IthasbeenfifteenyearssinceChinesegovernmentbegunthe economicreformactually.Forthattime,notonlyChinabutall thesocialistcountrieshavetriedtocarryouttheeconomicand politicalreformstoputtheirsurvivalonthem.Itwasonlyresult thattheendofsocialistcountriesoccured

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers' ConsciousnessinChinabyComparison

withJapaneseWorkers

TakehikoMatsudo

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkers3

1.Thepointofissue

IthasbeenfifteenyearssinceChinesegovernmentbegunthe economicreformactually.Forthattime,notonlyChinabutall thesocialistcountrieshavetriedtocarryouttheeconomicand politicalreformstoputtheirsurvivalonthem.Itwasonlyresult thattheendofsocialistcountriesoccuredwithsomeexceptions, butcomparedwitheastEuropeancountries,Chineseeconomy onlyseemstobesuccessfulinitsactivationwithmaintaining

socialistsystem.Fromthisviewpoint,itisnaturalthatVietnam , Myanmar,andsoonareinterestedinChineseeconomyand

society.TheprocessofthechangeinChinesesocietynowbecome theacutualmodelfordevelopmentinthesecountries.

Forthetimebeing,wedon'ttrytoanalyzethefactorsof success,butaftersevraldaysofstayinginthecitiesoncoastal areainChina,wefindthattheresultsoftheactivationcausethe structuralchangeinChinesesociety.Amongothers,theprosperity andchaosofsomecitiesinsoutherncoastalarea,forexample Shanhai,andGuangzhou,arebeyondoursupposition.

Itisworthwhileexaminingthehypothesisthatthisstructural changecruciallyinfluencestheconsciousnessofthemembersin Chinesesocitey.

Everysocialistsociety,notonlyChina,isbasedonthetacit

consensusthattheinterestofworkers(includingfamers)are

basicallyinaccord,andthedifferenciationofstrataandthe

differencebetweenattitudescausedbythemareenoughlittleto

ignorethem.Thisconfidenceintheunityorsingleslabofrock

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solidarityisbasisforsocialintegrationinsocialistsociety.We havenodoubtthatthisconfidenceorientsthewayofgetting everydaysupportofmembersandthewayofmakingorder‑sense.

Whatkindofmeaningdoesthesturucturalchangeinrecent Chinahaveforthistacitunderstanding?Thepurposeofour researchhasthisquestionjointly.Inthesecases,therearetwo subquestionsinit.Firstwhatkindsofoutputsdoesthereform andopenpolicyinChinamakeasthesocialbehaviorandconsciousness?

Secondwhatkindsofsocialinterpretaitonsistakenforitinthe processofeverydaylife.Thereportplacesthestressonthe former.

Therelationbetweenfactorsishypotheticallyfollowing.

theworkers' inindustry

andtheirwork evaluationofreforminlaborsystem consciousnessforlaborrelation consciousnessforwork senseofequality etc.

lifestyle

industry

authoritarianizm culturalviewsofself etc.

socialbackground anddemograficvariables

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkers5

1nthesebasicconstruction,wetrytothinksometopicsconcerning

thedifferentiationoftheworker'sattitudesforreforminindustry.

Beforeinvestigation,wemustshowthefeatureofoursurvey.

ThesurveywascarriedoutasthequestionnaireonJune1995

withsupportofChineseacademyofsocialscienceandthecollege

oflabormovement.Weconductitfor7governmentindustriesin

nationallevelinBeijig北 京,Dalien大 連,Wenzhou温 州,and

Shenzhen深 刃ll.

A=petrochemistry11829freq299

B1=petrochemistry,carpetfreq201

B2=petrochemistryBIandB2arecommonindustry,46268

freq303

C=generation1026freq197

D=glass4000freq68

E=electriclight659freq72

F=electricpartssmallsizefreq57

G=construction2500freq39total1236

2.Crossanalysisintheevaluations

forreformbysomeattribute.

Wecantakesomeviewpointsaboutthereforminindustryin

China.Firstwedivideitintotwosubreform,thatisthereform

ofindustrialstructureconcerningtothefinanceandorganization

management,andthereformoflaborsystem.Andwetryto

thinksomeaspectsofworkers'consciousnessforthelatter.

Wetakecrosstabulationfor̀introductionofcontractworker

system契 工 制 度 導 入',̀introductionofindependantemployment

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system自 主 雇 用 制 度'and̀introductionofcollectivebargaining

集 団 協 商 導 入'bytheage.Thesethreenewsystemsarethefocus

insettingupnewlaborlaw.Allindustrymustintroducethe

contractworkersystembytheendof1995.Fromtab.1to4

showstheresults.

Tablintroductionofcollectivebargaining

don'ttot

alageforagainstk now

〜20s

30s

40s

50s^一

132 27.6 118 31.6 70 30.3 38 42.2

つ﹂∩)4・9 つ﹂194・6 ∩乙∩∠‑⊥・5

浸4 4

4

303 63.4 233 62.3 149 64.5 48 53.3

478

374

231

90

35882733 30.57.062.5 XZ(df=6)=11.94(Pr<0.10)

1173 100.0

Tab2introductionofcontractworkersystem

ageforlittlefor can'tlittle

against

saywhichagainst total

〜20s

30s

40s

50s〜

111 23.0 92 24.4

36 15.3 17 19.1

135 28.0 93 24.7 71 30.2 33 37.1

202 41.8 165 43.8 102 43.4

31 34.8

23 4.8

14 3.7 22 9.4 2 2.2

の∠︻D1⊥・2 0041⊥・3 バコ76ハ076

1⊥ハ0

483

377

235

89

256332500 21.628.042.2

×2(df=12)=29.75(Pr<0.01)

‑⊥9乙6・5 [0∩)つ﹂・3 1184

100.0

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkers7

Tab3introduction

age for

ofindependentemploymentsystem littlecan'tlittle

forsaywhichagainstagainst total

^‑20s

30s

40s

50s〜

127 26.3 84 22.3 38 16.2

17 19.5

151 31.3 102 27.1 66 28.1

26 29.9

169 35.0

163 43.2 106 45.1 32 36.8

20 4.1 14 3.7 18 7.7

7 8.0

ρ0つ﹂‑⊥︒3 47σ‑⊥︒3 780只U7σ

つ﹂﹃D

483

37

235

87 十ニロ

266345470

22.529.239.8 XZ(df=12)=23.24(Pr<0.05)

Qゾ0に﹂・5

9 自 6 4 ・ 3

1182

100.0

Tab4 age

purposeofreforminindustry

123 4 5 total

〜20s

30s

40s

50s〜

158 34.4 126 34.5 90 40.0

43 51.2

94 20.5 94 25.8 64 28.4 16 19.0

13 2.8 9 2.5 2 0.9

59 12.9 38 10.4 13 5.8

4 4.8

135 29.4

98

56 24.9

21 25.0

459

365

225

84

計41736

.826823.7242.1

×2(df=12)=28.31(Pr<0.01)

*1…considerationforlaborproductivity

の コ

2…companysinitiative 3…regurationofemployment 4…guaranteeofmobility 5…therearenoreoform

41⊥‑⊥・‑⊥01 310

27.4

1133 100.0

Wecanfindthedifferenciationoftheageforthesethree variables.Intheformertwo,theyoungworkersaremuchfor them,whileinthecaseofcollectivebargaining,theoldare relativelyforit.Itisthereasonthattheformertwoarethe

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systemswhichactuallyassurethefreedomofchoiceinoccupations,

thoughthecollectivebargainingisthesystemofrestrictit.We

cansummupthisresultthattheyoungemployeesrelatively

supportthefreedomofchoiceinoccupation,onthecontrarythe

olderneedakindofstopforthecompetitiveelementwhichthe

freedomofchoiceinoccupationinevitablyhas.

Generallyspeaking,thereformoflaborsystemhastwosides,

onesidetoguaranteethefreedomofchoicetogetjobandto

moveintootherindustry(単 位)fromthepresentindustry,and

theothersidetosecurethecompany'sinitiativeonthelabor

constructionandtheactivationoflaborforceinindustry.Inthe

lattercase,theadjustmentofemploymentnecessarytocapitalizm

societyisalsoincludedinthiscase.Thesetwoaspectarethe

socialfacttocontroltheemployees'behavioralpatterǹasa

matterofcourse'withinthelargeframeinthecapitalizmsociety.

Theemployees'socialpersonalityinoursociety,thatisfreedom

andanxiety,isalsomadefromit,thereforethisas‑a‑matter‑of‑co

urse‑phenomenainoursocietyareabouttooccurinfullscaleas

lawsystemincontinentalChina.Andthisresultsuggeststhat

thesekindsofproblemwillappearasthesocialproblemwhichis

likelytodevelopwithgenarationsplitlikeoursociety.Can

Chineselaborunionreplytheexpectationoftheoldandmiddle

ageworkers'thattheylookthecollectivebargainingasthestop

forcompany'sinitiativeinthecollectivizm?Indeedthedevelopment

ofmarketeconomywasinprinciplesupported,especiallyinthe

young,thereforethesupportoftheoldworkers'forcollective bargainingstillmeansthatthereformprogressedtobringinto

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkersg existanceofmakingconsciousnessfornegativesideofmarket

economy.Thisisnotthesocialproblemwhichisabletobe

resolvedonlybythecontradictoryword"socializmmarketeconomy".

Thisoccursintheresponceforthequestionwhichaskedthe purposeofreforminindustry.Inprinciple,"theconsiderationfor laborproductivity"isthemajor,especiallystrongsupportbythe over50yearoldgroupmeansadaptabilityinindustry,orintimacy forit.Weinterprettherelativelyhighsupportofthe40sfor

" company'sinitiative"asthereflectionoftheirviewpointsfrom whichtheymusttakecareofwholeactivityintheirindustry.On theotherhand,theyounggroupshowstherelativelyhigh supportfor"thefreedomtobesecuredbyreform",andtheslow paceofthereformmeansinsufficiencyfromtheviewpointsof them.

Wetrieditfromthepointof"politicalstand"further,thatis

"membersofthep

arty","associationforyoungcommunist",or

"i ndependent".(Tab5‑8)

Tab5introductionofcollectivebargaining politicalforagainstdon'ttotal

standknow

young comasso party member

other party independent

113

・ … 122 40.4

95 24.1

34 8.7 18 6.0 1 33.3

25 6.3

245 62.5 162 53.6 2 66.7

275 69.6

392

302

3

395

33078684 30.27.162.6 Xz(df=6)28.59(Pr<0.01)

1092 100.0

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Tab6 political

stand

introductionofcontractworkersystem

forlittlecan'tlittleagainstforsaywhichagainst total young

comasso party member

other party independent

95 23.8 75 24.4 2 50.0

79 20.0

112 28.1

105 34.1

82 i

164 41.1 102 33.1

202 51.1

19 4.8 18 5.8 1 25.0

20 5.1

92861020

2 2 ・‑⊥・﹁0つ﹂2

399 308 4

395

Tab7 political

stand

251299468 22.727.042.3

×2(df12)=42.28(Pr<0.01)

QO9白﹁D・5 07σQ.)・2

introductionofindependentemploymentsystem forlittlecan'tlittleagainstforsaywhichagainst

1106 100.0

total young

comasso party member other party independent

98 24.6

74 24.2

2 50.0 85 21.4

135 33.9 97 31.7 1 25.0

90 22.6

135 33.9 101 33.0

198 49.7

18 4.5 21 6.9

﹁D81⊥・3 20321005‑⊥・‑⊥・つ﹂4 ‑⊥只.)∩乙2

398 306 4

398

Tab8 political

stand

259323434 23.429.239.2

×2(df=12)=41.80(Pr<0.01)

purposeofreforminindustry 123

404だ﹂・4

4

ハ0り0り0・3

5

1106 100.0

total young

comasso party member

other party independent

9128 33.9 125 42.2

1 25.0

129 34.3

89 23.5

76 25.7

1 25.0

89 23.7

りQ4441⊥・・り01⊥

8 1 ←

2

46 12.2 20 6.8

38 10.1

102 27.0 71 24.0

2 50.0

112

378 296 4

376

38325525 36.324.22.4 1.considerationforlaborproductivity

   

2.company"sinitiative 3.regurationofemployment 4.guaranteeofemployment

5.therearenoreform

40﹂∩)・‑⊥Qゾ 287

27.2

1054 100.0

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkersIl Onthewhole,"independent"prefers"DK‑answer"compared

withothergroups.If"independent"representstheopinionsofthe peoleingeneral,thisresponseteachesustheirbewildermentand

anxietyforthenewlaborsystem.Therefore,weareafraidthat thecoersiveintroductionofthesenewsystemscannotalways

gainlargeconsensus.Asfor"contractworkersystem",forsome yearsithasbeentriedinmanyarea.Sotheseresultsshowthe

socialdifficultyofintroductionofnewsystem.(thoughwethink Chinesewayissuccessfultosomeextent.)Or,withotherunders

tanding,whenthenewsystemsareabouttoappearinanyfields, therehappenstheconcreterecognitiontothenegativesideofit intheirsociety.Anyway,itiscertainthattheseanxietyand bewildermentpersistininfluenceforthesocialchangeinChina.

Asto"collectivebargaining",and"purposeofreform",the youngcommunistassociationandindependenthavelotsincommon, comparedwithpartymembers.Ontheotherside,asfor"contract workersystem",and"independentemploysystem","young communist"and"partymembers"behavecommonly,compared withindependent.Therefore,therearedifferentfeaturesabout thecommonalityoftheiropinionbetweensocialstandsperproblem.

Itshowsnotonlythedifficultyofuniformapprovaloruniform

opposition,butthatthesplitoffororagainstcannotalways

existsonthesameplace,sothereisthepossibilitytoplacethese

splitsonthedifferentpointbythedegreeofsocialrecognition,

socialconsensus,andnewlynessfortheirproblem.Sothedifficulty

ofthedealingbytheofficialshasincreased.

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3.somecomparisonaboutthesocialmeaning

incompanybetweenJapanandChina.

Inthisparagraph,wetrytocomparetheconsciousnessof

belonging‑companybetweenJapanandChina.

Generallyspeaking,itiscommonlyacceptedthatJapanese

workershavemuchattachmentfortheircompany.inthiscase,

wewillanalyzethenatureandwayofthisattachmentcompared

withJapaneseworkersandChinese.

Therearethreequestions.Thefirstisabout"theirrelationship

totheirowncompany",thesecondisabout"theirattitudefor

productionplanetc.",thethirdisabout"theircareerdevelopment

design.

Theresultarefollowings.(see,Tabgto14)Asfor"their

relationshiptotheirowncompany",therearenotlargedifference

betweenJandC,exept"rriuchinterestandtrytopossitive

expresion".Genarallyspeaking,wecanfindChineseworkersare

interestintheircompany'sachievement,comparedwithJapanese,

butwehavedifferentfeelingsfrom2ndquestion.Japaneseworkers

aredividedintotwoclasses,thatis"cooporative"and"independent",

onthecontrary,Chineseworkersaredividedintotwoclasses, cc≫cc≫cc≫th

atiscooporativeandoppositeorresignedChinese

workerstendtodependontheirowncompany,comparedwith

Japanese.ItlooksthatJapaneseworkersmoreexpressedtheir employee'sstandthanChinese.Ontheotherhand,Chineseare

inclinedtobeagainst.

Wewanttoattributethisdifferencetothepresentstateof

industrialrelations.Thereformofindustry,especiallylabor

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkers13

system,aimstochangetheattitudeoftheseworkers',and

throughthatprocess,aimstoincreasetheirproductivity.Therefore, itistheproblemoftheofficialsandChinesesocietyhowthey bringthese"opposite"and"resigned"totheframeofindustrial relation,butinthesocializmsystem,itwillbedifficulttorecoganize thedifferenceofstandsincomany.

4.Conclution

Wehavetriedtoconsiderfirstbutimportantissue.Inconsequence, wethinkthatthereformandopenpolicy,ortheeconomicand

industrialreformasitscorollarymakedifferenciationtosome extentamongtheemployeesofthegovernmentbackedindustry.

Itdoesnotalwaysmeantheconflicttotheprincipleofsocialist country,butweareafraidoftheoccuranceofnewsocialproblems.

Andtheywillneedothermethodstosolvethem.Sothepreparatory phasetosolvethemwillbenecessary.

In1995,itisdesidedthatmanykindsofnewsystemandlaw, whicharetriedcurrentlyinmanyarea,arecarriedoutentirely, buttheresultsofthisresearchindicatethatitisnecessaryto dealwiththemcarefully.

(Major:Sociology.Professor)

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Tab9

Q42

Relationship China

Frequency

totheirownconpany

Percent Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Percent

‑⊥9自つ﹂4﹁D

1.withdiscontent forlivelyhood

2.relationshiptothecompanyisonlyearning,exeptitno interest

3.becasueofdependanceonconpany,desireforcompanyto developstablly

4.veryinterestedincompany,wanttopossitiveproposal.

5.wanttoresigncompany.

958.2958.2 998.519416.7 52545.271961.9 42937.0114898.9

131.11161100.O FrequencyMissing=75

butthereisnowayexceptworkinghere

Tab10

Q43

sensetomanagement China

Frequency Percent

policyorproductionplan

Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Percent

‑⊥0乙り0バ憧﹁D

1149.9 62554.3

14612.7 252.2 24120.9 FrequencyMissing=85

114 739 885 910 1151

9.9 64.2 76.9 79.1 100.0

1.becauseoftheworkformanager,shouldnothaveaword 2.fromthecooporativestand,shouldparticipatepossitively 3.fromtheemployee'sstand

todeside

4.cooporationisharmful.

5.adviseisnouse.

shouldcritisizeandkeepright

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ReformofIndustriesandtheWorkers'ConsciousnessinChinabyComparisonwithJapaneseWorkers15

Tab11

Q70

Careerdevelopmentdesign China

Frequency Percent Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Percent

12345678 12345678

11610.3 433.8 14512.8 63155.9 1109.7

322.8 393.5 131.2 FrequencyMissing=107 wanttobetopmanagement

atleast,middlelevelmanagement engineerorspecialist onlytofinishmyownjobeveryday letthingstaketheircourse wanttobeindependent wanttoresign other

116 159 304 935 1045 1077 1116 1129

10.3 14.1 26.9

92.6 95.4 98.8 100.0

Tab12

V92

Relationship Japan Frequency

totheirownconpany

Percent Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Percent

‑←∩∠つ﹂4﹁0

87.5 1312.3 5047.2 3028.3 54.7 FrequencyMissing=5

8 21 71 101 106

7.5

67.0 95.3 100.0

1.withdiscontent,butthereisnowayexceptworkinghere forlivelyhood

2.relationshiptothecompanyisonlyearning,exeptitno interest

3.becasueofdependanceonconpany,desireforcompanyto developstablly

4.veryinterestedincompany,wanttopossitiveproposal.

5.wanttoresigncompany.

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Tab13

V93

sensetomanagementpolicyorproductionplan Japan

FrequencyPercent

o

CumulativeCumulative FrequencyPercent

‑⊥9自∩﹂4﹁0

98.6 4240.0 4139.0 76.7 65.7 FrequencyMissing=6

9 51 92 99 105

8.6 48.6 87.6 94.3 100.0

1.becauseoftheworkformanager,shouldnothaveaword 2.fromthecooporativestand,shouldparticipatepossitively 3.fromtheemployee'sstand

todeside

4.cooporationisharmful.

5.adviseisnouse.

shouldcritisizeandkeepright

Tab14

V101

Careerdevelopmentdesign Japan

Frequency Percent Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Percent

12345678 ‑⊥∩∠り04rD68

1312.5 1918.3 1615.4 2927.9 76.7 109.6 109.6 FrequencyMissing=7 wanttobetopmanagement atleast,middlelevelmanagement engineerorspecialist onlytofinishmyownjobeveryday letthingstaketheircourse wanttobeindependent wanttoresign other

13 32 48 77 84 94 104

12.5 i 46.2 74.0 80.8 90.4 100.0

Figure

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