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Ḣᕞ ᡓ␎ࡢ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ

㸫♫఍ⓗഃ㠃࡟↔Ⅼࢆྜࢃࡏ࡚㸫

ி㒔Ꮫᅬ኱Ꮫ⤒῭⤒ႠᏛ㒊

ෆᒣ 㝯ኵ

(PDLOXFKL\DPD#N\RWRJDNXHQDFMS

せ ᪨

(8ࡢ୰ᮇᡂ㛗ᡓ␎࡛࠶ࡿḢᕞᡓ␎ࡣ㸪ࠕ▱ⓗ࡞㸪ᣢ⥆ྍ⬟࡞㸪ࡑࡋ࡚ໟᦤⓗ࡞ᡂ㛗ࠖࡢ ᐇ⌧࡟ྥ࠿ࡗ࡚☜ᐇ࡟๓㐍ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋᮏ✏ࡣ㸪Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢᒎ㛤ࢆไᗘⓗ࡟ᨭ࠼ࡿ⤒῭࢞

ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃࡟↔Ⅼࢆᙜ࡚㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢᖺࢧ࢖ࢡࣝࡢᇶ♏㈨ᩱ࡜ࡋ࡚స ᡂࡉࢀࡓ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡜♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢุᐃ⤖ᯝ࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ

࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮࡜♫఍⤒῭ⓗ᱁ᕪࡢᐇែࢆᴫほࡍࡿࠋࡑࢀࢆ㋃ࡲ࠼㸪(8ࡀࠕ♫఍ⓗ࡞ࢺࣜ

ࣉࣝ$ࠖホ౯ࡢ⋓ᚓࢆ┠ᣦࡍࡓࡵ࡟ࡣ㸪(8㐠Ⴀ᮲⣙࡛᪂ࡓ࡟つᐃࡉࢀࡓࠕỈᖹⓗ♫఍᮲㡯ࠖ

ࡢᮏ᱁ⓗ࡞㐠⏝ࡀᚲせ࡛࠶ࡿࡇ࡜࡟ゝཬࡍࡿࠋᮏ✏ࡢ⪃ᐹࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚㸪ࢯ࣮ࢩ࣭࣮ࣕࣝࣚࣟࢵ

ࣃࡢఏ⤫ࢆ⬦ࠎ࡜ཷࡅ⥅ࡄ(8ࡀ㸪Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢᒎ㛤࡟㝿ࡋ࡚ࡶ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࢆ㐍໬ࡉ ࡏ㸪Ḣᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࡢᵓ⠏࡟ྥࡅ࡚╔ᐇ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇ࡛࠸ࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ☜ㄆࡉࢀࡿࠋ

࣮࣮࢟࣡ࢻḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮㸪㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ㸪

♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ㸪Ḣᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࠋ

㸯㸬ࡣࡌࡵ࡟

Ḣᕞ㐃ྜ(XURSHDQ8QLRQ㸸(8ࡣ⌧ᅾ㸪ࠕḢᕞᡓ␎ࠖ࡜࿧ࡤࢀࡿ୰ᮇᡂ㛗ᡓ␎ࢆᒎ㛤ࡋ㸪௒ᖺ࡛

ᖺ┠ࢆ㏄࠼ࡿࠋḢᕞᡓ␎ࡣࠕ▱ⓗ࡞㸪ᣢ⥆ྍ⬟࡞㸪ࡑࡋ࡚ໟᦤⓗ࡞ᡂ㛗ࠖࢆᐇ⌧ࡍࡿࡓࡵࡢ ࡢ୺せ┠ᶆ㸪ࡘࡲࡾ㞠⏝ࡢಁ㐍㸪5 ' ᨭฟࡢቑ኱㸪Ẽೃኚືࡢ㜵Ṇ࡜㈨※ຠ⋡ࡢᨵၿ㸪ᩍ⫱Ỉ‽ࡢྥ

ୖ㸪ࡑࡋ࡚㈋ᅔ࡜♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖ࡢඞ᭹ࢆ┠ᣦࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡑࡢ㝿࡟タᐃࡉࢀࡓࡘࡢᩘ್┠ᶆ࡟╔┠ࡋ࡚ࡇ

ࢀࡲ࡛ࡢ㐍ᤖ≧ἣࢆ᣺ࡾ㏉ࡿ࡜㸪ᑵᴗ⋡ࡢྥୖ㸪 ᐊຠᯝ࢞ࢫࡢ᤼ฟ㔞๐ῶ࡜෌⏕ྍ⬟࢚ࢿࣝࢠ࣮฼⏝

๭ྜࡢᘬୖࡆ࠾ࡼࡧ࢚ࢿࣝࢠ࣮ຠ⋡ࡢྥୖ㸪ᩍ⫱࣭カ⦎ㄢ⛬࠿ࡽࡢ᪩ᮇ㞳⬺⪅ࡢῶᑡ࡜㧗➼ᩍ⫱࡬ࡢ㐍 Ꮫ⪅ࡢቑຍ࡟㛵ࡍࡿᩘ್┠ᶆࡣ㐩ᡂࡉࢀࡿぢ㎸ࡳ࡛࠶ࡿࡀ㸪5 ' ᨭฟࡢቑ኱࡜㈋ᅔ࣭♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖ࣜࢫ ࢡ⪅ࡢῶᑡࡢᩘ್┠ᶆࡣ㐩ᡂࡀᅔ㞴࡜ᛮࢃࢀࡿࠋ࡞ࡐ࡞ࡽࡤ㸪5 'ᨭฟࡢᑐ*'3ࡢ┠ᶆ㐩ᡂ࡟

ࡣ㸪ࡇࢀࡲ࡛ࡢಸࡢࢫࣆ࣮ࢻ࡛5 'ᢞ㈨ࡀቑຍࡍࡿᚲせࡀ࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡲࡓ㈋ᅔ࣭♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖

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ࣜࢫࢡ⪅ᩘࡣ㸪ᖺ࡟ࣆ࣮ࢡ࡟㐩ࡋࡓᚋࡣ࣮࣐࣭ࣜࣥࢩࣙࢵࢡⓎ⏕ᙜ᫬ࡢࣞ࣋ࣝ࡟ࡲ࡛ῶᑡࡋࡓࡶࡢ ࡢ㸪୓ே๐ῶࡢ┠ᶆ࡟ࡣ㐲ࡃཬࡤ࡞࠸࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡘࢆ㝖ࡅࡤ㸪(8ᖺ๓࡟タᐃࡋࡓ┠

ᶆ㐩ᡂ࡟ྥ࠿ࡗ࡚☜ᐇ࡟๓㐍ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓᡭሀ࠸ᡂᯝࡣ㸪Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᐇ⌧ࡉࢀࡓ࡜࠸ࡗ࡚ࡼ࠸ࠋࡇࡇ࡛

࠸࠺ࠕ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࠖ࡜ࡣ㸪♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞཰ᩡࢆಁ㐍ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ไᗘ໬ࡉࢀࡓᨻ⟇ࡢ┦஫ㄪᩚᡭ⥆ࡢ ࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡾ㸪ᖺ࠿ࡽࡣḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮࡜ࡋ࡚య⣔໬ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ(8ᖺ࡟Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢ

⟇ᐃసᴗ࡟╔ᡭࡋࡓࡀ㸪ྠᖺ࡟㉳ࡇࡗࡓ࣮࣐࣭ࣜࣥࢩࣙࢵࢡ࡟ຍ࠼㸪⩣ᖺࡢࢠࣜࢩࣕ༴ᶵ࡟ㄏⓎࡉࢀࡓ Ḣᕞമົ༴ᶵ࡟ࡶぢ⯙ࢃࢀࡓࡓࡵ㸪⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢᙉ໬ࢆᙜึ࠿ࡽಋୖ࡟㍕ࡏ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡑࡢලయⓗ࡞

ྲྀ⤌ࡣ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධ᫬࡟㈈ᨻつᚊࢆᙉ໬ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ไᐃࡋࡓࠕᏳᐃ࣭ᡂ㛗༠ᐃࠖࡢᨵṇࢆᇶ㍈࡟ᒎ㛤ࡍ

ࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋᖺ࡟ࡣ㸪୰ᮇⓗ࡞㈈ᨻ㐠Ⴀࢆ⩏ົ௜ࡅࡿ࡜ྠ᫬࡟㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡢ᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡢ㎿㏿

໬ࢆᅗࡿࡓࡵ㸪ࡉࡽ࡟ࡣ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ᣑᩓࢆ㜵Ṇࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࠕ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫᙉ໬ἲࠖࡀไᐃ ࡉࢀࡓࠋࡑࡢ୍㒊ࡣ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡢࡳࢆᑐ㇟࡜ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ㸪඲య࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣࡘࡢつ๎࡜ࡘࡢᣦ௧࠿ࡽ

ᡂࡿࠋ᭶࡟ࡣ㸪๓ᖺ᭶࡟ࢳ࢙ࢥ࡜࢖ࢠࣜࢫࢆ㝖ࡃࣧᅜ㸦ᙜ᫬㸧ࡀㄪ༳ࡋࡓࠕ⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ

┕࡟࠾ࡅࡿᏳᐃ࣭┦஫ㄪᩚ࣭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ࡟㛵ࡍࡿ᮲⣙ࠖࡀⓎຠࡋࡓࠋࠕ㈈ᨻ༠ᐃࠖ࡜␎⛠ࡉࢀࡿࡇࡢᨻ ᗓ㛫᮲⣙ࡣ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᅪࡢ㈈ᨻつᚊ࡜┘どࡢᙉ໬ࢆ┠ⓗ࡟ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡉࡽ࡟ྠᖺ᭶࡟ࡣ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᅪ࡟࠾

ࡅࡿ⤒῭࣭ண⟬ࡢ┘どᙉ໬࡜㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡢ☜ᐇ࡞᫝ṇࢆ┠ᣦࡋࡓࠕண⟬┘どᙉ໬ἲࠖࡀไᐃࡉࢀ㸪 (8ࡢ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡣࡼࡾ୍ᒙᙉ໬ࡉࢀࡓ

ࡑࡢᚋ᭶࡟㸪-&࣮ࣘࣥ࢝-HDQ&ODXGH-XQFNHU㸧๓ࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡ㤳┦ࡀḢᕞጤဨ఍ጤဨ㛗

࡟ᑵ௵ࡋࡓࠋ᪂యไࡀḢᕞ⌮஦఍࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ṇᘧ࡟ᢎㄆࡉࢀࡿ๓᪥ࡢ᪥࡟㸪࣮ࣘࣥ࢝ጤဨ㛗ࡣḢ ᕞ㆟఍࡛ࡢ₇ㄝ࡟࠾࠸࡚㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃ࢆᙉ໬ࡋ㸪ࠕ♫఍ⓗ࡞ࢺࣜࣉࣝ$ࠖ6RFLDO7ULSOH$

ホ౯ࡢ⋓ᚓࢆ┠ᣦࡍ⪃࠼ࢆ⾲᫂ࡋࡓ(8ࡢ⤒῭㐠Ⴀ࡟㔜せ࡞ᙺ๭ࢆᯝࡓࡍᶵ㛵ࡢ㛗ࡀ⩣ᖺ᭶࡟ඹ

ྠ࡛ࡲ࡜ࡵࡓሗ࿌᭩ࠗḢᕞ⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ࡢ᏶ᡂ࡟ྥࡅ࡚࠘㸦&RPSOHWLQJ (XURSHV (FRQRPLF DQG 0RQHWDU\

8QLRQ㸧ࡢ୰࡛ࡶࡑࡢᚲせᛶࡀᣦ᦬ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡾ(8ࡣ㸪⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢᙉ໬࠿ࡽࡑࡢ♫

఍ⓗഃ㠃ࡢᙉ໬࡬࡜ྲྀ⤌ࡢ㔜Ⅼࢆ⛣ࡋࡓ࡜ぢ࡞ࡋ࡚ࡼ࠸࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋࡑࡢ➨୍Ṍ࡜ࡋ࡚ᖺ࡟ࡣ㸪ࡑ

ࢀࡲ࡛࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࢆุᐃࡍࡿ㝿ࡢ⿵ຓ㈨ᩱ࡜ࡋ࡚ཧ↷ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓປാཧຍ⋡㸪㛗ᮇኻᴗ⋡࠾ࡼࡧⱝ ᖺኻᴗ⋡ࢆ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢ୺せᣦᶆ࡟㏣ຍࡋࡓࠋ(8ࡣࡑࡢᚋ㸪᭶࡟ᇦෆᕷሙࡢ

♫఍ⓗഃ㠃ࢆᙉ໬ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪බṇ࠿ࡘᖹ➼࡞ປാᕷሙࢆᩚഛࡋ㸪♫఍ⓗໟᦤࢆಁ㐍ࡍࡿࡓࡵࡢᐉゝࠕḢ ᕞ♫఍ᶒࡢᰕࠖࢆ᥇ᢥࡋ㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢᖺࢧ࢖ࢡࣝ࠿ࡽࡣ㸪ࡑࡢᐇ⌧ࢆᨭ᥼ࡍࡿࢶ࣮ࣝ࡜ࡋ

࡚ࠕ♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࠖࢆᑟධࡋࡓࠋࠕ♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࠖ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃྛᅜࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࡢẚ㍑ホ ౯ࡣ㸪ẖᖺ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡉࢀࡿḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢ๓ᖺ⛅࡟ࠗᖺḟᡂ㛗ᴫほ࠘࡜ࠗ㆙ሗ࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘࡜࡜

ࡶ࡟බ⾲ࡉࢀࡿࠗඹྠ㞠⏝ሗ࿌᭩࠘࡟࠾࠸࡚⾜ࢃࢀ㸪ຍ┕ᅜ㛫࡛ࡢ᱁ᕪࡢᐇែࡀබ⾲ࡉࢀࡿࠋࡇ࠺

1 European Commission (2018a), p.3. ࡞࠾㸪Ḣᕞ2020ᡓ␎ࡢ㐍ᤖ≧ἣ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ㸪ෆᒣ (2018)ࡶཧ↷ࠋ 2 European Commission (a); ఀ⸨ (2014), 175࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ᪥ᮏ㈠᫆᣺⯆ᶵᵓ(2013).

3 Lecerf (2016).

4 Juncker (2015), p. 8. ࡞࠾㸪ࡇࡇ࡛࠸࠺EU5ᶵ㛵࡜ࡣ㸪Ḣᕞጤဨ఍㸪࣮ࣘࣟ㤳⬻఍㆟㸪࣮ࣘࣟࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ㸪Ḣᕞ୰ኸ㖟⾜࠾ࡼࡧḢᕞ

㆟఍ࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

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33 / 225 ࡋ࡚(8ࡣ㸪ࡼࡾ㧗࠸࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢ♫఍⤒῭ⓗ཰ᩡ࡟ྥࡅ࡚ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢྲྀ⤌ᙉ໬ࢆಁࡍ௙⤌ࢆᩚഛࡋࡓࠋ ᮏ✏ࡢ┠ⓗࡣ㸪Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢᒎ㛤ࢆไᗘⓗ࡟ᨭ࠼ࡿ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃࡟↔Ⅼࢆᙜ࡚㸪 Ḣᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࡢᵓ⠏࡟ྥࡅࡓ(8ࡢྲྀ⤌ࢆᴫほࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡑࡢࡓࡵ࡟ඛࡎ㸪(8ࡢᨻ⟇య⣔ࢆ

≉ᚩ௜ࡅࡿᶒ㝈㓄ศࡢ㠀ᑐ⛠ᛶ࡜ከඖᛶࢆᴫほࡋ㸪Ḣᕞ㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࡢ୰࡛㛤Ⓨࡉࢀࡓࠕ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ

᪉ᘧࠖࡢ௙⤌࡜ࡑࡢព⩏ࢆゎ᫂ࡍࡿࠋ⥆࠸࡚㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮࡜ࡋ࡚ไᗘ໬ࡉࢀࡓ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢᇶ

♏㈨ᩱ࡜࡞ࡿ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡜♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢᴫせࢆㄝ᫂ࡍࡿࠋࡑࡋ࡚᭱ᚋ࡟㸪᫖ᖺ ᖺ┠ࢆ㏄࠼ࡓḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢ୰࡛సᡂࡉࢀࡓ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡜♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢุᐃ

⤖ᯝ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡁ㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮࡜♫఍⤒῭ⓗ᱁ᕪࡢᐇែࢆྲྀࡾୖࡆ㸪ᇦෆᕷሙࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ

㠃ࢆࡉࡽ࡟ᙉ໬ࡍࡿࡓࡵࡢⱝᖸࡢㄢ㢟ࢆᣦ᦬ࡍࡿࠋ

ᮏ✏ࡢ⪃ᐹࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚㸪ࢯ࣮ࢩ࣭࣮ࣕࣝࣚࣟࢵࣃࡢఏ⤫ࢆ⬦ࠎ࡜ཷࡅ⥅ࡄ(8ࡀ㸪Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢᒎ 㛤࡟㝿ࡋ࡚ࡶ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࢆ㐍໬ࡉࡏ㸪Ḣᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࡢᵓ⠏࡟ྥࡅ࡚╔ᐇ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇ࡛࠸ࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ

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㸰㸬㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࣭ከඖⓗ࡞ᨻ⟇య⣔

㸰㸫㸯㸬(8࡜ຍ┕ᅜࡢᶒ㝈㓄ศ

Ḣᕞ⤫ྜࡣ㸪ᣑ኱࡜῝໬࡜࠸࠺ࡘࡢ࣋ࢡࢺࣝࡢྜᡂ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࠕᣑ኱ࠖHQODUJHPHQW࡜ࡣ㸪(8ࡢຍ┕

ᅜᩘࡀቑ࠼㸪(8ࡀᆅ⌮ⓗ࡟ᣑᙇࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࢆព࿡ࡍࡿ୍᪉㸪ࠕ῝໬ࠖGHHSHQLQJ࡜ࡣ㸪(8ຍ┕ᅜ࡟ࡼࡿ

ᨻ⟇ࡢඹ㏻໬ࡀ㐍ࡳ㸪ᨻ⟇༠ㄪࡢᐦᗘࡀ㧗ࡃ࡞ࡿࡇ࡜ࢆព࿡ࡍࡿࠋ(8ᙜ᫬ࡣ㸪Ḣᕞඹྠయࡣ㸪ணᐃࡼ

ࡾࡶ୍ᖺ༙᪩࠸᭶࡟㛵⛯ྠ┕ࢆ᏶ᡂࡉࡏࡓᚋ㸪Ḣᕞ⤫ྜࡢ῝໬࡛ࡣ┠❧ࡗࡓᡂᯝࢆୖࡆࡽࢀ

࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡤ࠿ࡾ࠿㸪ᖺ௦ᚋ༙࠿ࡽᖺ௦๓༙࡟࠿ࡅ࡚ࡣ࣮ࣘࣟ࣌ࢩ࣑ࢬ࣒࡟ᝎࡲࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡞୰㸪-ࢻ࣮ࣟࣝ-DFTXHV/-'RORUV᭶࡟Ḣᕞඹྠయጤဨ఍⌧ᅾࡢḢᕞጤဨ఍

ጤဨ㛗࡟ᑵ௵ࡋ㸪Ḣᕞ⤫ྜࡢࢲ࢖ࢼ࣑ࢬ࣒ࢆᅇ᚟ࡉࡏࡓࠋࢻ࣮ࣟࣝయไࡢୗ࡛ᕷሙ⤫ྜィ⏬᱌ࡀලయⓗ

࡟⟇ᐃࡉࢀࡓࡔࡅ࡛࡞ࡃ㸪㏻㈌⤫ྜࡢ㐨➽ࡶ௜ࡅࡽࢀࡓࠋࡉࡽ࡟ࡣ㸪Ḣᕞඹྠయ㸪ඹ㏻እ஺࣭Ᏻ඲ಖ㞀 ᨻ⟇࠾ࡼࡧྖἲ࣭ෆົ༠ຊࡢࡕ࡟㆙ᐹ࣭ฮ஦ྖἲ༠ຊ࠿ࡽᡂࡿ୕ᮏᰕᵓ㐀࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢ(8ࡀᵓ᝿ࡉࢀ㸪ࠕ࣐

࣮ࢫࢺࣜࣄࢺ᮲⣙ࠖࡢⓎຠ࡟ࡼࡾᐇ⌧ࡋࡓࠋ௚᪉㸪Ḣᕞ⤫ྜࡀࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟῝໬ࡋ㸪(8

࣋ࣝ࡟ᶒ㝈ࡀ㞟୰ࡍࡿ࡟ࡘࢀ㸪࣮ࣘࣟࢡ࣮ࣛࢺ࡬ࡢᢈุࡶᙉࡃ࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡇ࡛࣐࣮ࢫࢺࣜࣄࢺ᮲⣙ࡣ㸪 (8ࡢ⦅ᡂཎ⌮࡜ࡋ࡚ࠕ⿵᏶ᛶࡢཎ๎ࠖSULQFLSOHRIVXEVLGLDULW\ࢆ᮲⣙࡟┒ࡾ㎸ࢇࡔࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓືࡁ࡟࿧ᛂࡋ࡚㸪(8ࡢ࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢᐇែ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶㄽࡌࡽࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋ࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ

࡜ࡣᨻ⟇ࡢᢸ࠸ᡭ㸪⾜ືつ⠊㸪ࡉࡽ࡟ࡣ┦஫ㄪᩚࣉࣟࢭࢫ࡞࡝࡟㛵ࢃࡿ」ྜⓗ࡞ᴫᛕ࡛࠶ࡿࡀ㸪:ࢩࣗ

ࢺ࣮ࣞࢡ:ROIJDQJ6WUHHFNᖺ௦ࡢ♫఍ᨻ⟇ࡢᒎ㛤ࢆ᳨ドࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡟ࡼࡾ㸪ࠕ࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ࣭ࢩࣇࢺࠖ

ࡀࡍ࡛࡟㉳ࡁ࡚࠸ࡓࡇ࡜ࢆᣦ᦬ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ ᖺ௦ࡢ♫఍ᨻ⟇ࡣࠕබᘧࡢ⏬୍ⓗ࡞㉸ᅜᐙⓗᶒ฼࡜⩏

ົࠖࢆຍ┕ྛᅜ࡟௜୚ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࡀ㸪ᖺ௦࡟ධࡿ࡜(8ࡣ㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ࣮ࣝࣝ࡜ࣞࢪ࣮࣒ࡢከᵝᛶࢆ

5 Streeck (1995), p. 423 ff.

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44 / 225 ๓ᥦ࡟ࡋ࡚ඹ㏻ࡢᨻ⟇ㄢ㢟࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡴࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࠕࣁ࣮ࢻ࡞௓ධ࠿ࡽࢯࣇࢺ࡞௓ධࠖ࡬

ࡢኚ໬ࡀ㉳ࡁ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

⿵᏶ᛶࡢཎ๎ࡣ(8᮲⣙➨࡟つᐃࡉࢀ㸪ࠕẚ౛ᛶࡢཎ๎ࠖSULQFLSOHRISURSRUWLRQDOLW\࡜࡜ࡶ࡟(8 ࡢᶒ㝈⾜౑ࢆつไࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡇ࡛ࡣඛࡎ㸪⌧ᅾࡢ(8ࡢᇶᮏ᮲⣙࡛࠶ࡿ(8᮲⣙࡜(8㐠Ⴀ᮲⣙ࡢ୰

࡛つᐃࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ(8࡜ຍ┕ᅜࡢᶒ㝈㓄ศࢆ☜ㄆࡍࡿࠋ(8࡜ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢᶒ⬟㛵ಀࡣ୍⯡࡟㸪ḟࡢ

࡟ศ㢮ࡉࢀࡿ

(8ࡢ᤼௚ⓗᶒ㝈㸸(8ࡢࡳࡀἲᚊࢆไᐃࡋ㸪ἲⓗᣊ᮰ຊࡢ࠶ࡿពᛮỴᐃࢆ⾜࠺ࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿࠋ (8࡜ຍ┕ᅜࡢඹ᭷ᶒ㝈㸸(8࡜ຍ┕ᅜࡀἲᚊࢆไᐃࡋ㸪ἲⓗᣊ᮰ຊࡢ࠶ࡿពᛮỴᐃࢆ⾜࠺ࡇ࡜ࡀ

࡛ࡁࡿࠋ

(8ࡢ⿵඘ⓗᶒ㝈㸸(8ࡀຍ┕ྛᅜࡢᨻ⟇ࢆᨭ᥼ࡋ㸪ㄪᩚࡋ㸪⿵඘ࡍࡿάືࢆ⾜࠺ࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿࠋ (8ࡢᨻ⟇ⓗ࢖ࢽࢩࣕࢳࣈ㸸(8ࡀᨻ⟇ୖࡢ࢖ࢽࢩࣕࢳࣈࢆⓎ᥹ࡋ㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢᨻ⟇ࢆඹ㏻┠ᶆ࡟

ྥࡅ࡚ㄏᑟࡍࡿࡀ㸪ୖグ࡜ࡣ␗࡞ࡾ㸪(8ࡣᙜヱศ㔝࡟࠾ࡅࡿ❧ἲୖࡢᶒ㝈ࢆᣢࡓ࡞࠸ࠋ (8࡜ຍ┕ྛᅜ࡜ࡢᶒ⬟㛵ಀࡣ㸪ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟ᨻ⟇ศ㔝ࡈ࡜࡛␗࡞ࡿࠋຍ┕ᅜࡀ(8࡟୺ᶒࡢ୍㒊ࢆጤ ㆡࡋࡓࡾ㸪୺ᶒࢆඹ᭷ࡍࡿࢣ࣮ࢫ௨እ࡟㸪(8ࡀຍ┕ྛᅜࡢάືࢆᨭ᥼ࡋࡓࡾ㸪(8ࡀᨻ⟇┠ᶆࢆᥦ♧ࡋ㸪 㐨⩏ⓗㄝᚓࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚ຍ┕ྛᅜࢆࡑࡢᐇ⌧࡟ྥࡅ࡚ㄏᑟࡍࡿࢣ࣮ࢫࡶ࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢព࿡࡛㸪(8 ࡢᨻ⟇య⣔ࡣ㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࣭ከඖⓗ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࡢຠᯝⓗ࡞㐙⾜ࡢࡓࡵ࡟ࡣ㸪ಶูᨻ⟇ࡢ┦஫ㄪᩚ

࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ᨻ⟇ࡢᢸ࠸ᡭ┦஫ࡢㄪᩚࡀ୙ྍḞ࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡑࡇ࡛ḟ࡟㸪ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓᶒ⬟㛵ಀࢆᛕ㢌࡟⨨ࡁ࡞ࡀࡽ㸪 (8ࡢ♫఍⤒῭యไࡢᇶᮏ⌮ᛕ࡛࠶ࡿ♫఍ⓗᕷሙ⤒῭ࢆᐇ⌧ࡍࡿࡓࡵࡢᨻ⟇య⣔ࢆᴫほࡍࡿࠋ

㸰㸫㸰㸬(8ࡢ୺せ࡞♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇

(8ࡣࠕࣇࣝᑵᴗIXOO HPSOR\PHQW࡜♫఍㐍Ṍࢆ┠ᣦࡍ㧗ᗘ࡟➇தⓗ࡞♫఍ⓗᕷሙ⤒῭ࠖ(8᮲⣙➨

᮲ࡢᐇ⌧ࢆ┠ᣦࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ㸪ࡑࡢᇶᮏ⌮ᛕࡣࠕࢯ࣮ࢩ࣭࣮ࣕࣝࣚࣟࢵࣃࠖ6RFLDO(XURSH࡜ࡋ࡚㸪࠶

ࡿ࠸ࡣࠕḢᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࠖ(XURSHDQ6RFLDO0RGHO࡜ࡋ࡚ㄒࡽࢀ࡚ࡁࡓࠋࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࢀࡤ㸪(8ࡣᇦෆᕷሙ ࡢ࣓ࣜࢵࢺࢆ᭱኱㝈࡟ᘬࡁฟࡋࡘࡘ㸪ᕷሙ➇த࡟ࡼࡗ࡚⏕ࡌࡓ♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞᱁ᕪࢆ᫝ṇࡍࡿ㐃ᖏ୺⩏ⓗ

࡞ᕷሙ⤒῭ࡢᐇ⌧ࢆ┠ᣦࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡇ࡜ࡣ㸪ࠕ♫఍ⓗ⤖᮰ࠖVRFLDO FRKHVLRQࡀḢᕞ⤫ྜ᥎㐍ࡢᚲせ ᮲௳࡛࠶ࡿ࡜ࡢᇶᮏㄆ㆑ࢆ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋὀពࡍ࡭ࡁࡣ㸪(8ࡣඹ㏻㏻㈌ࢆ᥇⏝ࡍࡿ࣮ࣘࣟᅪࢆࢥ

࢔࡜ࡍࡿ୕㔜ᵓ㐀࡛࠶ࡾ㸪(8ࡢᨻ⟇య⣔ࡀ⏬୍ⓗ࡟ຍ┕ྛᅜ࡟㐺⏝ࡉࢀࡿࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋࡇࡢព࿡࡛

(8ࡢᨻ⟇య⣔ࡣ㸪㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࣭ከඖⓗ࡞ᛶ᱁ࢆᣢࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

࡜ࡣ࠸࠼㸪ࡍ࡭࡚ࡢຍ┕ᅜࡀ༢୍ࡢᇦෆᕷሙ࡟ཧຍࡋ㸪ே࣭≀࣭㈨ᮏ࣭ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫࡀຍ┕ᅜ㛫ࢆ⮬⏤࡟

⛣ືࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓᇦෆᕷሙࡢἲไᗘⓗ࡞ᯟ⤌ࡢᩚഛࡣ㸪(8ࡢ᤼௚ⓗᶒ㝈࡟ᒓࡋ㸪(8ࡢ♫఍⤒῭

ᨻ⟇ࡢ᰿ᖿ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ(8ࡣ㛵⛯ྠ┕ࢆ᏶ᡂࡉࡏࡓࡔࡅ࡛࡞ࡃ㸪ຍ┕ᅜ௻ᴗࡢᕷሙ➇தࢆಁ㐍ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟

6 ୰ᔱ (2013), 2࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ᗉྖ (2013), 31࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗࠋ

7 ࣇࣝᑵᴗࡢ┠ᶆࡣ㸪᏶඲㞠⏝(࡛ࡁࡿ㝈ࡾప࠸ኻᴗ⋡ࡢᐇ⌧)࡜ࡣ␗࡞ࡿෆᐜ࡛㸪ᑵᴗ⋡ࡢᘬୖࡆࢆព࿡ࡋ㸪ࣜࢫ࣎ࣥᡓ␎ࡢᒎ㛤ࡢ୰

࡛Ḣᕞ㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࡢ┠ᶆ࡜࡞ࡾ㸪Ḣᕞ2020ᡓ␎࡛ࡣᑵᴗ⋡75%ࡀ┠ᣦࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

8 $GQHWWDQG+DUG\SII.DHOEOHX6FKPLG6IIᜏᕝ (1992), 36࣮࣌ࢪ࠾ࡼࡧ48࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗࠋ

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55 / 225 㠀㛵⛯㞀ቨࢆྲྀࡾ㝖ࡁ㸪ᇦෆ༢୍ᕷሙࢆ๰タࡋࡓࠋ(8ࡣࡉࡽ࡟㸪ᇦෆᕷሙࡢᮇᚅᶵ⬟ࡀ༑඲࡟Ⓨ᥹ࡉ

ࢀࡿࡓࡵ࡟༢୍ඹ㏻㏻㈌ࡶᑟධࡋࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠕ⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ࠖ(FRQRPLFDQG0RQHWDU\8QLRQ࡬ࡢཧຍࡣ㸪

཰ᩡᇶ‽ࢆ‶ࡓࡋࡓຍ┕ᅜ࡟㝈ᐃࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋඹ㏻㏻㈌࣮ࣘࣟࡣ⌧ᅾ㸪ࣧᅜ࡛ᑟධࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ㸪Ḣ ᕞ୰ኸ㖟⾜࡟ࡼࡿ㔠⼥ᨻ⟇ࡢᐇຠᛶࢆᦆ࡞ࢃ࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟ࡍࡿ┠ⓗ࡛㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධྛᅜ࡟ࡣ㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠ

ࢆᅇ㑊ࡍࡿࠕ㈈ᨻつᚊࠖILVFDOGLVFLSOLQHࡢ㑂Ᏺࡀ⩏ົ௜ࡅࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ࡜ࡇࢁࡀ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡢ㈈ᨻ 㐠Ⴀࡣྛᅜᨻᗓࡢᶒ㝈࡟ᒓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭㐠Ⴀࡢᇶ㍈࡜࡞ࡿ㔠⼥ᨻ⟇࡜㈈ᨻᨻ⟇ࡢᶒ 㝈ࡣ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛ࡣ㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࡟㓄ศࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ୰࡛ᨻ⟇ࡢຠᯝⓗ࡞ᐇ᪋࡜య⣔ᛶࢆ☜ಖ ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࡣ㸪ᨻ⟇ࡢᢸ࠸ᡭ┦஫ࡢㄪᩚࡀ୙ྍḞ࡜࡞ࡿࠋࠕ㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠ᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࠖ([FHVVLYH 'HILFLW 3URFHGXUHࡀไᗘ໬ࡉࢀࡓࡢࡣ㸪ࡇࡢࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡑࢀ࡟ࡼࢀࡤ㸪㛶൉⌮஦఍ࡀ୰ᮇ㈈ᨻ┠ᶆ࠿ࡽⴭࡋ ࡃ㐓⬺ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࡜ุ᩿ࡋࡓሙྜ㸪ᙜヱᅜ࡟ᑐࡍࡿ᫝ṇ່࿌ࢆ᥇ᢥࡋ㸪ᑐᛂࡀ୙༑ศ࡞ሙྜࡢ㆙࿌࡟ࡶᚑ

ࢃ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ㸪ไ⿢㔠ࢆㄢࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿ

ᇦෆᕷሙࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃ࢆᙉ໬ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪(8 㐠Ⴀ᮲⣙ࡣ➨ϰ⦅࡜➨ϱ⦅࡛㞠⏝ᨻ⟇࡜♫఍ᨻ⟇ࢆ(8 ࡢᨻ⟇࡜ࡋ࡚つᐃࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ(8ࡢ㞠⏝ᨻ⟇ࡣࠕࡼࡾከࡃࡢ࠿ࡘࡼࡾⰋ࠸⫋ሙࡢ๰ฟࠖࢆ┠ⓗ࡟㸪ࠕḢᕞ 㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࠖ(XURSHDQ(PSOR\PHQW6WUDWHJ\࡜ࡋ࡚ᖺ࠿ࡽᒎ㛤ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋ㞠⏝ᨻ⟇ࡢᶒ㝈ࡣ㸪 ຍ┕ྛᅜ࡟ᒓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡑࡇ࡛㸪Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡀ㞠⏝ᨻ⟇ࡢ┠ᶆࢆᥦ♧ࡋ㸪㛶൉⌮஦఍ࡀ(8ࡢ㞠⏝ືྥ

ࢆ㋃ࡲ࠼࡚㞠⏝࢞࢖ࢻࣛ࢖ࣥࢆタᐃࡋ㸪ࡑࡢᐇ⌧࡟ྥࡅ࡚ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢྲྀ⤌ࢆㄏᑟࡍࡿࠕ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪ

ᩚ᪉ᘧࠖ2SHQ0HWKRGRI&RRUGLQDWLRQࡀ㛤Ⓨࡉࢀࡓࠋ

(8ࡢ♫఍ᨻ⟇ࡣປാຊࡢ⮬⏤࡞⛣ືࢆಁ㐍ࡍࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟㸪⾜ࡁ㐣ࡂࡓ௻ᴗ㛫➇த࠿ࡽປാ⪅ࢆᏲࡿ

ປാ⪅ಖㆤࢆ᭱ඃඛㄢ㢟࡟ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ(8ࡣࠕປാ⪅ࡢᇶᮏⓗ♫఍ᶒ࡟㛵ࡍࡿඹྠయ᠇❶ࠖ&RPPXQLW\

&KDUWHURIWKH)XQGDPHQWDO6RFLDO5LJKWVRI:RUNHUVࢆ᭶࡟ไᐃࡋ㸪࢖ࢠࣜࢫࢆ㝖ࡃ඲ຍ┕ᅜࡀ᥇ ᢥࡋࡓࠋ(8ࡣࡇࡢ㊃᪨࡟ᇶ࡙ࡁ㸪ࢯ࣮ࢩ࣭ࣕࣝࢲࣥࣆࣥࢢࡢ㜵Ṇ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡴ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟㸪㞠⏝ࡢᖹ➼࣭

ゎ㞠࣭㠀඾ᆺ㞠⏝ࡢྛ㡿ᇦ࡛(8ᣦ௧ࢆⓎ௧ࡋ㸪ປാ⪅ಖㆤ࡟✚ᴟⓗ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌ࢇ࡛࠸ࡿࠋຍ┕ྛᅜࡣࡇ

ࢀࡽ(8ᣦ௧ࡢ┠ⓗࢆᐇ⌧ࡍ࡭ࡃ㸪ᅜෆἲࢆᩚഛࡋ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠸ࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟♫఍ᨻ⟇ࡣ㸪(8 ຍ┕ᅜࡀᶒ㝈ࢆඹ᭷ࡋ࡚ᒎ㛤ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡉࡽ࡟(8ࡣ㸪ປാ⪅ࡢ㐺ᛂຊ࡜ᑵᴗຊࢆྥୖࡉࡏ㸪ປാᕷ ሙ࡬ࡢ⦅ධࢆᨭ᥼ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪ࠕḢᕞ♫఍ᇶ㔠ࠖ(XURSHDQ6RFLDO)XQGࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ⫋ᴗカ⦎࣭෌カ

⦎ࢆᨭ᥼ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ✚ᴟⓗປാᕷሙᨻ⟇ࡢ୍⎔࡜ࡋ࡚㸪(8᭶࡟ࠕḢᕞ㈨᱁ᯟ⤌ࠖ

(XURSHDQ4XDOLILFDWLRQV)UDPHZRUNࢆ⟇ᐃࡋࡓࠋࡇࡢᯟ⤌ࡣ㸪(8࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢồே࣭ồ⫋ࡢ࣏࣮ࢱࣝࢧ࢖

(85(6ࢆ㏻ࡌࡓປാຊࡢ⮬⏤࡞⛣ືಁ㐍࡟ࡶᙺ❧ࡘ࡜ᛮࢃࢀࡿࠋ

ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟(8ࡢ♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࡣ㸪ᨻ⟇㡿ᇦࡈ࡜࡛␗࡞ࡿ(8࡜ຍ┕ᅜࡢᶒ㝈㓄ศࢆ཯ᫎࡋ㸪ᨻ⟇ᙧ ᡂࣉࣟࢭࢫࡀᚤጁ࡟␗࡞ࡿࠋ(8ࡢ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃ࢆㄽࡌࡿሙྜ࡟ὀ┠ࡍ࡭ࡁࡣ㸪(8ࡀ᤼

௚ⓗ࡞ᶒ㝈ࢆᣢࡓ࡞࠸ᨻ⟇㡿ᇦ࡟࠾ࡅࡿᨻ⟇༠ㄪ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ㞠⏝ᨻ⟇࡜♫఍ᨻ⟇ࡢ㡿ᇦ࡛ࡣྛᅜࡢ㞠⏝័

⾜ࡸ♫఍ಖ㞀ไᗘࡀ␗࡞ࡿࡓࡵ㸪Ḣᕞ♫఍ࣔࢹࣝࡢᵓ⠏࡟㝿ࡋ࡚ࡣຍ┕ྛᅜ࡟⮬Ⓨⓗ࡞༠ാࢆồࡵࡿࢯ

9 European Commission (a); European Commission (2018a); ఀ⸨ (2014), 178 ࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ᪥ᮏ㈠᫆᣺⯆ᶵᵓ (2013), 3 ࣮࣌ࢪ;

㈈ົ┬㈈ᨻไᗘᑂ㆟఍(2014), 69 ࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗࠋ

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ࣇࢺ࣭࣮ࣟ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃྲྀ⤌ࡀࡲࡍࡲࡍ㔜せ࡞ᙺ๭ࢆᯝࡓࡍࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿ

㸰㸫㸱㸬㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧ

(8᭶ࡢࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡ⮫᫬Ḣᕞ⌮஦఍࠸ࢃࡺࡿࠕ㞠⏝ࢧ࣑ࢵࢺࠖࢆ⤒࡚ྠᖺ᭶ࡢ

ࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡḢᕞ⌮஦఍࡛㞠⏝࢞࢖ࢻࣛ࢖ࣥࢆ᥇ᢥࡋ㸪(8࡜ࡋ࡚ึࡵ࡚㞠⏝ၥ㢟࡟ᮏ᱁ⓗ࡟ྲྀࡾ⤌

ࡴࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋࠕḢᕞ㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࠖࡢ㛤ጞ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢḢᕞ㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࡢ୰࡛㛤Ⓨࡋࡓ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ

᪉ᘧࡀ㸪ࢯࣇࢺ࣭࣮ࣟ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࣉࣟࢭࢫࡢཎึᙧែ࡜࠸࠼ࡿࠋ(8ࡢ㞠⏝ᨻ⟇ࡣ㸪

࡟ྜពࡋࡓࠕ࢔࣒ࢫࢸࣝࢲ࣒᮲⣙ࠖ᭶Ⓨຠ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ἲⓗ᰿ᣐࡀ୚࠼ࡽࢀ㸪ࡑࡢලయⓗ࡞ෆᐜ

࡜ᯟ⤌ࡀỴᐃࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋᙜ᫬ࡢḢᕞ㞠⏝ᡓ␎ࡣ㸪࢚ࣥࣉࣟ࢖࢔ࣅࣜࢸ࢕ࡢྥୖ㸪㉳ᴗᐙ⢭⚄ࡢⓎᥭ㸪 ປ౑ࡢ㐺ᛂຊᙉ໬࠾ࡼࡧ⏨ዪᶵ఍ᆒ➼ࡢᅄᮏᰕ࠿ࡽᵓᡂࡉࢀ㸪ࡑࡢࡓࡵࡢ㞠⏝࢞࢖ࢻࣛ࢖ࣥࡶ⟇ᐃࡉࢀ

࡚࠸ࡓࠋຍ┕ྛᅜࡣẖᖺ㸪ࡇࡢ࢞࢖ࢻࣛ࢖ࣥ࡟ἢࡗࡓᨻ⟇ⓗྲྀ⤌ࢆࠗ㞠⏝ࡢࡓࡵࡢྛᅜ⾜ືィ⏬࠘1DWLRQDO

$FWLRQ3ODQIRU(PSOR\PHQW࡜ࡋ࡚ࡲ࡜ࡵ࡚㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍࡟ᥦฟࡋ㸪ࡑࡢᐇ᪋࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡢホ౯

ࢆཷࡅࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢᯟ⤌ࡳࡀ㸪ࠕࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡ࣭ࣉࣟࢭࢫࠖ/X[HPERXUJ SURFHVV࡜࿧ࡤࢀࡿ

ࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡿ

ࡇࡢࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡ࣭ࣉࣟࢭࢫࡀ㸪ࣜࢫ࣎ࣥḢᕞ⌮஦఍᭶ᚋࡣࠕ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧࠖ

࡜࿧ࡤࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡑࢀࡣ஧ᵝࡢព࿡࡛ࠕ㛤࠿ࢀࡓࠖᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࣉࣟࢭࢫࡔ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ୍ࡘࡣ㸪 ᨻ⟇ࡢᢸ࠸ᡭࡍ࡭࡚࡟ᑐࡋ࡚㛤࠿ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ(8ࡢᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࡢ≉ᚩࡣ㸪ࠕ♫఍ⓗᑐヰࠖVRFLDO GLDORJXHࡢ㔜せᛶࡀᙉㄪࡉࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟㸪ᨻᗓ㛵ಀ⪅ࡔࡅ࡛࡞ࡃ㸪ປാ⤌ྜ࡜⤒Ⴀ⪅ᅋయࡢ♫఍ⓗࣃ࣮ࢺ ࢼ࣮࡟ࡶᨻ⟇ᙧᡂ࡟㛵୚ࡍࡿᶵ఍ࡀ୚࠼ࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡾ㸪ᙜヱᨻ⟇ࡢᐇ᪋࡟ᑐࡍࡿᙜ஦⪅ព㆑

ࡀ⏕ࡲࢀ㸪ᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࡢᐇຠᛶࡀྥୖࡍࡿࡶࡢ࡜ᮇᚅࡉࢀࡿࠋࡶ࠺୍ࡘࡣ㸪ホ౯࡜Ꮫ⩦ࣉࣟࢭࢫ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚

㛤࠿ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋḢᕞጤဨ఍ࡀẖᖺබ⾲ࡍࡿࠗඹྠ㞠⏝ሗ࿌᭩࠘-RLQW(PSOR\PHQW5HSRUWࡢ୰

࡛ࡣ㸪ᡂᯝᣦᶆ࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚ྛᅜࡢᐇ᪋≧ἣࡀホ౯ࡉࢀ㸪ඃࢀࡓྲྀ⤌ࡶ⤂௓ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡾ㸪┦

ᑐⓗ࡟ࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࡢຎࡗࡓᅜࡣ㸪௚ᅜࡢඃࢀࡓྲྀ⤌஦౛ࢆᏛࡧ㸪ᨻ⟇ᙧᡂ⬟ຊࢆ㧗ࡵࡿࡇ࡜ࡀᮇᚅ ࡉࢀࡿࠋ

(8࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢ┠ᶆ฿㐩ᗘࡣ㸪ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ┦஫Ꮫ⩦ࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚⮬ࡎ࡜ᘬࡁୖࡆࡽࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡇࡇ࡟㸪 㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧࡢ኱ࡁ࡞≉ᚩࡀ࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢᮇᚅᶵ⬟ࢆ☜ᐇ࡟ᐇ⌧ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡣ┦ᑐⓗ

࡟ࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࡢຎࡗࡓᅜࢆᑐ㇟࡟㸪஦ែࡢᨵၿࢆồࡵ່࡚࿌ࡍࡿࡼ࠺㛶൉⌮஦఍࡟ᥦ᱌ࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ

࡛ࡁࡿࠋ㛶൉⌮஦఍ࡣḢᕞ⌮஦఍ࡢ⤖ㄽࢆᇶ♏࡟㸪㛵ಀྛᶵ㛵࡜ࡢ༠㆟ࢆ⤒࡚Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡢᥦ᱌࡟ᇶ࡙

ࡁ㸪ᚲせ࡞ሙྜ࡟ࡣᙜヱᅜ࡟ᑐࡋ່࡚࿌ࡍࡿࠋࡇࡢ່࿌ࡀࠕྡᣦࡋ࡟ࡼࡿ㠀㞴ࠖQDPHDQGVKDPH࡜࿧ࡤ

ࢀ㸪ᙜヱᅜᨻᗓ࠿ࡽࡍࢀࡤ࠸ࢃࡤⴠః⪅ࡢⅹ༳ࢆᢲࡉࢀࡓࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋᨻඪ㛫➇தࡀ⃭ࡋ࠸୰࡛ࡣ㸪ᨻ ᶒᨻඪࡣᨻ⟇ᙧᡂ⬟ຊࢆ␲ࢃࢀ㸪ᨻ἞ⓗ㈐௵ࢆၥࢃࢀ࠿ࡡ࡞࠸ࡢ࡛㸪ྛᅜᨻᗓࡣຍ┕ᅜ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢ⾜ືつ

⠊ࢆ㐓⬺ࡋ࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟⾜ືࡍࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓᚰ⌮ⓗ࡞ࠕྠㄪᅽຊࠖSHHUSUHVVXUHࡇࡑࡀ㸪㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪ

10 $GQHWWDQG+DUG\SII

11 European Commission (2002), p. 7 f.; Schmid u. Kull (2004), p.3ff.; ୰ᔱ (2013), 7࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ෆᒣ (2009), 6࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗࠋ

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ᩚ᪉ᘧ࡟ࡼࡿᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࡢᐇຠᛶྥୖࡢ※Ἠ࡛࠶ࡿ

ࡇࡇ࡛㸪ୖグࡢ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧࡢᇶᮏᵓ㐀ࢆせ⣙ࡋࡼ࠺ࠋ㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧ࡜ࡣ㸪㛶൉⌮

஦఍ࡀ(8࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢᨻ⟇┠ᶆࢆタᐃࡋ㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡀࡑࡢᐇ⌧࡟ྥࡅ࡚ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡳ㸪ẖᖺ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡉࢀࡿᨻ

⟇ホ౯࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚┦஫࡟┘どࡋ㸪(8࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢ┠ᶆ฿㐩ᗘࢆᘬࡁୖࡆ࡚࠸ࡇ࠺࡜ࡍࡿᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࣉࣟࢭ ࢫ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡢᇶᮏᵓ㐀ࡀḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮࡟ࡶᘬࡁ⥅ࡀࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

㸱㸬Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮

㸱㸫㸯㸬ᑟධࡢ⫼ᬒ࡜㊃᪨

Ḣᕞᡓ␎ࡢ㛤ጞ࡟ྜࢃࡏ࡚Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡀᑟධࡉࢀࡓࡇ࡜࡛㸪(8ࡢ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡀᩚഛࡉ

ࢀࡓࠋࡇࡇ࡛࠸࠺ࠕ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࠖHFRQRPLFJRYHUQDQFH࡜ࡣ㸪㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡀẖᖺ㸪(8

࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢᨻ⟇ᣦ㔪ࢆᥦ♧ࡋ㸪(8࡜ຍ┕ྛᅜࡀࡑࡢᐇ⌧࡟ྥࡅ࡚㈈ᨻᨻ⟇ࡸ♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࢆ┦஫࡟ㄪᩚ

ࡍࡿᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࣉࣟࢭࢫࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡾ㸪ࠕḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࠖ(XURSHDQ6HPHVWHU࡜ࡋ࡚ไᗘ໬ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ

᥮ゝࡍࢀࡤ㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡣຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ㈈ᨻᨻ⟇ࡸ♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࢆ┦஫࡟┘どࡋ㸪(8࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢᨻ⟇

┠ᶆࢆᐇ⌧ࡍ࡭ࡃຍ┕ྛᅜ㛫ࡢᨻ⟇༠ㄪࢆᅗࡿࡓࡵ࡟య⣔໬ࡉࢀࡓ୍㐃ࡢᡭ⥆ࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ ๓⠇࡛ぢࡓࡼ࠺࡟㸪ຍ┕ᅜࡢ♫఍⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࡣ㸪(8࡬ࡢᶒ㝈ጤㆡࡀᨻ⟇ศ㔝ࡈ࡜࡛␗࡞ࡾ㸪㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࣭

ከඖⓗ࡞ᨻ⟇య⣔࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡇ࡜ࡀ㸪ࣜࢫ࣎ࣥᡓ␎ࡢ᭱⤊ᒁ㠃࡛(8ࢆくࡗࡓ࣮࣐࣭ࣜࣥࢩࣙ

ࢵࢡ࡜ࡑࡢᚋࡢḢᕞമົ༴ᶵ࡬ࡢᑐᛂࢆ㐜ࡽࡏ㸪♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞ΰ஘ࢆ㛗ᘬ࠿ࡏࡿཎᅉ࡟ࡶ࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡇ

࡛㸪Ḣᕞ⌮஦఍ࡣ᭶࡟⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࢆᩚഛࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡛ྜពࡋ㸪ྠᖺ᭶࡟ࡣḢᕞᡓ␎

ࡢ᥇ᢥ࡜ྠ᫬࡟Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢᑟධࢆỴᐃࡋࡓࠋḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡣ㸪ࡑࡢᚋࡶ(8࡜ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢᨻ⟇

ࢆ┦஫࡟ㄪᩚࡍࡿἲⓗᇶ┙ࡀᙉ໬ࡉࢀ㸪ᨻ⟇༠ㄪࡢᐇຠᛶࢆ㧗ࡵࡿ࡭ࡃ㐍໬ࡋࡓࠋ

ࡇࡢ୍㐃ࡢྲྀ⤌ࡣ㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ཧຍྛᅜࡢᨺₔ࡞㈈ᨻ㐠Ⴀࢆᅇ㑊ࡋ㸪ࠕᙉ࠸࣮ࣘࣟࠖࢆᐇ⌧ࡍࡿࡓ

ࡵ࡟᭶ࡢ࢔࣒ࢫࢸࣝࢲ࣒Ḣᕞ⌮஦఍࡛᥇ᢥࡉࢀࡓࠕᏳᐃ࣭ᡂ㛗༠ᐃࠖ6WDELOLW\DQG*URZWK3DFW ࡢᨵṇࢆᇶ㍈࡟ᒎ㛤ࡉࢀࡓࠋᏳᐃ࣭ᡂ㛗༠ᐃࡑࢀ⮬యࡣ㸪࣐࣮ࢫࢺࣜࣄࢺ᮲⣙ࡢ୰࡛つᐃࡉࢀࡓ㈈ᨻつ ᚊࡢ㑂Ᏺࢆಁࡍᡭ⥆ࢆつᐃࡋࡓࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪Ḣᕞ⌮஦఍Ỵ㆟࡜ࡘࡢつ๎࠿ࡽᡂࡾ㸪ࡑࡢ୺࡞ෆᐜࡣḟ 㡯┠࡟せ⣙࡛ࡁࡿࠋ➨࡟㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡣ㈈ᨻࢆ୰ᮇⓗ࡟ᆒ⾮ࡶࡋࡃࡣ㯮Ꮠ࡟ࡋ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠸ࠋ ࡇࢀ࡟⥆ࡃḟࡢ㡯┠ࡣ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡟ࡢࡳ㐺⏝ࡉࢀࡿࠋ➨࡟㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡣẖᖺ㸪ࡑࡢ๓ᖺ࡜

ᙜヱᖺ࠿ࡽ᭱పࣧᖺࡢ㈈ᨻ཰ᨭ࡜㛗ᮇമົࡢືྥࢆศᯒࡋࡓࠕᏳᐃࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛࠖ6WDELOLW\3URJUDPPHV

ࢆ㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍࡟ᥦฟࡋ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠸ࠋ➨࡟㸪㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡣྛᅜࡢ㈈ᨻ

≧ἣࢆᙜヱᅜࡢᏳᐃࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛ࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚ᑂᰝࡋ㸪┠ᶆ࠿ࡽ኱ࡁࡃ஋㞳ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿሙྜ࡟ࡣ᫝ṇ່࿌ࢆබ

⾲ࡍࡿࠋࡑࢀ࡛ࡶ㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡀ᫝ṇࡉࢀ࡞࠸ሙྜ㸪➨࡟㸪ᙜヱᅜ࡟ࡣไ⿢㔠↓฼Ꮚࡢ㡸ク㔠ࡀ⛉ࡏࡽ

ࢀ㸪ᖺᚋࡶ᫝ṇࡉࢀ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ⨩㔠࡜ࡋ࡚ἐ཰ࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ

12 Schmid (2004); Schmid u. Kull (2004), p.3ff.

13 European Commission (a) ; Eurostat (2017), p. 17 ff.

14 European Commission (2002), p.17 ff.; ෆᒣ (2006), 5 ࣮࣌ࢪࠋ

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࡞㔠⼥ᨻ⟇ࡢຠᯝࢆᦆ࡞ࢃ࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟ࡍࡿࡓࡵࡢ୙ྍḞ࡞᮲௳࡛࠶ࡿࠋ㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡣ࣮ࣘࣟࡢಙㄆࢆ

⬣࠿ࡋ㸪㍺ධ࢖ࣥࣇࣞࡢࣜࢫࢡࢆቑ኱ࡉࡏࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟㸪㔠฼ࡢୖ᪼ᅽຊࢆㄏⓎࡋ㸪⤖ᯝⓗ࡟ࡣ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒

῭ࡢᏳᐃᛶࢆᦆ࡞࠺ࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ࡜ࡇࢁࡀ㸪ࢻ࢖ࢶࡸࣇࣛࣥࢫࡢ༢ᖺᗘ㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡀᇶ‽್ࢆ

㉸࠼࡚ࡶᐇ㝿࡟ࡣไ⿢ᥐ⨨ࡀⓎືࡉࢀࡎ㸪ࡉࡽ࡟ࢠࣜࢩࣕᨻᗓ࡟ࡼࡿ㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡢ㐣ᑡ⏦࿌࡟➃ࢆⓎࡋࡓ Ḣᕞമົ༴ᶵࡀⓎ⏕ࡍࡿ࡞࡝㸪(8࡟࠾ࡅࡿ㈈ᨻࡢ┦஫┘どᶵ⬟ࡣ༑ศ࡞ᡂᯝࢆୖࡆࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿

ࡗࡓࠋ

ࡑࡇ࡛㸪᭶࡟ࡘࡢつ๎࡜ࡘࡢᣦ௧࠿ࡽᡂࡿࠕ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫᙉ໬ἲࠖ6L[3DFNࡀ᪋

⾜ࡉࢀ㸪ࡑࡢ୍⎔࡜ࡋ࡚㔠⼥ᨻ⟇ࡀ୍ඖ໬ࡉࢀࡓୗ࡛ࡢ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࡢ㐠Ⴀ⬟ຊࢆ㧗ࡵࡿ࡭ࡃ㸪㈈ᨻつᚊ ࡀ୍ᒙᙉ໬ࡉࢀࡓࠋຍ┕ྛᅜࡣ㐣๫࡞㈈ᨻ㉥ᏐⓎ⏕ࡢண㜵ᥐ⨨࡜ࡋ࡚㸪୰ᮇⓗ࡞⤒῭ᡂ㛗⋡ࡢ⠊ᅖෆ࡟

㈈ᨻᨭฟࡢఙࡧࢆᢚ࠼࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽࡎ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡀᇶ‽್ࢆ㉸࠼ࡓሙྜ࡟ࡣ㛶൉⌮஦఍࡛≉࡟ྰỴ ࡉࢀ࡞࠸㝈ࡾᥦ᱌ࡀᢎㄆࡉࢀࡿࠕ㏫≉ᐃከᩘỴࠖUHYHUVHTXDOLILHGPDMRULW\YRWLQJ᪉ᘧ࡛ไ⿢ᙜヱᅜࡢ๓ *'3┦ᙜࡢ᭷฼Ꮚ㡸ク㔠ࡀ⛉ࡏࡽࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡉࡽ࡟㸪㐣๫࡞㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡢ᫝ṇᥐ⨨࡟

ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶࡼࡾලయⓗ࡟ᐃࡵࡽࢀࡓࠋ༢ᖺᗘࡢ㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࡀᑐ*'3௨ୗ࡛ࡶ㸪㛗ᮇമົṧ㧗ࡢᑐ*'3 ẚࡀࢆ㉸࠼࡚࠸ࡿᅜࡣ㸪ࢆ㉸࠼ࡓศࡢമົṧ㧗ࢆ┤㏆ᖺ㛫ࡢᖹᆒ࡛ᖺศࡢࡎࡘ๐ῶࡋ

࡚࠸࡞ࡅࢀࡤ㸪ᙜヱᅜࡣ㐣๫㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠ᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡢᑐ㇟࡜࡞ࡾ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡟ࡣ㏫≉ᐃከᩘỴ᪉ᘧ࡛ไ

⿢ᙜヱᅜࡢ๓ᖺ*'3┦ᙜࡢ↓฼Ꮚ㡸ク㔠ࡀ⛉ࡏࡽࢀ㸪᫝ṇࡉࢀ࡞࠸ሙྜ࡟ࡣ⨩㔠࡜ࡋ࡚ἐ཰

ࡉࢀࡿࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟୰ᮇ㈈ᨻ┠ᶆ࡟ἢࡗࡓ㈈ᨻ㐠Ⴀࡀ⩏ົ௜ࡅࡽࢀ㸪࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡟ࡣไ⿢ᥐ⨨ࡀ㎿㏿

࠿ࡘཝ᱁࡟Ⓨືࡉࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡔࡅ࡛࡞ࡃ㸪⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫᙉ໬ἲࡢ᪋⾜࡟ࡼࡾᚋ㏙ࡍࡿ⤒῭ᨻ

⟇ࡢ┦஫┘ど࡜┦஫ㄪᩚࡶᙉ໬ࡉࢀࡓࠋ

ࡑࡢᚋ᭶࡟ࡣ㸪ྛᅜࡀᆒ⾮ண⟬ࡢཎ๎ࢆἲᚊ࡛つᐃࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ୺࡞ෆᐜ࡜ࡍࡿࠕ⤒῭㏻㈌

ྠ┕࡟࠾ࡅࡿᏳᐃ࣭┦஫ㄪᩚ࣭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫ࡟㛵ࡍࡿ᮲⣙ࠖ7UHDW\RQ6WDELOLW\&RRUGLQDWLRQDQG*RYHUQDQFH LQWKH(FRQRPLFDQG0RQHWDU\8QLRQࡀ࢖ࢠࣜࢫ࡜ࢳ࢙ࢥࢆ㝖ࡃࣧᅜᙜ᫬ࡢᨻᗓ㛫ྜព࡜ࡋ࡚Ⓨຠࡋ ࡓࠋࡇࡇ࡛࠸࠺ᆒ⾮ண⟬࡜ࡣ㸪ᵓ㐀ⓗ㈈ᨻ㉥Ꮠࢆྡ┠*'3௨ୗ࡟ᢚ࠼ࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡉࡽ࡟ྠ

᭶࡟ࡣ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࢆᑐ㇟࡟ண⟬⦅ᡂࡢ࣮ࣝࣝࢆඹ㏻໬ࡍࡿࡘࡢつ๎࠿ࡽᡂࡿࠕண⟬┘どᙉ໬

ἲࠖ7ZR3DFNࡀ᪋⾜ࡉࢀࡓࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡾ࣮ࣘࣟᅪྛᅜࡣ㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮࡛ࡢᨻ⟇ᙧᡂࡢ┦஫┘ど࡜

┦஫ㄪᩚࡢ⤖ᯝࢆḟᖺᗘண⟬࡟཯ᫎࡉࡏ㸪ẖᖺ᪥ࡲ࡛࡟ḟᖺᗘண⟬ࢆᥦฟࡋ㸪Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡢ⢭

ᰝࢆཷࡅࡓᚋ㸪᪥ࡲ࡛࡟ྛᅜෆ࡛ࡢண⟬ᢎㄆᡭ⥆ࢆ⤊࠼࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞ࡃ࡞ࡗࡓ

ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫࡢᙉ໬ࡀᚲせ࡟࡞ࡗࡓ୺࡞⌮⏤ࡣ㸪๓⠇࡛ࡶゐࢀࡓ⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕࡟࠾ࡅࡿᨻ

⟇ᶒ㝈ࡢ㠀ᑐ⛠ⓗ࡞㓄ศ࡟࠶ࡿࠋḢᕞ୰ኸ㖟⾜࡟ࡼࡿ㔠⼥ᨻ⟇ࡣ㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ཧຍྛᅜࡍ࡭࡚࡟㐺⏝

ࡉࢀࡿࠕ⏬୍ⓗ࡞ᨻ⟇ࠖRQHVL]HILWVDOO SROLF\࡛࠶ࡿࡢ࡟ᑐࡋ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭㐠Ⴀࡢࡶ࠺୍ࡘࡢ㔜せ࡞⯦

࡜࡞ࡿ㈈ᨻᨻ⟇ࡣྛᅜᨻᗓࡢᶒ㝈࡟ᒓࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪㔠⼥ᨻ⟇࡜㈈ᨻᨻ⟇ࡢ୍యⓗ࡞ᐇ᪋ࡀ㞴ࡋࡃ㸪᭱㐺࡞

⤒῭ᨻ⟇ࡢᐇ᪋ࡀࡋࡤࡋࡤ㜼ᐖࡉࢀࡓ࠿ࡽ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ≉࡟࣮ࣘࣟᅪ࡛ࡣ㸪ඹ㏻㏻㈌ࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚῝໬ࡋࡓྛᅜ

15 European Commission (a); European Commission (2018a); ఀ⸨ (2014), 178 ࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ᪥ᮏ㈠᫆᣺⯆ᶵᵓ (2013), 3 ࣮࣌ࢪ;

㈈ົ┬㈈ᨻไᗘᑂ㆟఍(2014), 69 ࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗࠋ

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ࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡑࡇ࡛㸪(8ࡣࠕ⤒῭࢞ࣂࢼࣥࢫᙉ໬ἲࠖࢆไᐃࡋ㸪㈈ᨻつᚊࡢᅇ᚟ࢆ┠ᣦࡍࡔࡅ࡛࡞

ࡃ㸪Ᏻᐃⓗ࡞࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࡢⓎᒎࢆ᥎㐍ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࠕ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࠖࢆᑟධࡋ㸪Ḣᕞࢭ࣓ࢫ ࢱ࣮ࡢᯟ⤌ࡢ୰࡛ᐇ᪋ࡍࡿࡼ࠺࡟࡞ࡗࡓࠋ

㸱㸫㸰㸬࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ

ࠕ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࠖ0DFURHFRQRPLF ,PEDODQFH 3URFHGXUH࡜ࡣ㸪(8⤒῭࡜ຍ┕ྛᅜ⤒῭ࡢ ᆒ⾮࠶ࡿᏳᐃⓗ࡞Ⓨᒎࢆ㜼ᐖࡍࡿࣜࢫࢡせᅉࢆ᪩ᮇ࡟Ⓨぢࡋ㸪ྲྀࡾ㝖ࡃ௙⤌࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡇࡇ࡛࠸࠺࣐ࢡ

ࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮࡜ࡣ㸪ࠕຍ┕ྛᅜ㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣ(8 ඲యࡢ⤒῭ࡢ㐺ษ࡞ᶵ⬟࡟ᝏᙳ㡪ࢆཬࡰࡋ

࡚࠸ࡿ㸪ࡶࡋࡃࡣᝏᙳ㡪ࢆཬࡰࡍ࡜ண᝿ࡉࢀࡿ₯ᅾⓗ࡞࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ືྥ࡛ࠖ࠶ࡾ㸪≉࡟ࠕ⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕

ࡢ㐺ษ࡞ᶵ⬟ࢆ⬣࠿ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࠿㸪⬣࠿ࡍᜍࢀࡢ࠶ࡿ῝้࡞୙ᆒ⾮ࠖࡣࠕ㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖH[FHVVLYH LPEDODQFHV࡜ᐃ⩏ࡉࢀࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࡢⓎ⏕ࢆᮍ↛࡟㜵ࡄࡓࡵ㸪Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡣẖᖺ

᭶࡟ࠗᖺḟᡂ㛗ᴫほ࠘$QQXDO*URZWK6XUYH\࡜࡜ࡶ࡟බ⾲ࡍࡿࠗ㆙ሗ࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘$OHUW0HFKDQLVP 5HSRUWࡢ୰࡛㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢྛᣦᶆࡢኚ໬࡟╔┠ࡋ࡚ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ⤒῭ືྥࢆศᯒࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡣࡇࡢศᯒ⤖ᯝ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡁ㸪ࡼࡾヲ⣽࡞ศᯒࢆᚲせ࡜ࡍࡿຍ┕ᅜࢆ≉ᐃࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛㸪ྠሗ࿌

᭩ࡣ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࢆุᐃࡍࡿ㝿ࡢࢫࢡ࣮ࣜࢽࣥࢢ⿦⨨ࡢᙺ๭ࢆᢸࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡼࡾヲ⣽࡞ศᯒࡀᚲせ

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ࡵ㸪ᇦእ㈠᫆ࡼࡾࡶ኱ࡁ࡞ᙺ๭ࢆᯝࡓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡞୰࡛ࡣ㸪࠶ࡿᅜࡢ኱ᖜ࡞⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࡢ㯮Ꮠࡣ

௚ᅜࡢ⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࡢ㉥Ꮠࢆࡶࡓࡽࡋ㸪⤖ᯝ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡑࡢ㉥Ꮠᅜ࡟⥭⦰㈈ᨻࢆᙉ࠸ࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡾ㸪㉥Ꮠᅜࡢ㞠

⏝᝟ໃ࡞࡝ࡢᅜෆ⤒῭ືྥ࡟ࡶ῝้࡞ᙳ㡪ࢆ୚࠼ࡿࠋ≉࡟ඹ㏻㏻㈌ࢆᑟධࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࣮ࣘࣟᅪ࡛ࡣ㸪㈇ࡢ 㐃㙐ࡀ⏕ࡲࢀࡸࡍ࠸ࠋࡇࡢࡓࡵ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡣ㸪⾲ࡀ♧ࡍࡼ࠺࡟ᑐእ୙ᆒ⾮࡜➇தຊ㸪ᅜ ෆ୙ᆒ⾮㸪ࡑࡋ࡚㞠⏝ࡢศ㔝ᣦᶆ࡛ᵓᡂࡉࢀ㸪ྛᣦᶆ࡟ࡣᨻ⟇ⓗᑐᛂࡢᚲせᛶࢆุ᩿ࡍࡿ㝿ࡢᇶ

‽࡜࡞ࡿ㜈್ࡶᐃࡵࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

࠿ࡽศ࠿ࡿࡼ࠺࡟㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡣࣇ࣮ࣟࡔࡅ࡛࡞ࡃ㸪ࢫࢺࢵࢡ࡟㛵ࡍࡿᣦᶆࡶྵࡳ㸪 ከࡃࡢᣦᶆࡣᖺ࡞࠸ࡋᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬ࢆ཯ᫎࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡣ㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ࣐ࢡࣟ

⤒῭ືྥࡢ₯ᅾⓗ࡞ᨩ஘せᅉࢆ᪩ᮇ࡟Ⓨぢ࡛ࡁࡿࡼ࠺࡟ᕤኵࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡢ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ ᭶࡟ึࡵ࡚බ⾲ࡉࢀࡓࡀ㸪⤒῭ືྥࢆࡼࡾⓗ☜࡟ᢕᥱࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪ࡑࡢᚋࡶࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢ ᣦᶆ࡜୙ᆒ⾮ࡢ࢝ࢸࢦ࣮ࣜ࡟ಟṇࡀຍ࠼ࡽࢀ㸪⌧⾜ࡢᯟ⤌ࡀ࡛ࡁୖࡀࡗࡓࠋලయⓗ࡟ࡣ㸪ᖺ∧㆙

ሗ࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘࡟཰㘓ࡉࢀࡓ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡣ㸪ᙜึࡣᑐእ୙ᆒ⾮࠾ࡼࡧ➇தຊศ㔝ࡢ

16 Eurostat (a) ; Eurostat (b).

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ຍࡉࢀ㸪ࡉࡽ࡟ࡣᖺ࡟㞠⏝ᣦᶆศ㔝ࡀ᪂タࡉࢀ㸪ࡑࢀࡲ࡛ࡣ⿵ຓᣦᶆ࡜ࡋ࡚ཧ↷ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓ ࡢᣦᶆࡀ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢ୺せᣦᶆ࡜ࡋ࡚᥇⏝ࡉࢀࡓࠋࡇࢀ࡜୪⾜ࡋ࡚㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝

ṇᡭ⥆࡟࠾ࡅࡿ୙ᆒ⾮ࡢุ᩿ᇶ‽ࡶኚ᭦ࡉࢀࡓࠋ௨๓ࡣᨻ⟇ⓗᑐᛂ࡜ࣔࢽࢱࣜࣥࢢࡢᚲせᗘ࡟ᛂࡌ࡚㸪 ࡘࡢ࢝ࢸࢦ࣮ࣜ࡟༊ศࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࡀ㸪⌧ᅾ࡛ࡣࡘࡢ࢝ࢸࢦ࣮ࣜ㸪ࡍ࡞ࢃࡕࠕ୙ᆒ⾮࡞ࡋࠖࠕ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖ ࠕ㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖ࠾ࡼࡧࠕ᫝ṇᥐ⨨ࢆక࠺㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖ࡟⡆⣲໬ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡇࡇ࡛࠸࠺᫝ṇᥐ⨨࡜

ࡣ㸪ࠕ㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࠖ([FHVVLYH,PEDODQFH3URFHGXUHࡢ㐺⏝࡛࠶ࡿࠋ㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ࡀ᫝ṇࡉࢀ࡞

࠸ሙྜ㸪ᙜヱᅜࡣࠕ᫝ṇ⾜ືィ⏬ࠖ&RUUHFWLYH$FWLRQ3ODQࢆ㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍࡟ᥦฟࡋ㸪ᢎㄆࢆ

ཷࡅࡓᚋࡶ㛶൉⌮஦఍࡜Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡢࣔࢽࢱࣜࣥࢢࢆཷࡅࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡢ᫝ṇ࡟ྥࡅࡓ

ྲྀ⤌ࡀ༑ศ࡞ᡂᯝࢆୖࡆ࡞࠸ሙྜ㸪㛶൉⌮஦఍ࡣ㏫≉ᐃከᩘỴ᪉ᘧ࡛ไ⿢ᙜヱᅜࡢ๓ᖺ*'3ᙜࡢ᭷฼Ꮚ㡸ク㔠ࢆ⛉ࡍࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡿࠋࡑࢀ࡛ࡶ᫝ṇࡉࢀ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ㸪ᙜヱᅜࡢ๓ᖺ*'3㸣┦ᙜ ࡢ⨩㔠ࡀ㏫≉ᐃከᩘỴ᪉ᘧ࡛⛉ࡏࡽࢀࡿࠋࡇ࠺ࡋࡓไ⿢࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ࡀ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡢᐇ

ຠᛶࢆ⿵ᙉࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ

1㸬࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ

ศ ࠉ 㔝 ᣦ ࠉ ࠉ ᶆ ༢ ࠉ ࠉ ఩ 㜈 ࠉ ࠉ ್

⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࠉ ᑐ*'3ẚࡢࣧᖺᖹᆒ ࠉ࠿ࡽ

ᑐእ⣧㈨⏘ṧ㧗 ᑐ*'3ẚ

࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࠉs

ୖグ௨እࡢᅜࠉs

㍺ฟᕷሙࢩ࢙࢔ ㍺ฟ㢠ࢩ࢙࢔ࡢᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬⋡

ࠉࠉ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࠉ ࠉୖグ௨እࡢᅜࠉ

ఫᏯ౯᱁ᣦᩘ ᖺࢆᇶ‽ᖺ࡟ࡋࡓᑐ๓ᖺఙࡧ⋡

Ẹ㛫㒊㛛ಙ⏝ࣇ࣮ࣟ 㐃⤖࣮࣋ࢫ࡛ࡢᑐ*'3ẚ Ẹ㛫㒊㛛ࡢമົṧ㧗 㐃⤖࡭࣮ࢫ࡛ࡢᑐ*'3ẚ

୍⯡ᨻᗓമົṧ㧗 ᑐ*'3ẚ

㔠⼥㒊㛛ࡢ㈇മ⥲㢠 ࠉ༢య࣮࣋ࢫ࡛ࡢᑐ๓ᖺఙࡧ⋡

ࠉࠉ࣏࢖ࣥࢺ

ࠉࠉ࣏࢖ࣥࢺ ኻᴗ⋡

ྡ┠༢఩ປാ

ࢥࢫࢺᣦᩘ ᖺࢆᇶ‽ᖺ࡟ࡋࡓᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬⋡

ປാཧຍ⋡ ࠉࠉ࣏࢖ࣥࢺ

ࠉᑐእ୙ᆒ⾮

࡜➇தຊ

ࠉᅜෆ୙ᆒ⾮

ࠉ㞠⏝ᣦᶆ

ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢປാຊேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋 ᒙ࡛ኻᴗࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ⪅ࡢ๭ྜࡢࣧᖺᖹᆒ

ṓ࠿ࡽṓேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋ᒙࡢປാ

ຊேཱྀࡢ๭ྜࡢᖺ㛫ࡢ࣏࢖ࣥࢺ࡛ࡢኚ໬

ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢປാຊேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋 ᒙ࡛ᖺ௨ୖኻᴗࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ⪅ࡢ๭ྜࡢᖺ㛫 ࡢ࣏࢖ࣥࢺ࡛ࡢኚ໬

ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢປാຊேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋 ᒙ࡛ኻᴗࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ⪅ࡢ๭ྜࡢᖺ㛫ࡢ࣏࢖

ࣥࢺ࡛ࡢኚ໬

ⱝᖺኻᴗ⋡

㛗ᮇኻᴗ⋡ࠉ

ᐇ㉁ᐇຠ࣮ࣞࢺ ᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬⋡

(㈨ᩱ)European Commission (2017b), p. 46㸹Eurostat (a); Eurostat (c) ࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚సᡂࠋ

17 European Commission (2016a), p. 25ff.; Zoppè (2018), p. 13; ఀ⸨ (2014), 179࣮࣌ࢪ௨ୗ; ᪥ᮏ㈠᫆᣺⯆ᶵᵓ (2013), 4࣮࣌ࢪࠋ

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ሗ࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࡢࠗ⤫ィ௜ᒓᩥ᭩࠘6WDWLVWLFDO$QQH[ࡶ๓ᖺ⛅࡟බ⾲ࡉࢀࡿࠋࡇࡢࡓࡵ㸪ྛᅜࡢ⤒

῭ືྥࡣᖺ๓ࡢ⤫ィᩘ್࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚ᣦᶆࡀసᡂࡉࢀ㸪ศᯒࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡘࡲࡾ㸪7ᖺ∧㆙ሗ

࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࡣ7ᖺࡢ⛅࡟බ⾲ࡉࢀ㸪ศᯒ࡟㝿ࡋ࡚౑⏝ࡉࢀࡿࢹ࣮ࢱࡣ7ᖺࡢࡶࡢ࡛࠶

ࡿࠋࡲࡓ㸪ྛᣦᶆ࡟ࡣ㜈್ࡀタᐃࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ㸪㜈್ࡣᶵᲔⓗ࡟㐺⏝ࡉࢀࡿࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋ୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇ ࡢ㐣⛬࡛ᣦᶆࡀ୍᫬ⓗ࡟㜈್ࢆୖᅇࡿࡇ࡜ࡶ࠶ࡿࡓࡵ㸪ྛᣦᶆࡣᩘᖺ࡟ࢃࡓࡿྛᅜࡢ⤒῭ືྥࢆᛕ㢌࡟

⨨ࡁ࡞ࡀࡽศᯒࡉࢀ㸪⥲ྜⓗ࡟ุ᩿ࡉࢀࡿࠋࡑࡢ㝿㸪⿵ຓᣦᶆࡢኚ໬ࡶ⪃៖ࡉࢀࡿࠋ⿵ຓᣦᶆࡣḢᕞ ᡓ␎ࡢࣔࢽࢱࣜࣥࢢᣦᶆ࡛࠶ࡿ5 'ᨭฟࡢᑐ*'3ẚࡸᑵᴗ⋡࡟ຍ࠼㸪ᑐእ┤᥋ᢞ㈨ࡢࣇ࣮ࣟ࡜ࢫࢺࢵ

ࢡࡢᑐ*'3ẚ㸪㈈࣭ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫࡢ஺᫆᮲௳ࡢᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬⋡㸪ࡉࡽ࡟ࡣປാ⏕⏘ᛶୖ᪼⋡ࡸྡ┠༢఩ປ

ാࢥࢫࢺᣦᩘᖺࢆᇶ‽ᖺ࡟ࡋࡓᖺ㛫ࡢኚ໬⋡࡞࡝ᣦᶆ࡟ࡶୖࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ

ୖ㏙ࡋࡓࡼ࠺࡟㸪ᖺ࠿ࡽࡣ㞠⏝ᣦᶆࡀࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡟㏣ຍࡉࢀࡓࡀ㸪ࡑࡢពᅗࡣ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࡢ୙

ᆒ⾮ࡀ㐍ࡴ୰࡛ㄏⓎࡉࢀࡿ♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞ືྥࢆࡼࡾⓗ☜࡟ᢕᥱࡋ㸪່࿌ෆᐜ࡟཯ᫎࡉࡏࡿࡇ࡜࡟࠶ࡿࠋ

௚᪉㸪ᖺࢧ࢖ࢡࣝ࠿ࡽࡣ♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡀ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡜ࡣู࡟సᡂࡉࢀࡿࡼ࠺࡟

࡞ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡢ୺࡞⌮⏤ࡣ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡢᮏ᮶ࡢ┠ⓗ㸪ࡘࡲࡾ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࡢண㜵࡜

᪩ᮇⓎぢࡀ㸪ᣦᶆࡢ㏣ຍ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ጉࡆࡽࢀ࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟ࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡑࡇ࡛㸪ḟࡣ♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣎

࣮ࢻ࡟┠ࢆྥࡅࡿࠋ

㸱㸫㸱㸬♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢᑟධ

(8ࡣࡼࡾໟᦤⓗ࡞ᡂ㛗ࢆಁ㐍ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪᭶࡟ࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥࡢ࣮ࣚࢸ࡛࣎ࣜࠕබṇ࡞⫋ᴗ

࡜ᡂ㛗ࡢࡓࡵࡢ♫఍ࢧ࣑ࢵࢺࠖࢆ㛤ദࡋ㸪ࠕḢᕞ♫఍ᶒࡢᰕࠖ(XURSHDQ3LOODURI6RFLDO5LJKWVࢆᐉゝࡋࡓࠋ ࡇࡢᐉゝᩥ᭩ࡣࠕᶵ఍ᆒ➼࡜ປാᕷሙ࡬ࡢᖹ➼࡞࢔ࢡࢭࢫࠖࠕබṇ࡞ປാ᮲௳ࠖ࠾ࡼࡧࠕ♫఍ⓗಖㆤ࡜

ໟᦤࠖࡢ❶࡛ᵓᡂࡉࢀ㸪(8࡟࠾ࡅࡿປാ࣭⏕ά᮲௳ࡢᨵၿ࡟㛵ࡍࡿཎ๎ࢆ☜ㄆࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ≉࡟⤒

῭㏻㈌ྠ┕࡛ࡣཧຍྛᅜࡀ㸪⮬ᅜࡢᑐእ୙ᆒ⾮ࢆⅭ᭰ᨻ⟇࡟ࡼࡗ࡚᫝ṇࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁ࡞࠸ࡔࡅ࡟㸪ປ

ാᕷሙࡢఙ⦰ⓗ࡞ᶵ⬟࡜බṇ࡞ປാ᮲௳ࡢ☜ಖࡣ㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ࢆ⥔ᣢࡋ࡚࠸ࡃୖ࡛ࡢᚲ㡲᮲௳࡛࠶ࡿࠋ ࡇࡢព࿡࡛ࠕḢᕞ♫఍ᶒࡢᰕࠖࡢᐉゝࡣ㸪ඛ࡟ㄝ᫂ࡋࡓ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࢆ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃࠿ࡽᨭ

᥼ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ

Ḣᕞጤဨ఍ࡣࠕḢᕞ♫఍ᶒࡢᰕࠖࢆ☜❧ࡍࡿࡓࡵ㸪ୖグ❶࡟ᑐᛂࡍࡿ㡿ᇦ୺せᣦᶆ࡜

ຓᣦᶆ࠿ࡽᡂࡿ᪂ࡋ࠸♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࢆタィࡋ㸪ࡑࡢ㐍ᤖᗘࢆࠗඹྠ㞠⏝ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࡢ୰࡛Ḣᕞࢭ࣓

ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢࢫࢣࢪ࣮ࣗࣝ࡟ྜࢃࡏ࡚බ⾲ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡑࡢ᭱ึࡢホ౯⤖ᯝࡣ㸪ᖺḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮⛅ᮇࣃ

ࢵࢣ࣮ࢪ࡜ࡋ࡚බ⾲ࡉࢀࡓࠗඹྠ㞠⏝ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࡢ୰࡛ᥦ♧ࡉࢀࡓࡀ㸪ࠕ✚ᴟⓗປാᕷሙᨻ⟇࡬ࡢཧຍ

⪅๭ྜࠖ࡜ࠕᐇປാ᫬㛫࣮࣋ࢫࡢ᫬⤥ࠖࡢᣦᶆࡣ㸪ᣦᶆసᡂࡢᢏ⾡ⓗ࡞᪉ἲ࡟ᑐࡍࡿ␲⩏ࡀ୍㒊ຍ┕

ᅜ࠿ࡽฟࡉࢀࡓࡓࡵ࡟᥇⏝ࡀぢ㏦ࡽࢀ㸪ᖺ∧♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡣ⾲ࡀ♧ࡍࡼ࠺࡟ศ㔝

18 Eurostat (a).

19 European Commission (2015), p. 4.

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2㸬♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ

ศ 㔝 ᣦ ᶆ ᦬ せ

⏨ዪ㛫ᑵᴗ⋡᱁ᕪ ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢ⏨ዪูᑵᴗ⋡ࡢᕪ ᡤᚓศ㓄ࡢ୙ᖹ➼ ᡤᚓ஬ศ఩ࡢୖ఩ࡢୗ఩࡟ᑐࡍࡿಸ⋡

ᑵᴗ⋡ ṓ࠿ࡽṓேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋ᒙࡢᑵᴗ⪅ࡢ๭ྜ

ኻᴗ⋡ ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢປാຊேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋ᒙ࡛ኻᴗࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ⪅ࡢ๭ྜ

ṓᮍ‶ඣࡢṇつಖ⫱ ṇつࡢಖ⫱ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫࢆཷࡅࡿṓᮍ‶ࡢᏊ࡝ࡶࡢྠᖺ㱋ᒙ࡟༨ࡵࡿ๭ྜ

ࠉබⓗᨭ᥼࡞࠸ࡋ

♫఍ⓗಖㆤ࡜ໟᦤ

᪩ᮇ㞳⬺⪅๭ྜ

ࢲ࢖ࢼ࣑ࢵࢡ࡞

ປാᕷሙ࡜බṇ

࡞ປാ᮲௳

๓ᮇ୰➼ᩍ⫱,6&('ࣞ࣋ࣝ㸧ಟ஢ᚋ㸪ୖ⣭Ꮫᰯ࡟㐍Ꮫࡋ࡞ࡃ⫋ᴗカ⦎

࡟ࡶཧຍࡋ࡞࠸ṓ࠿ࡽṓࡢⱝ⪅ࡢྠᖺ㱋ேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿ๭ྜ

デᐹࡸ་⒪ⓗฎ⨨ࢆᕼᮃࡋࡓࡀ㸪㔠㖹ⓗ࣭᫬㛫ⓗ࣭ᆅ⌮ⓗ⌮⏤࡛ᕼᮃࡋࡓ་

⒪ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫࢆཷࡅࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗࡓ⪃࠼ࡿேࡢ⥲ேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿ๭ྜ

ᇶ♏ⓗ࡞ࢫ࢟ࣝ௨ୖࡢ඲⯡ⓗ࡞ࢹࢪࢱࣝࢫ࢟ࣝࢆಟᚓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿṓ࠿ࡽṓ ࡢேࡢྠᖺ㱋ᒙ࡟༨ࡵࡿ๭ྜ

ᶵ఍ᆒ➼࡜ປാ

ᕷሙ࡬ࡢ࢔ࢡࢭࢫ

♫఍ⓗ⛣㌿ᨭᡶࡢ㈋

ᅔ๐ῶ࡬ࡢ࢖ࣥࣃࢡ

⮬ᕫ⏦࿌࡟ࡼࡿ་⒪

ࢽ࣮ࢬࡢᮍ඘㊊

୍ேᙜࡓࡾ⥲ྍฎศ ᐙィᡤᚓ

㈋ᅔ࣭♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖ࣜ

ࢫࢡ⪅๭ྜ

㈋ᅔ࣭♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖ࣜࢫࢡࡢୗ఩ᣦᶆ࡛࠶ࡿ㔠㖹ⓗ㈋ᅔ㸪≀ⓗ๤ዣ㸪㐣ᑡᑵປ ୡᖏࡢࡦ࡜ࡘ࡟࡛ࡶヱᙜࡍࡿேࡢ⥲ேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿ๭ྜ

ⱝᖺࢽ࣮ࢺ⋡ ṓ࠿ࡽṓேཱྀ࡟༨ࡵࡿྠᖺ㱋ᒙ࡛ᑵᴗ࣭ᑵᏛ࣭⫋ᴗカ⦎ࡢ࠸ࡎࢀ࡟ࡶᚑ

஦ࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸⪅ࡢ๭ྜ

ᖺ㔠ࢆ㝖ࡃ♫఍ⓗ⛣㌿࡟ࡼࡿ㈋ᅔ⋡ࡢ⦰ᑠ๭ྜ

㉎㈙ຊᇶ‽࡛♧ࡋࡓ୍ேᙜࡓࡾᐇ㉁⥲ྍฎศᡤᚓࢆᖺࢆᇶ‽ᖺ࡟ࡋࡓᣦ

ᩘࡢኚ໬

ࢹࢪࢱࣝࢫ࢟ࣝࡢಶ

ேࣞ࣋ࣝ

ὀ㸬㈋ᅔ࣭♫఍ⓗ᤼㝖ࣜࢫࢡࡢୗ఩ᣦᶆ࡛࠶ࡿ㔠㖹ⓗ㈋ᅔ࡜ࡣ㸪♫఍⛣㌿ᚋࡢ➼౯ྍฎศᡤᚓࡢ୰ኸ್ࡢ ௨ୗࡢタᐃࡉࢀࡓ㈋ᅔ⥺ࢆୗᅇࡿᡤᚓ࡛⏕άࡍࡿ≧ែ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪≀ⓗ๤ዣ࡜ࡣ㸪ᐙ㈤ᨭᡶࡢ⣡ࡸ⏕ά⏝ලࡢ୙

㊊ࡢࡓࡵ࡟ᛌ㐺࡞᪥ᖖ⏕άࢆ㏦ࡿࡇ࡜ࡢ࡛ࡁ࡞࠸≧ែ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪㐣ᑡᑵປୡᖏ࡜ࡣ㸪↓⫋ࡢୡᖏ࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣṓ࠿

ṓࡢୡᖏဨణࡋ㸪Ꮫ⏕ࢆ㝖ࡃࡀ๓ᖺ୍ᖺ㛫࡟ປാྍ⬟࡞₯ᅾⓗ⥲ປാ᫬㛫ࡢ௨ୗࡋ࠿ാ࠸࡚࠸࡞࠸

ୡᖏࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

㸬㉎㈙ຊᇶ‽ 3XUFKDVLQJ3RZHU6WDQGDUGࡣ⌮ㄽⓗ࡞㏻㈌༢఩࡛㸪ྛᅜࡢ≀౯Ỉ‽ࢆྲྀࡾ㝖ࡁ㉎㈙ຊࡀ➼ࡋࡃ

࡞ࡿࡼ࠺࡟ㄪᩚࡉࢀࡓඹ㏻㏻㈌༢఩ࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡿࠋ

㈨ᩱ(XURSHDQ&RPPLVVLRQFSI(XURSHDQ&RPPLVVLRQG࡟ᇶ࡙࠸࡚సᡂࠋ

♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢྛᣦᶆࡣ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡢホ౯᪉ἲ࡜ࡣ␗࡞ࡾ㸪ྛᅜࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐

ࣥࢫࡀ┦ᑐⓗ࡟ホ౯ࡉࢀ㸪ࡼࡾ㧗࠸࡛ࣞ࣋ࣝࡢ཰ᩡࡀ┠ᣦࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋලయⓗ࡟ࡣ㸪ྛᣦᶆࡢỈ‽࡜ኚ

໬ࡢྛᅜࢹ࣮ࢱ⩌ࡢศᩓ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃ㡰఩௜ࡅࢆྍ⬟࡟ࡍࡿ=ࢫࢥ࢔ࡀ⟬ฟࡉࢀ㸪Ỉ‽࡜ኚ໬ࡢྛࢫࢥ࢔ࡢ

⤌ྜࡏࢆ⾲࡛♧ࡍホ౯ุᐃ⾲࡟ᙜ࡚ࡣࡵࡿࡇ࡜࡟ࡼࡾ㸪ᣦᶆࡈ࡜ࡢྛᅜࡢ⌧≧ࡀࡘࡢ࢝ࢸࢦ࣮ࣜ࡟

ศ㢮ࡉࢀࡿࠋ

20 European Commission (2018c), p.16, fn.14.

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3㸬♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢホ౯ุᐃ⾲

ኚ ໬ Ỉ ‽

$ $ $ $ &

% % % % &

% ' ' ' )

( ) ) ) )

( * * * *

ᖹ ᆒ ࡼ ࡾ ࡣ

ࡿ ࠿ ࡟ ప ࠸

ᖹ ᆒ ࡼ ࡾ

ࡶ ప ࠸ ᖹ ᆒ ᖹ ᆒ ࡼ ࡾ

ࡶ 㧗 ࠸

ᖹ ᆒ ࡼ ࡾ ࡣ

ࡿ ࠿ ࡟ 㧗 ࠸ 㠀 ᖖ ࡟ ప ࠸

ప ࠸ ᖹ ᆒ 㧗 ࠸ 㠀 ᖖ ࡟ 㧗 ࠸

ὀ ୖᥖ⾲ࡣኻᴗ⋡࡞࡝ప࠸್࡯࡝Ⰻዲ࡞ࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࢆ⾲ࡍᣦᶆࡢࢫࢥ࢔ࡢ⤌ྜࡏ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃศ㢮ࢆ

♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡀ㸪ᑵᴗ⋡࡞࡝㧗࠸್࡯࡝Ⰻዲ࡞ࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࢆ⾲ࡍᣦᶆ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ㸪ୖᥖ⾲㡯┠ḍ ࡢࠕప࠸ࠖࢆࠕ㧗࠸ࠖ࡟㸪ࠕ㧗࠸ࠖࢆࠕప࠸ࠖ࡟ㄞࡳ᭰࠼ุ࡚ᐃࡍࡿࠋ

ฟᡤ(XURSHDQ&RPPLVVLRQFS

ୖᥖࡢ⾲$࡛♧ࡉࢀࡿ⤌ྜࡏࡢᅜࡣ㸪᭱ࡶⰋ࠸ࣃࣇ࢛࣮࣐ࣥࢫࢆ♧ࡍࠕ᭱ඃ⚽ࠖᅜ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪ᣦᶆ ࡢỈ‽ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶࡣࡿ࠿࡟Ⰻࡃ㸪࠿ࡘࡑࡢኚ໬ࡶ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶ࠿࡞ࡾ᪩ࡃᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࠿㸪࠶

ࡿ࠸ࡣᝏ໬ࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸ᅜ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ%ࡢ⤌ྜࡏࡢᅜࡣ㸪ᣦᶆࡢỈ‽ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶⰋࡃ㸪࠿ࡘࡑࡢኚ໬

(8 ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶ᪩ࡃᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࠿㸪ᑡ࡞ࡃ࡜ࡶᝏ໬ࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࡇ࡜ࢆ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛㸪ࠕᖹᆒࡼࡾ

ࡶⰋ࠸ࠖ≧ែ࡟࠶ࡿࠋ& ࡢ⤌ྜࡏࡣ㸪ࠕⰋዲࡔࡀほᐹࡀᚲせࠖ࡞≧ែࢆ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋලయⓗ࡟ࡣ㸪ᣦᶆ ࡢỈ‽ࡣ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶⰋ࠸࠿㸪┦ᙜ࡟Ⰻ࠸≧ែ࡟࠶ࡿࡶࡢࡢ㸪ᣦᶆࡢኚ໬ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶ࠿࡞ࡾᝏ

࠸ᅜ࡛࠶ࡿࠋᮏ✏࡛ࡣ㸪ࡇࢀࡽホ౯ࢆࠕୖ఩ホ౯ࠖ࡜⥲⛠ࡍࡿࠋ'ࡢ⤌ྜࡏࡣࠕ୰఩ࠖホ౯ࢆ♧ࡋ㸪 ᙜヱᅜࡢᣦᶆࡢỈ‽ࡣ(8ᖹᆒ࡟࠶ࡾ㸪ࡑࡢኚ໬ࡶ(8ᖹᆒ࠿㸪ࡑࢀࢆ኱ࡁࡃୖᅇࡗ࡚ᨵၿࡶᝏ໬ࡶࡋ

࡚࠸࡞࠸ᅜ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ(ࡢ⤌ྜࡏࡣࠕ୙᣺ࡔࡀᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠖ≧ែࢆព࿡ࡋ㸪ᣦᶆࡢỈ‽ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾ

ࡶᝏ࠸ࡶࡋࡃࡣ࠿࡞ࡾᝏ࠸≧ែ࡟࠶ࡿࡀ㸪ᣦᶆࡢኚ໬ࡣ(8ᖹᆒࢆ኱ࡁࡃୖᅇࡗ࡚ᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸ࡿᅜ࡛࠶

ࡿࠋ)ࡢ⤌ྜࡏࡣࠕせὀពࠖࡢホ౯ࢆ♧ࡋ㸪஧ᵝࡢࢣ࣮ࢫࡀ᝿ᐃࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ୍ࡘࡣ㸪ᣦᶆࡢỈ‽ࡀ(8 ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶᝏࡃ㸪ࡑࡢኚ໬ࡶ༑ศ࡟ᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸࠿ࡴࡋࢁᝏ໬ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿᅜ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪ࡶ࠺୍ࡘࡣ㸪ᣦᶆ ࡢỈ‽ࡣ(8ᖹᆒ࡛࠶ࡿࡀ㸪ࡑࡢኚ໬ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾࡶ࠿࡞ࡾ᪩ࡃᝏ໬ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿᅜ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ*ࡢ⤌ྜࡏ ࡣࠕ༴ᶵⓗ࡞≧ἣࠖ࡟࠶ࡿ᭱ୗ఩ࡢホ౯࡛㸪ᣦᶆࡢỈ‽ࡀ(8ᖹᆒࡼࡾ࠿࡞ࡾᝏࡃ㸪ࡑࡢኚ໬ࡶ༑ศ࡟

ᨵၿࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸࠿ࡴࡋࢁᝏ໬ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ≧ែࢆ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋᮏ✏࡛ࡣ㸪ࡇࢀࡽホ౯ࢆࠕୗ఩ホ౯ࠖ

࡜⥲⛠ࡍࡿࠋ

ࡇ࠺ࡋࡓ┦ᑐⓗ࡞㡰఩௜ࡅ࡟ࡼࡿホ౯ࡣ㸪㛤࠿ࢀࡓ┦஫ㄪᩚ᪉ᘧ࡟ෆᅾࡍࡿྠㄪᅽຊ㸪ࡘࡲࡾຍ┕ᅜ ᨻᗓࡀຍ┕ᅜ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢ⾜ືつ⠊ࢆ㐓⬺ࡋ࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟⾜ືࡍࡿᚰ⌮ⓗᅽຊࢆ฼⏝ࡋ࡚㸪(8඲య࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢ

♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞཰ᩡࡢಁ㐍ࢆពᅗࡋࡓࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ(8 ࡛ࡣ㏆ᖺ㸪♫఍⤒῭ⓗ࡞཰ᩡ࡬ࡢ㛵ᚰࡀ୍ẁ࡜㧗

21 European Commission (2018c), p. 79.

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ࡲࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡔࡅ࡟㸪ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢྲྀ⤌ࡀ♫఍ⓗࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢᑟධ࡟ࡼࡾ☜ᐇ࡟㐍ᒎࡋ㸪(8඲య࡜ࡋ࡚

ࡶᇦෆᕷሙࡢ♫఍ⓗഃ㠃ࡀᙉ໬ࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࡀᮇᚅࡉࢀࡿࠋ

㸲㸬ᖺࢧ࢖ࢡࣝࡢᴫほ࡜≉ᚩ 㸲㸫㸯㸬࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃุᐃ

ᖺḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡣ㸪ᖺ௨㝆ึࡵ࡚඲ຍ┕ᅜࡀࣉࣛࢫࡢ⤒῭ᡂ㛗ࢆグ㘓ࡍࡿⰋዲ࡞࣐ࢡࣟ

⤒῭⎔ቃࡢ୰࡛ጞࡲࡗࡓࠋ(8⤒῭ࡣ࣮࣐࣭ࣜࣥࢩࣙࢵࢡ࡜ࡑࡢᚋࡢḢᕞമົ༴ᶵ࡟ࡼࡾప㏞ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ ࡀ㸪ᖺᚋ༙࡟ࡣ㈈࣭ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫࡢ㍺ฟቑຍ࡟≌ᘬࡉࢀ㸪ྠᖺࡢᐇ㉁*'3ᡂ㛗⋡ࡣ๓ᖺࡢ㸫࠿ࡽ

࡬࡜ࣉࣛࢫ࡟㌿ࡌ㸪ࡑࡢᚋࡶ⦆ࡸ࠿࡟ᣑ኱ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ㞠⏝ኻᴗ᝟ໃࡶ☜ᐇ࡟ᨵၿࡋ㸪 ᖺ࠿ࡽ

ᖺ࡟࠿ࡅ࡚ኻᴗ⋡ࡣ࠿ࡽ࡟ୗⴠࡋ㸪ᑵᴗ⋡ࡶ࠿ࡽ࡟ୖ᪼ࡋ㸪ᐙィᾘ㈝ᨭฟ ࡢఙࡧࡶሀㄪ࡛࠶ࡿࠋᖺ࡟኱ࡁࡃⴠࡕ㎸ࢇࡔᅛᐃ㈨ᮏᙧᡂࡶ᏶඲࡟ᅇ᚟ࡋࡓ࡜ࡣ࠸࠼࡞࠸ࡀ㸪 ᖺ௨㝆ࡣᐇ㉁ࢱ࣮࣒࡛ࡶቑຍࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡋࡓࡀࡗ࡚㸪ᖺḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮㛤ጞ᫬ࡢ(8⤒῭ࡣ㸪ෆ㟂

୺ᑟࡢ⤒῭ᡂ㛗ࢆᐇ⌧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ࡜࠸ࡗ࡚ࡼ࠸ࠋᖺ∧ᖺḟᡂ㛗ᴫほ࠘ࡶ㸪⌧ᅾࡢዲㄪ࡞⤒῭ືྥࡣ ࠕᣢ⥆ⓗ࡞⤒῭ⓗ࣭♫఍ⓗ཰ᩡࢆ෌Ⅼⅆࡍࡿࠖ⤯ዲࡢᶵ఍ࢆᥦ౪ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࡜㏙࡭࡚࠸ࡿ

࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆ࡣḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮ࡢᯟ⤌ࡢ୰࡛ᐇ᪋ࡉࢀࡿࡀ㸪ࡑࡢ➨୍ẁ㝵ࡣୖ㏙ࡋࡓ࣐

ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡃຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ⤒῭ศᯒ࡛࠶ࡿࠋᖺࢧ࢖ࢡ࡛ࣝࡣࢻ࢖ࢶ㸪ࣇࣛࣥࢫ㸪࢖

ࢱࣜ࢔㸪ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥ㸪ࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥ࡞࡝ࣧᅜࡀ⢭ᰝᑐ㇟࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡀ㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭ࢫࢥ࢔࣮࣎ࢻࡢྛᣦ ᶆࡢ㜈್ࢆ㉸࠼ࡓ୺࡞ຍ┕ᅜࡣ㸪௨ୗࡢ㏻ࡾ࡛࠶ࡿ

ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ⤒῭ⓗ཰ᩡ࡟㝿ࡋ࡚≉࡟ὀ┠ࡉࢀࡿࡢࡀ㸪⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࡢᑐ*'3ẚ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࣧᅜࡀྠᣦᶆ ࡢ㜈್㸫㹼㸩ࢆ㉸࠼㸪ࡇࡢ࠺ࡕࡢࣧᅜࡣ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࡀ㉥Ꮠ࡛㜈್ࢆ㉸

࠼ࡓࡢࡣ࢖ࢠࣜࢫ㸫ࡢࡳ࡛㸪࢜ࣛࣥࢲ㸪ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡ㸪ࢻ࢖ࢶ࠾ࡼࡧ࣐ࣝࢱ ࡣ⤒ᖖ཰ᨭࡀ㯮Ꮠ࡛ࡢ㉸㐣࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ࢜ࣛࣥࢲࡢ኱ᖜ࡞㯮Ꮠࡣ㸪࢜ࣛࣥࢲࡀḢᕞ᭱኱ࡢ≀ὶᣐⅬ࡛࠶ࡿ

ࣟࢵࢸࣝࢲ࣒ ࢆ᧦ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿࠋᑐእ⣧㈨⏘ṧ㧗ࡢᑐ*'3ẚ࡛ࡣ㸪እ㈨ᑟධࢆ✚ᴟⓗ࡟᥎ࡋ 㐍ࡵ࡚ࡁࡓ࢔࢖ࣝࣛࣥࢻ㸫ࡢ㈇മࡀ᭱኱࡛㸪ḟ࠸࡛ࢠࣜࢩࣕ㸫㸪࢟ࣉࣟࢫ㸫㸪

࣏ࣝࢺ࢞ࣝࡶ㈇മ㢠ࡀ*'3ࡢ኱ࡁࡉࢆୖᅇࡗࡓࠋ㏫࡟㸪ᑐእ㈨⏘ࡀ᭱ࡶ኱ࡁ࠿ࡗࡓࡢࡣ࢜ࣛ

ࣥࢲ࡛㸪ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡ࡜ࢻ࢖ࢶࡀࡑࢀ࡟⥆࠸ࡓࠋ(8඲య࡛ࡣࣧᅜࡀ㜈್

ࢆ㉸࠼㸪࠺ࡕࣧᅜࡀ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋᐇ㉁ᐇຠ࣮ࣞࢺࡢᣦᶆࡀ㜈್sࢆ㉸࠼ࡓࣧᅜࡣ ࡍ࡭࡚࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛㸪࢔࢖ࣝࣛࣥࢻ࡜࢟ࣉࣟࢫࡣୗⴠࡋࡓࡀ㸪ࣛࢺࣅ࢔ࡣୖ᪼

ࡋࡓࠋ㍺ฟᕷሙࢩ࢙࢔ࡀ᭱ࡶ኱ࡁࡃపୗࡋࡓࡢࡣࢠࣜࢩ࡛ࣕ㸪ࣇ࢕ࣥࣛࣥࢻࡶ኱ᖜ

࡟పୗࡋࡓࠋࡇࢀ࡟ࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥࢆຍ࠼ࡓࣧᅜࡀ㜈್ࢆୖᅇࡿୗࡆᖜࢆグ㘓ࡋࡓࠋྡ

┠༢఩ປാࢥࢫࢺࡢᣦᶆ࡛ࡣ㸪ࣛࢺࣅ࢔ࡀ᭱ࡶ኱ࡁࡃୖ᪼ࡋ㸪ࣜࢺ࢔ࢽ࢔࡜࢚ࢫࢺࢽ࢔

ࡶ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࡢ㜈್ࢆୖᅇࡗࡓࠋ

22 European Commission (2017a), p. 1.

23 European Commission (2017b), p. 5 ff.

(15)

115 / 225 ḟ࡟ᅜෆ⤒῭࡟┠ࢆ㌿ࡌࡿ࡜㸪(8ྛᅜ࡛ࡣ㏆ᖺ㸪ఫᏯ౯᱁ࡢୖ᪼ࡀ┠❧ࡘࠋᖺࢆᇶ‽ᖺ࡟ࡋࡓ ᐇ㉁ఫᏯ౯᱁ᣦᩘࡣࣧᅜ࡛ୖ᪼ࡋ㸪≉࡟ࣁ࣮ࣥ࢞ࣜࡀ஧᱆ࡢఙࡧࢆ♧ࡋ㸪ࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥ

࡜࣮࢜ࢫࢺࣜ࢔ࡢఙࡧࡶ┠❧ࡗࡓࠋఫᏯ౯᱁ᣦᩘࡢ㜈್ࢆୖᅇࡗࡓࡢࡣࣧᅜ㸪࠺ࡕࣧᅜ ࡀ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋẸ㛫㒊㛛ಙ⏝ࣇ࣮ࣟࡢᣦᶆ࡛ࡣࡍ࡭࡚ࡢᅜࡀ㜈್ࢆୗᅇࡗࡓࡀ㸪Ẹ㛫㒊㛛മ

ົṧ㧗ࡢᑐ*'3ẚ࡛ࡣࣧᅜࡀ㜈್ࢆୖᅇࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢ࠺ࡕࡢࣧᅜࡀ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡾ㸪᭱

኱ࡢ஋㞳ᖜࢆ♧ࡋࡓࡢࡣ࢟ࣉࣟࢫ࡛㸪ࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࢆ㉸࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋḢ ᕞമົ༴ᶵࡢⅆ✀࡟࡞ࡗࡓ୍⯡ᨻᗓമົṧ㧗࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ㸪⤒῭㏻㈌ྠ┕ࡢཧຍᇶ‽ࡢ୍ࡘ࡜ࡋ࡚ᐃࡵࡽ

ࢀࡓᑐ*'3ࡀ㜈್࡛࠶ࡾ㸪ࣧᅜࡀ㜈್ࢆ㉸࠼㸪ࡇࡢ࠺ࡕࡢࣧᅜࡀ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ ࢠࣜࢩࣕࡀ᭱ࡶ㧗ࡃ㸪ḟ࠸࡛࢖ࢱࣜ࢔㸪࣏ࣝࢺ࢞ࣝ㸪࢟ࣉࣟࢫ㸪࣋ࣝ

ࢠ࣮ࡀ㸪୍⯡ᨻᗓമົṧ㧗ࡢᑐ*'3ẚ࡛ࢆ㉸࠼㸪ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥ࡜ࣇࣛࣥࢫࡶ

㜈್ࢆ኱ࡁࡃୖᅇࡗࡓࠋࡇࢀࡽࡍ࡭࡚ࡣ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛㸪㈈ᨻつᚊࡢᅇ᚟ࡀ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎ㔜せ࡞ᨻ⟇ㄢ㢟

࡟࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡇ࡜ࡀศ࠿ࡿࠋዲㄪ࡞(8⤒῭ࢆ཯ᫎࡋ࡚ኻᴗ⋡ࡣୗⴠഴྥ࡟࠶ࡿࡀ㸪ࣧᅜࡀ㜈್

ࢆୖᅇࡾ㸪ࡇࡢ࠺ࡕࡢࣧᅜࡣ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ≉࡟ࢠࣜࢩࣕ࡜ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥࡣ㜈್

ࢆ኱ࡁࡃୖᅇࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ㔠⼥㒊㛛ࡢ㈇മ⥲㢠࡛ࡣ㸪ࣁ࣮ࣥ࢞ࣜࡢࡳࡀ㜈್ࢆ㉸࠼ࡓࠋ 㞠⏝㛵㐃ᣦᶆࡣḢᕞമົ༴ᶵᚋࡢ⥭⦰㈈ᨻ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚኱ࡁࡃᙳ㡪ࡉࢀࡓࡀ㸪ປാཧຍ⋡ࡀపୗࡋࡓࡢࡣ

࢟ࣉࣟࢫ࡜ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥࡢ ࣧᅜࡢࡳ࡛㸪ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥࡢୗⴠᖜࡣ㸫࣏࢖ࣥࢺ࡛㸪࢟ࣉࣟࢫࡢࡑࢀࡣ㜈್

㸫࣏࢖ࣥࢺ࡜ྠࡌ኱ࡁࡉ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ㛗ᮇኻᴗ⋡ࡀୖ᪼ࡋࡓࡢࡣࣧᅜࡢࡳ࡛㸪ࡑࡢ࠺ࡕ࣮࢜ࢫࢺ

ࣜ࢔࡜ࣇ࢕ࣥࣛࣥࢻࡢࡳࡀ㜈್࣏࢖ࣥࢺࢆഹ࠿࡟ୖᅇࡗ࡚࣏࢖ࣥࢺୖ᪼ࡋࡓࠋⱝᖺኻᴗ⋡

ࡶ࣮ࣘࣟᑟධᅜࣧᅜ࡛ୖ᪼ࡋࡓࡀ㸪ࣝࢡࢭࣥࣈࣝࢡࡢࡳࡀ㜈್࣏࢖ࣥࢺࢆᑡࡋୖᅇࡿ࣏࢖

ࣥࢺࡢୖ࡛᪼࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡇࡢࡇ࡜࠿ࡽࡶ᫂ࡽ࠿࡞ࡼ࠺࡟㸪(8඲యࡢ㞠⏝᝟ໃࡣᅇ᚟ᇶㄪ࡟࠶ࡿࠋ

ᖺ∧㆙ሗ࣓࢝ࢽࢬ࣒ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࡣ㸪ୖ࡛ࡶゐࢀࡓࡼ࠺࡟๓ᖺࡼࡾࡶࣧᅜᑡ࡞࠸ࣧᅜࢆ࣐ࢡ

ࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࡢ⢭ᰝᑐ㇟ᅜ࡟≉ᐃࡋࡓࠋ࡞࠾㸪ࢠࣜࢩࣕࡣ(8࠿ࡽࡢ㔠⼥ᨭ᥼ࢆཷࡅ࡚࠸ࡓࡓࡵ࡟ࠕ࣐

ࢡࣟ⤒῭ㄪᩚࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛࠖࡀ㐺⏝ࡉࢀ㸪ᑂᰝࡢᑐ㇟እ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋḢᕞጤဨ఍ࡣࡑࡢᚋ㸪᭶࡟㛤 ദࡉࢀࡓ㛶൉⌮஦఍࡛ࡢ㆟ㄽࢆ㋃ࡲ࠼㸪ྠᖺ᭶࡟ຍ┕ྛᅜࡢ♫఍⤒῭ືྥ࡜ᅜู່࿌ࡢྲྀ⤌≧ἣ࡞࡝

ࢆࡲ࡜ࡵࡓᨻ⟇ᩥ᭩ࠗᖺḢᕞࢭ࣓ࢫࢱ࣮㸸ᵓ㐀ᨵ㠉㸪࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮ࡢண㜵࠾ࡼࡧ᫝ṇ࡟㛵ࡍࡿ

㐍ᤖホ౯࡜⢭ᰝ⤖ᯝ࠘࡜࡜ࡶ࡟㸪⢭ᰝᑐ㇟ᅜ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣࡑࡢ⤖ᯝࢆ┒ࡾ㎸ࢇࡔࠗྛᅜ⤒῭ሗ࿌᭩࠘ࢆබ

⾲ࡋࡓᖺ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭୙ᆒ⾮᫝ṇᡭ⥆࡛⢭ᰝᑐ㇟࡟࡞ࡗࡓࣧᅜࡣ㸪ࡍ࡭࡚๓ᖺࡢ࣐ࢡࣟ⤒῭

୙ᆒ⾮ࡢ⢭ᰝᑐ㇟ᅜ࡛ࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࡀ㸪ࢫࣦ࢙ࣟࢽ࢔ࡣ௒ᅇࡢ⢭ᰝࢆ㏻ࡌ࡚ᨻ⟇່࿌ࡢྲྀ⤌ᡂᯝࡀホ౯ࡉࢀ㸪

୙ᆒ⾮ࡢࣜࢫࢡࡣぢᙜࡓࡽ࡞࠸࡜ุᐃࡉࢀࡓࠋᖺࡢᡭ⥆࡛ࠕ㐣ᗘࡢ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖ࡜≉ᐃࡉࢀࡓࣧᅜࡢ

࠺ࡕ㸪ḟࡢࣧᅜࡣࠕ୙ᆒ⾮ࠖ࡬࡜ホ౯ࡀᘬࡁୖࡆࡽࢀࡓࠋࣇࣛࣥࢫࡣᨻ⟇ⓗᑐᛂࡢᙉ໬࡟ࡼࡾ඲⯡ⓗ

࡟ᨵၿഴྥ࡟࠶ࡿࡓࡵ㸪ࣈࣝ࢞ࣜ࢔ࡣᑐእⓗ୙ᆒ⾮ࡢ᫝ṇ࡛㢧ⴭ࡞ᡂᯝࢆୖࡆࡓࡓࡵ㸪࣏ࣝࢺ࢞ࣝࡣኻ ᴗ⋡ࡀ኱ᖜ࡟పୗࡋ㸪࣮࣐࣭ࣜࣥࢩࣙࢵࢡ๓ࡢỈ‽࡟ࡲ࡛ୗⴠࡋࡓࡓࡵࡀ㸪ࡑࡢ୺࡞⌮⏤࡛࠶ࡿࠋ௚᪉

࡛㸪ࢡࣟ࢔ࢳ࢔࡜࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛ࡣ୙ᆒ⾮ࡀ᫝ṇࡉࢀࡘࡘ࠶ࡿࡶࡢࡢ㸪࡞࠾୍ᒙࡢດຊࡀᚲせ࡜ุ᩿ࡉࢀ㸪

24 European Commission (2018a), p. 4 ff.

参照

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