inter

-stitial nucleus and reticular suhstance, to the泊me吋只mentsof the spinal cord. There『

fore, when Nりmepart nf area 6a is dama貯cl,the functional deficit is easily compensated for

hv tht' part remaininξintact. ¥' olitional m mでmemsperformed under this condition are flexor and extt'n川 rS¥"ner只l引 九lore川 町 , 礼 、 proved in this只tucly,it is clear that the char〔wteri刈icattitudes assumed bv the affected extremities, such as flexion of the upper extremity ;md extension of the lower extremitv, are induced Iηthe postural reflexes. In spastic condition, there is a competition hetween the volitional acti,・itγof extrapyramiclal けriginand the postural reflexes. In the next place, the function of higher centers controlling the frontal motor area ma¥・ be hriefl「,considered. It is伊nerallv recognized that hoth motor and premotor are川 areunder control of the ideomotor area located in thぞ supramarginalεyru只ofthe JX山eta! Johe, as品 川 \n in Fi広・ 11. The ideom< 川 了 汁rea initiates complicated pattern

FRONTAL Thoughtful consiaeration of idea PREMOTOR AREA Fig 11 The polt<・rnり11111pll\:、円 in the brnin for originι:1ti11g:indく河川trollin日mりt川 funct11m><. action

(17)

ST lλII’L.¥TIO:\りFTHE f'l'l・::¥CJ川り1'.¥1-.:E主 325

musculer actiYity. The premotor areaprobablycontains many potentially o虻illatingc1ト

cuits and, when oscillation is initiated inone ofthピsccircuit

the resultingim1〕ul~e~

cause a particular patternof movement to occur somewhere in the I J<Jdv・ Theprefrontal

lobeoperatesina~sociation with the ideomotor area and gnostic area,common integrate

areainthe angular同'rus,to helpdetermine the sequence ofmuscular functionsa'>well

a只thesequence of otherthoughtprocessesofthe hrain.

From thispoint of

iピw,it i;,;thoughtthat¥¥'hen some part ofthe frontal motor

area is damaged, the ideomotorarea oper川 出

m

conjunction with theprefronral lobetq cause the frontal ex1 rapyramidal partremaining intact toI unctioneffectively in the place

ofthe part damagt:d.

SU:¥1'.¥U.RY礼ND CO'.'<CLUSIりN

1) In12 monkeys (macacacynomologa)日・1thbilateral rピmoval of area4, "rea6a was stimulatedwith implantedDelgach>メ plateelectrodesunder awal化 state. The result~

obtained were asfollows a)どりntr川 げ 叫on of the head and eyeswas e¥okeclfrom many

diffuselyscattert:cloverarea6 a and alsoipsiversion of thehead and evesfrom only a

few points of this same area.九loreo,・er,turningofthe head was frequently followed h¥・

flexor and extensor synergiesofthe limbs identical in patternwiththe tonic neck reflexe

b) ¥'ariouscombinationsof tiゼxorand extensor可nげ 阿 倍 ofthe bilateralorcontralateral

limbs were evoked from points

parsely.;;catteredm-er area 6a.Furthermore, similar mo・ vements of the limbswere frequentlyaccompaniedwithturning of thehead. It ispro -bable thatthじ combinedmovements mentioned above are inducl'clby simultaneous対i111u

-lation oftwo points having different kindsof functionofwhich the one is capable of

inducing movement of the head and the othercapableofinducing movement of the limbs.

c) These cortical stimulation pointsof differentkindswerピ diffuselv虻atteredoverarea

6amingledwith one another,and some ofthem were located around area6a. Thisfact suggests thatarea6a 1s made up of柑1ぞれd~mall じircumscribedanatomically and functionally

homologous areas,each of which iscapableofinducing mり\"l'l1K'l1い ofthehead and limbs. 2) Inmonkcγin which turningofthehead and eyes accompaniedwithfl目。rand extensor s¥・ner以iesof thelimbs identical inpatternwith thetonic neck reflexeswas evoked,theresponses of the limbs were abolishedby bilateralsection of the upper three じげ\iλιl posterior nen・ヒrootsor bilateraldestruction oftheLt~t igial nucleus of the uピ・tr -bellurn. These facts prov・t thatacti¥・ities of the brainstem reticular formationare rゼleasじdby ablationofarea4 sothat themovじ111じntsinitiated from area6a arefollowecl by theposturalreflexe公 3) On thebasis oftheseresult

theneural mechanism n:印{川河ble forcharactt:n刈ll'

patterns of

olunt;ir¥・ movじIllピnt,postureand reflex found insp山 ticparalysis in man "''ト considered. Theauthor wishc・,-to e>.pre's his sincereappreciation t•> Prof. Dr. TLTSUOho ¥.Depi;rtment of ( t1Jhopaed1cs, I<ド 山 Uni同rsityλkd1c.1l:-X:hool)

r

.

.

r hiお 山ntinualguidancesはndencouragements during thecourseofthi凶 study REFERENCES l) .-¥rduni.礼 andPけmpeiano.0. i¥licroelectrocle analyトト of unitsof the rostral 1≫rl1けnof the nuclcu' fastig11. Arch, i.tii, biol ..%・56-70,1'151. 2) lうはtin,iC.and Po111p.・1a110,U.Chronic J:i,t1gialb、ionsandtlicircompen山tionin thecat, . .¥rch,ita,lbiol ..

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326 日本外科宝函第34 '合 ~2 号 95 147 163, ]'151

3) Batini.C.and Pompeiano, ( J. : fミikcb ,,f ro'tn' 111引Ii.ti,111d n "tn炉lateralht1日1,ilIいlけlbon dヒcerebraterigidit,,

λrι11. ital. biol., 96 315-329, 1958.

』I Bn><ikhart. J.λI. The cerebellum, H;indbookけf:¥t・urけpli:、iol.,2 : I~ lシ1280, 1960.

5J i)t1c¥ P.C. EJ

tricdl r

citabilityand cytoarchitecture of the premotor u川tぞ' in mo11l

A.rch. :¥c・t1rnl p

chiat.,Cl11c.1山》 33: 30-52, 1953.

6J Brodal, .¥., ¥¥'alberg, F. and Block、t.111d,T.H. : Termination 1d spinal《it!ere・川、 toinfenur olive in cat, ] . :¥europh¥'>iol., 13

431 -151, 1950.

'' L、hambe", ¥¥' ¥¥'. and Spr;i日1w.J.¥I. : Functional lは;tl1zation in the山reldlum.:-,umatotopic 11rgarnzat1り11 111

c.irtex and nuclei.λrch. :¥emol. Iヘ\にluat H : 653-680, 1955.

8) Clark, G. and ¥¥'ard,J. ¥¥'. Rc'f.

elicited from the cortex of monk円、byelectrical 'timulation through fixed electrode, Brain, 33'.2-:J.]二, 19」8

9) Dow, R.同 and ¥Jqruzzi, C. The pl日、lけrl収,.and pathok判 りf theぽrebellum. Urn、七rsityけI¥lmnesりta pr

1958.

10) lJぞ|山do,J.:VI. R. Evaluation <>l戸rmanentimplantat川nof el虻trodes '"thin the brain, EEG, clin. :¥euro phvベ101.,7 : 637-6-11, 1955.

11) F明 日ter,( J. ¥J,巾)[ische Fr,lder und Bahnen, Handbuch der Neurol11g1e, 6: 1-::J51, Iり3'.2.

12) Fulton J. F. Relation of the cerebrum to the cerebellum,九rch. :¥eurol. ]',,cl11;it.. 28: 5 l'.2 570, 1932. 13) Fulton, J.F. : Physiology of the nen≪

ll'lll, 3rd ed., (hf《ird l'ni

1t¥ pre

.

Iり」9 11 I {;r;《111it, R. and Phillipe、l'.G .. I・入ιitaton・ ;ind inhibitory pn凡でhト ;id111g upon individual Purl廿DJCcells ol the cerebellum in mt, J.I l'日、101., 133 : 5'.20517, 1956. 日j Cranit, R. and Phillips C.じ:Effectson Purkinje cell沿 りfsurfoce >tirnulation of thc cerebellum,J.I'll¥ 刑 1., 135 73-9'.2, 1951".

16) Granit, R Holrngen B.. . and λlert• 山 Pλ : The t"'》 r<>utト!m exntati• 川りI mu、deand tlil'tr subser日じ1ll'e

to the c・c-rt"l>l・llurn, ] . Phy,iol., 130 213-221. 1955

17) H≫lrne>, G .. The叫111ptリmes"l acute cerebellar injurieぉdueto gunshのtinjum・-, Brain, 40: 561 535, 1917.

18) I l<>,T. : Treatment of 'pastic hand. Nippon S≪1ke1gel、日仏1kkai

hi,36. 907-92-1, 1959.

19) It川 I二Takahashi,T. an d円111,1da, Y : Clinical

111d experimentdl stud

n the !”かtureand mりvement111

日rl'br,il pal叫 , 主rch.Jap.1111>elw Ch1r., 29 891-908, 1960.

20) Jung, Rand Hassler, R : The "'tr,q乃rarnidal

tern, Handlxx》kof:\’eurりph

iology,2 : 863 '1

7, 1960. :!I J Ja口、en,J.and Brodal, A. : トpeeトofcerebellar <1natomy. Johan Grundt Tanumドリrlag, 195,1,

'.22! Kluever, H. and Barrera, E. .¥ method fur the combined、taining11] cells and fiber> in the lll.T\'川ト州、 1℃Ill, J. i¥europath. and Exper.:\ぞurol., 12 : 400-403, 1953.

23) iVLtgnu,,R. L町]ier>tl'llungund L1bvnnthrdlex beim A.Hen, l'l kg. Arch. geo. l'h)"けI.,193 : 396-1-18, 1922.

24) :VL1gnu,,R. :0.)rne re,ulb of studies in the ph

1olc収y <>f p<≫ture, Lancet. 2・531-536,

s

尚 諸 白 , lりお 25 J :¥ J ,,ruzzi, G. and Pりmi:昨日no,( J Crossed 仏、tigial influence on decerebrate rigidity, J. rnmpar.1ll¥T Neurul.,

106. 371-:3~1'.2, 1956.

26 I ¥J,,runi, G目and Pompeiano, 0.ーIミff町 ト 什i

errnal't1rnulation .dtぞrf<"tig1.d lesion,λrch田 ital. biol., 95 . 31 -55. 1957.

~7J 九 j ,げuzzi, C. and Pけmpeiano,( Jーlnhib1to『y 1rll'clianisrns underlying the collap'e of decerebrate 11g1d1t

after unilateral Lt't1g1.1l Je,ion,, J. c引1111川r.it1円aNeurol., 107 : 1-:25, 1 ~J5/.

28) :Vl11r.1kami, Y . Cyto;irchitecture of the precentral area and itsI仁、 J•'""'' '" elect r l心ii

timulation in mnnl

n

九lビdicalJ. Hiroshima Un川町、lい。 10 313-336, I %:2

コり) Pattリn,H. D. and礼111;1"1

1.111, ¥' E. The 1片山口iidal tract Iト exe1t.it1• ’11 '""' !unction, Handlx"》k,,f Neur伊 phy,iologv・2: 837-862, 1960.

30J ]',>1111,eiano, ( J .. Resprnト れ いelectri仁川l>timulation of the intermediate part in the dccerebrntL・ cat, Arch. 1t.1l biol., 96 : 330-360, 1958.

31) Rademaker, し(,,J.. fl;句作 Stehen St.1t1,.,che Reaktionen, ( ;leicb日ew1c・ht

rt・;iけ''"1cn und i¥l u

keJt

unter be川ndererBeri.ic k

1chtigungihres Verhalte11' he1 Kleinhirnlυsen Tierl'll. B日lin: J.討pringr、I, 1931.

32) Spielnit「er, ¥¥' : Teclmik der micruskopischen Unt目、uchung ιl引 :¥erven内、kll1', i λufl. Berlin, Spr111以目。

1930.

33) F古川ada ¥' . I勺tlern of flex円r訂 正lextensor 臥ner日1e'of four extre1111tiい indecerebratc・ monkey. Nii》J>川、tI−'I -keigekt-gakb1、I1i, :35 6」7-666, 1961.

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吋1・TJ¥ll’L.¥T!C」\ <JI・ TI-IE!'Iく卜入I<JT(JI'え[{トハ\ 327

・1111-,,thet1川 land un: 川 白tlit'ti.11'<Iand in the decerebrate rnt, .¥Jllt'r. J.Phy''"'" 176 52-61.19:'.>I

:!51 ’rakaha,hi'T. 吋tudyon れ'"'P'ramidal '""l1111t.ir

111}代刊""" tinmonl

ey.Hin"I‘"'" l' g:‘1ku,7 2525-25 11,

1959. 36 l Tower, S.S. I

ra1111dal ]e:;ion in theme川|北、。 Bram,63 : 36-90,1940. 371

v

,山l,

ι

‘and¥'ogt.c;. Dll.'vergll'ichencl「tr(hitektoni,cl1cund n・rgll'1chemlre1メpl1

siolo日;,,]c以l叫l1l'Felclぞrun日 der Gr f

hirnnmleunter he出刈1dererll:、icicl

1cl1 11山111gdcrmenschlichピn.Nat山 口l町 山 トιh:dt,11 1190-1191.1 日 ~6.

和 文 抄 録

.

,'

t

f

{

i

の運動制切除後

i

J

j

さげる前運動領の

電気刺激に対する

J

i

J

,

L

;

(広島ノ三l孔’与’子’:,・,,,やj彰外科学教室) 刀く

]. 12匹のカニグイザルの両側大脳皮質分野4を切 除したのちP分 野 6alご’,[;j極をi置き3 この1哀を観然台 に回〉とし,党内11!状態に於て’rli:’4

U'J,放を行なった. 99点 の刺{肢によってii;のような結取引’}られた. i )分野 6a及びその前方;';j;に亘ってllti正する多数の点から, 頭の|勾反動動Ifrj,;こ|句同運動I);;,角\1dされた.ス屡々こ の頭の回転運動に随伴して緊様性壁画反射と同一型式の Ii伎の屈伸運動が誘発された. 1il比 較的少数の散在 する料数点から, /Ji_対側又は両側上下肢に種々の組合 せの屈伸運動が誘発された. iii)又同様の肢の屈伸 迷 動は

1

,

g

々頭の回転運動を随伴した.これは恐らし 』l 肢の迷動を,;君子

6

する'i.,〔、と頭の回

4

民主{励を誘発する点が 同時にが.J('\されておこったと思われる. 2. i)にのべたような頭の回転運動に随伴してーl 肢に緊張性強反射と同一型式の屈伸運動が議発される ような j~ に対してF 上位 3 本の瀕随神経後線の両側切 l飢えは小脳室頂核の両側破壊を行な勺と, [.J!主の反応: ぶ消火した.このことは,上記の 4肢の Idらが頭の回 転迷!助によって二次的に誘発されるi紫綬性l正fj.Jである

t占 ことを証p息する. 3.上記のような種々の運動を誘発する皮?[利政点 は分野 6a 及びその前方,:j;(こ宣って散在し且つ二i~、に 混ぜ匡している.このことから, 分 野 6aは頭の回転巡 動を誘発する点と 4肢の巡動を誘発する点を含むとこ ろのP 解剖的及び機能的に類似の性質を有する幾つか の小領域から成り立っているとちえら i.:. ;.;,. 4. 以上の事実から, 分 野 6aの・';:j; j材合にこはまP 7

1

われた機能はそれと類似の構進と機能 を有する Md忽で長Eつた;~;分によつて ft償されると考-え ること3:出来る.ス分野 Jが障害された場合には,’人

ηi.1.た 凶 山ili:llりは分野 6によって代償されるふ, ょ のさい姿勢l止射の中枢の機能がその抑制から解放され ているために,分野6から誘発される運動に随伴して 盗勢反射が誘発される.それ故にp 分 野 4が障害さJ た場合にlt,催底肢ではp錐体外路性凶υ1ili:fll1と姿勢 lぇ引の絞り合いが起ると考えられる. 五 上記のことはp 痘性麻癖に見られる特,{jJ)j型動 '\~式,校f立役ぴ!止 jHの仲村隊泌をよく説明すじ.

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