つくばリポジトリ TSHG 7 257

Full text

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The J our ney t o W

or k Pat t er ns i n J ur ong

I ndus t r i al N

ew

Tow

n, Si ngapor e

著者

LO

Y Keng Foo

j our nal or

publ i c at i on t i t l e

Ts ukuba s t udi es i n hum

an geogr aphy

vol um

e

7

page r ange

257- 264

year

1983- 03

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Ts uk uba St ud. Hu ma n Geogr

T h e J our ney t o

W

o r k Pat t er ns i n

J ur ong

l ndust ri al N

e w l ' ow

n

Si ngapor e

1 I nt roduct ion II Dat a S ource

III Pat t er nsof] our ney toWor k

1 Pat t er nsof Tr a vel Di st ance

by

L OY

K e n g F o o

2 Dai l y Wo r k Tr i p Pat t er ns 3 Pat t er ns of t he Mo de of Tr anspor t 4 Pat t er ns of Tr anspor t Cost

r

v

Concl us ions

I n t r oduct i on

J

our ney t o ¥v or k c a n be s i mpl y defi ne d as t he t ri p whic h e mpl oy e e s under t a k e f r o m hi s or heτ r es i denc e t o t he wo r k pl ac e a nd r et ur n.It oc c ur s r egul ar l y a nd t he f l ow of t ri ps c onc ent r at es hi ghl y i n t he mor ninga nd t he ev eni ngr us h hour s per i ods. T her ef or e, j our ney t o wo r k is one of t he i mpor t ant de t e r mi nant of t r ans por t a tio n pr obl e ms , f or e x a mple, t r af f i c c onges t i on pr obl e m

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258 The j ourney tov

ヘIOrkpa t t erns

i n t he count r y. Thi s paper wi l l ex ami ne t he j Ol l rney t o i i vork pat t er ns of t he r esi dent s i n Jur ong

l ndust ri al N e w T own. It is apl anned n e w t own whi c h isl ocat ed on t he sout h - west er n par t of

Si ngapor e( Fi g. l ) . Thi s 1ndust ri al N e w T o wn is desi gned under t he nei ghbour hood pri nci pl es and

isan at t empt t o pr ovi de adequat e empl oy ment oppor t uni t i es, s hoppi ng,ecl ucat i onal, r ecr eat i onal and ot her soci al f aci l i t i es f or t he r esi dent s of t he n e w t own.

T h e st udy wi l l ser ve t wo pur poses :1) t o des cr i be ancl t o anal yse t he j our ney t o wor k

pat t er ns s uch as di st ance, t i me, mo d e of t r anspor t and cost of t r anspor t ; 2) t o obs er ve t he ef f ect of soci o- economi c bac kgr‘ound on t he pat t er ns of j Ol l rney t o wor k int he n e w t own.

II

Da ta S o u r c e

Mos t of t he st at i st i cal f i gures ar e pr ovi ded by t he J ur ong T mv n Cor por at i on. Howe v e r,

t he st udy is mai nl y bas ed on a s a mp1i ng s ur vey of t he r esi dent s in t he n e w t own and it

is al so r ef er ence to t he non- r esi dent s of t he n e w t own whi c h s ur vey isal so under t aken by t he

aut hor.

1n t he s ur vey of t he r esi dent s i n t he n e w t own, t he f ol1owi ng dat a hav e been r ecor ded :t he

di st ance of t ravel and t i me t aken t o and f r om wor k, t he mo d e of t r anspor t, t he mont hl y cost

of t r anspor t, t he l ocat i on of t he i ndi vi dual wor kpl ac e a n d f i nal l y, s oci o- economi c char act er i st i cs

of t he r esi dent s, s uch as nat i onal i t y, r ace, age, sex, rnari t al st at us, number s of dependent s,

occupat i ons, educat i on and i nc ome ar e a1so i ncl uded.

I

I

I

Pa t t e r ns

of

J o u r n e y t o Wo r k

T h e r esi dent s of Jur ong T o wn t end t o t ravel s hor t er di st ance. T h e pat t er ns of t ri p di stri

-but i on t end t o be mor e concent r at ed r at her t han di sper se. T h e sur veys s how t hat 8 2 % of t he

resi dent s. t ravel l ess t han 9 ki l omet er s and s pend l ess t han 30 mi nut es t o t ravel t o t he

Tabl e. 1. The Si mpl e Correl at i on bet ween Soci o- Economi c Charact eri st i cs and Travel Di st ance

Sex Age

Mari t al NO. of

Occupat i on Educat i on I ncome St at us Dependent s

Di st ance 0. 11 0. 03 0. 10 - 0 .1 1 0. 17 0. 08 0. 10

Travel t i me 0. 07 0. 00 0. 07 - 0 .1 3 0. 08 - 0. 02 - 0. 08

Mode of t ransport 0. 08 0. 10 0. 10 0. 03 0. 20 0. 18 0. 19

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T s u k u b a S t ud. H a ma n Ge o g r

259

wor kpl ace. Whi l e, t her e ar e about 7 5 % of t he non- r esi dent s t r avel mo r e t han 20 ki l omet er s to t he n e w t own and s pend an av er age of one hour t o t ravel t o t he wor k pl ac e

1.. Pat t er ns of Tr avel Di s t anc e

Mos t of t he wor k t ri p st udi es hav e s ugges t ed t hat soc i o- econo mic char act er i si t i cs ar e of t en

i mpor t ant f act ors in at t empt i ng t o expl ai n t he var i at i on of t he di st ance t hat t he wor k er s

lInder t ake t o t r avel. F or ex ampl e t he A. Hec h' s st udy s howed t hat t he wor k- r es i dence separ a-t i on i ncr eases as t he i nc omes of t he wor k er s i ncr ease. Peoplewi t h hi gher i nc omes t r av elal onger

di st ance t o t hei r wor kpl ac es 1) . P . W. Dani el s sl l ggest ed t hat t he j ob per f or med by i ndi vi dual

e mpl oyees wi l l usual l y ref l ect t he i ndi vi dual's t ot al i ncome. Thi s int ur n wi l l det er mi ne h o w mu c h t i me and h o w f ar he c an af f or d t o t r avel t o wor k. H e c ont ended t hat t he var yi ng

occupa-t i onal grol l p as acont r ol on

"

J

our ney t o wor k " pat t er ns c an be wi del y r ecogni sed2J. Wa c h s and K uma g a t not ed t hat h o w f ar and h o w mu c h t i me a per s on c an af f or d t o under t ake a tri pis

l了コesumbl y r el at ed t o hi s s oci o- economi c st at us. T h e hi gh i nc ome and t he pr of essi onal and

manager i al e mpl yoy ees t end t o hav e gr eat er f r eedom of mobi l i t y and a hi gher degr ee of

%

32

一一一Pr of essi onal .Techni cal . Pr od川 on 1

and L abour wor ker s

RXセ@ 一一一 ._ Admi ni st r at i ve.Ma na g e na land Cl eri cal wor ker s

RVセ@ 山町一一ーー-Sal es and ser vi ce wor k巴rs

RTセ@ 11 一一一一一Tr ans por t Equi pment Ope r at or s,

1 1

Agri cul t ural and ot her wor k er s 22 セ@

, ¥

201

/ 1 18

16 14 12 10

0600 1500 1800

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The j ourney towor k pat t ern日 260

accessi bi l i t y t o a pl ace t han l ow i nc ome and unski l l ed or semi - ski l l ed ヘ¥l orkeγS3)

F r o m T abl e 1, t he cor r el at i on bet ween di st ance and s oc i o- ec onomi c var i abl es ( such as age,

educat i on, s ex, mar i t al st at us, l l umber s of dependent s and i nc ome) s hows a ver y we a k di r ec -t i onal rel at i onshi p. T h e val ue v¥ri th di st ance f or eac h var i abl es is f ar f r om sat i sf act or y. T h e

r ej ect i on of t hese var i abl es wi t h di st ance, due t o t he f act t hat J ur ong neVl t own ispl anned under t he c onc ept of sel f - cont ai ned t own inwhi c h peopl e woul d bot h l i ve and wo r k wi t hi n t he t own

T hus, it has r esul t ed t hat t her e has no si gni f i cant di f f er ence bet ween di st ance t r avel and soci o-︹b p n u o g c m o 、 1 0

円し

e

Dai l y W or k Tr i p Pat t er ns

2.

1n J ur ong TO¥"T! 1,t he resi dent s' wo r k t ri p begi ns ear l y as 6: 00a. m. and t hengr adual l y i ncr ease bef or e 7: 30 a. m. t o 8: 00 a. m., t he v ol ume i ncr ease r api dl y and r eaches its fi rst dai l y peak and it

At noon、t he wo r k t ri p mov e me nt s be c ome l ess and l ess ( Fi g. gr adual l y f l at t ens af t er 9: 00 a. m

2). Af t eτ 2: 30 p. m., t he mov e me nt s of wo r k t ri p begi n t o i ncr ease, and t he v ol ume of mov e me nt s

f l uct uat es bet ween 2: 30 p. m. a nd 5: 00 p. m. A t 5: 30 p. m. it r eaches t he s ec ond peak hour of t he day.

N o any F r o m Fi g. 3, t he mov e me nt s of sal es and ser vi ce wor k er s ar e r at her di sper se

obvi ous mo v e me nt pat t er n c an be f ound bec aus e t hey mai nl y st art t o wo r k at t he mos t

T h e admi ni st r at i ve prof i t in t hei r busi ness

ma X l mu m conveni ent t i me as t o gai n t he

manager i al、cl eri cal and r el at ed wor k er s ar e mai nl y t r avel f r om 7: 30 a. m. t o 8: 00 a. m. and fr0111 5: 00 p. m. 5: 30 p. m. i n or deτ t o me e t t hei r of f i ce wor k i ng hour s. F or pr of essi onal, t echni cal,

pr oduct i on ¥vor ker s and l abou了ers,t hei r wo r k t ri p mov e me nt s ar e appar ent l y s epar at ed i nt o

t hr ee per dods int he day. It is mai nl y due t o t he f act t hese occupat i ons hav e a pr opor t i on of

t hei r wor k er s engaged i n shi f t wo rk. Thi s has r esul t ed i n t he mi nor peak dur i ng 6: 30 p. m. t o 7:

30 p. m. and agai n i nt he af t er noon f r om 2: 30 p. m. t o 3: 30 p. m., a nd f i nal l y int he eveni ng fr0111

2100 2300

10: 00 p. m. t o 11:00 p. m. .

n u n u p o n u n u n D P D A

υ n E p b n n

t n u ?﹄ t t

i a 1 f i -ω

ω

X

O ﹀ ﹀ h L o g u ∞

Z

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Tuk uba St ud. Huma n Geogr 261

3. Pat t er ns of t he Mo d e of T r ans por t

T h e choi ce of t r ans por t us ed by t he wor k er s i nt hei r dai l y j our ney t o wo r k is a cri t i cal

f eat ur e pr essi ng upon t he pr obl ems of t r anspor t at i on. Gener al l y s peak i ng, if t he maj or i t y of t r avel is ma d e by pr i vat e t r anspor t, t he c onc ent r at i on on t he r oad wi l l mos t l i k el y l ead t o t raf f i c congest i on. lf mos t of t r avel t ake pl ace 011 publ i c t r anspor t, t hi s t endenc y is l i kel y t o be al l ev i at ed

J

our ney t o wo r k in t hi s t own i nvol ves di f f er ent t ypes of t r anspor t at i on. F r o m t he s ur vey, t he

j)ublic a nd f ac t or y bus es hav e r epr es ent edt wo of t he domi nant mo d e s of t r anspor t i nt hi s ar ea T h e f or mer ac c ount s f or 3 7 % a nd t he l at t er f or 35%. Wor k e r s t r avel l i ng by pr i vat e aut omobi l e

ac c ount f or onl y 11 %. A mo n g t he m, t he maj or i t y ar e sel f - owned, a nd on1y about one- f i f t h of t he m ar e pr ovi ded by t he c o mpa ny. 1n addi t i on, 7 0 % of wor k er s g o on f oot a nd 6% b y mot or cycl e t o t hei r wo r k si tes. T h e r emai nder s g o ei t her by bi cycl e or ot her mo d e s of t r anspor t,

s uc h as t r uc k .et c

Ho we v e r, f r om t he non- r esi dent s s ur vey, t he publ i c a nd f act or y' bus es ha v e al so r epr esent

-ed t he mos t i mpor t ant mo d e of t r anspor t i n t hi s ar ea. Wor k e r s t r avell i ng by pr i vat e c ar ar e

sl i ghtl y hi gher t han t he r esi dent s, a nd a bout 1 0 % c ar予001a nd et c ( Tabl e 2).

l n concl us i on, t he l ower t he i nc ome of wor k e r, t he mo r e l i key t r avel by a c heaper me a ns

of t r anspor t, T h e hi gher t he i nc ome, t he mo r e l i kel y t he per s on is t o t r avel by pr i vat e

aut omobile.Ther ef or e, i nc ome is one of t he i mpor t ant soci al var i abl es whi c h ar e r es pons i ble f or expl ai ni ng t he di f f er ent i at i on of t he mo d e of t r ans por t us ed by wor k er s i nt hi s ar ea .

4. Pat t er ns of T r a ns por t Cos t

A s A. He c ht has ment i oned, " Wor k e r s s houl d l ocat e t hei r r esi dence i n t he ur ban s pac e Tabl e. 2. Percent age di st ri but i on of l l l ode of t ransport by number of wor ker s

Resi dent s N on. resi dents Mocl eof t ransport

N O,of

% of total Mode of t ransport % of total wor kel・s

Fact or ybllS 185 37 Fact or y bus 31. 9

Pl l bl i c bus 176 35 Publ i c bus 38. 2

Pri vat e car Pri vat e car 14. 8

( 1) owned 43 9 Mini. bus 4. 9

(2) co 11 ? Ot hers 10. 2

1ヘ! al ki ng 35 6

Mot or c ycl e 10 2

Bi cyde 28

Ot hers 9 ?

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262 The j ourney towor k pat t erns

Tabl e. 3. i¥vera又c travel cl i stance of occupat i onal 只roups Occupat i ona! 只roups

Prof essi onal

Admi ni st rat i ve

Cl eri cal

Sal es wor ker

Servi ce ¥vorker

Agri cul t ure

Product i on

Transport at i o!l

¥Vorkers

Ot hers

Av e r a g c travc! cl i stance ( km)

5. 77

828

8. 55

7. 32 7. 52 10. 50 3. 89 10. 50 4. 30

9. 21

ac c or di ng t o abi l i t y t o subst i t ut e門j our ney t o wor k " expendi t ur e f or r esi dence expendi t ur e. A s

t he obj ect i ve of wor k er s is t o ml l l l mI ze i ts abi l i t y wi t hi n t he const r ai nt s of t he budget . T h e

ec onomi c ma n shoul d l ocat e at adi st ance f r om t he ヘ¥' or kpl acewher e t he mar gi nal l ocat i on r ent cost is equal t o t he mar gi nal j our ney t o wo r k cost . " Thi s i mpl i es t hat i nc ome does af f ect t he

t r anspor t cost expendi t ur e. L o w i nc ome wor k er s pr ef eτ t o sel ect t hei r r esi dence and pl ace of

l九Tor k as cl ose t o eac h ot her as possi bl e in or deγ t o avoi d hi gh cost of t r anspor t at i on.

Ho we v e r, i n or der t o e x a mi ne t he ef f ect of eac h of t he s oc i o- ec onomi c var i abl es 011

t了ans por t expendi t ur e. T h e s i mpl e cor r el at i on t echni que wa s appl i ed. T h e resul t is sho¥^/ J l il1

Tabl e 1and Tabl e 3. It sho¥ved t hat t he l evel of i l l come car r i es heavi er wei ght s as c ompa r e d

t o t he ot her var i abl es i n af f ect i ng t he cost of expendi t ur e on t r anspor t at i on int hi s st udy岳 T h e

val ue of 0.43t o s o me ext ent expl ai ns t hat t he t r anspor t cost i ncr eases as t he i l l come of t he

wor k er s i nc r eases. I n ot her ¥vor ds, wor k er s wi t h hi gher i nc omes s pend mo r e on t r anspor t t hat l ower i nc ome wor ker s . Bot h educat i on a nd oc c upat i on a lso s ho w a posi t i ve r el at i onshi p wi t h

t r anspor t cost. Si nce t hese tV' i O var i abl es wi t h i nc ome r eveal af ai rl y hi gh cor r el at i on coef f i ci ent

a mo n g t he m, t he val ues of cor r el at i on coef f i ci ent s bet ween t r anspor t cost and educat i on,

t r anspor t cost and oc c upat i on ar e 0. 35 and 0. 25 r espect i vel y, whi c h ar e l owe γ t ha n t he val ue

bet ween i nc ome and t r anspor t cost. Ther ef or e, it is I nc ome, r at her t han occupat i on or

educat i on, whi c h ac c ount s f or mos t of t he var i at i on of t r anspor t cost

I V

Conc lus ions

Thi s paper has ex a mi ned t he j our ney t o wo r k pat t er ηs i n]ur ong l ndust r i al N e w T own.

T h e maj or f i ndi ngs c an be not ed as f ol l ows

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T s ukuba St ud. Hu ma n Geogr 263

VY or k er s wi t h di f f er ent s oc i o- ec onomi c ba c k g r ounds d o not sho w a ny di f f er ences i n t he di s t anc e

c ov er ed i n" j our ney t o wo r k "

(2) Tw o of t he d o minant mo d e s of t r ans por t us ed by wo r k er s i n t hei r da il y j our ney t o

wo r k ar e publ i c a nd f ac t or y bus es. T h e hi g her i nc ome wor k e r s ar e mos t l i k el y t o t r avel by

pr i vat e t r ans por t, whe r e a s l ower i nc o me wor k e r s t r avel ledl ar gel y by publ i c tr ans por t, suc h as

publ i c a nd f act or y bus es

(3) Near l y 5 0 % of wor k e r s s pend less t han 20 dol l ar s amo n t h on t r ans por t at i on.T h e hi gher

i ncome wo r k ers s pend mo r e on t r ans por t at i on t han l owe r i nc o me wor ker s .

(4) Tw o ma j or c onc ent r at i ons of wo r k f l ows oc c ur i nt he mor ni ng be t we e n 7: 30 a.m.a nd 8. 00 a. m. a nd i n t he ev eni ng bet we e n 5: 00 p. m. a nd 5: 30 p. m. . Wo r k e r s wi t h a di f f er ent nat ur e

of wo r k s h o w a c ont r as t i ng t empor al pat t er n of 引j our ney t o wo r k " a mo n g eac h ot he了‘

Si nc e mos t of t he vl or ker s us e publ i c bus es, f e w of t h e m us e pr i vat e c ar s, s o t heor et i cal l y

t he t raf f i c c onges t i on is not s o ser i ous. But 1/ 3 of t he wo r ker s i n J ur ong T o wn ar e

non- r esi dent s. t he y ar e a l s o t r a vel dur i ng t hes e t w o pe a k per i ods. S o t r af f ic c onges t i on is

a h v ay s be a c ont i nuous pr obl e m f ac i ng by t he pat t er n of j our ney t o wo rk.

(5) ¥Vor k- f IO ¥vs ma d e wi t hi n t he t o wn ac c ount f or 78. 87%a nd be y ond t he t ov,m t hey ac c ount f or 18.3 1%. 1na ddi t i on, about 2.8 2 % of t he ¥vor ker sdo not ha v e af i xed wor k ing pl ace.

(6) Anot her f i ndi ng is t hat, t her e is l i ttl e cor r el at i on be t we e nδoc i o- ec onomic ba c k g r ound a nd j our ney t o wo r k pa tt er ns. T he r e has noa nysi gni f ic ant r el at i on bet'we ent he m orit i sbet t er t o s ay t he c or r el a tion bet¥v een di s t anc e a nd s oc io- ec onomi c var i abl es is obvi ousl y. T h e ma in

r eas on of whi c h is t hat J ur ong l ndust ri a l T o wn is t he f i rst Si ngapor e i ndust r ia l t own. It is

pl anned by t he g ov e r nme nt under t he c onc ept of s el ι c ont ai ned, s o t hat maj or i t y of t he wor k e r s

c a n l i ve a nd c a n wo r k in t he i ndust r ial t own.

N ot es a n d Ref er enc es

J ) Hecht、A. ( 1970) : T he j our ney to wor k di st ance in rel ati onto thesoc io・economi c char acteri sti cs of wor ker s Tiw Cr madi an C'eogmt l i er .18 -4. 367----378

2) Dani el s. P. W.(1973): S ome changes int he I.ol l rney towor k of decentral i zed of f i ce¥Vorkers. T o wn t l ω 111IJ l g R elJi eu' . 44, 167---- 188

3) Wachs . M. andl (u maga t. TG. ( 1973) ドhysi ca l access ibi lity as asoc ial indicat ors.S OClひεcOJ lomi cPl anni ng Sci enι・ど. 7,43 7""-' 45b

4) Hat haway. P. J (1975): Tr i p di sl ri but i on and disa又又reati on. E/ lui r onmen! ピm dPl r ml ung.4. 7. 71----97 5) Het l sher. D. A. ( 1975) : ドercept i on elncl COl 11l 1lut or mode choi c e- le hypot hes is. { } rba} / Sl ndi es . 12. 101 ""-' 104

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264

T h e j our ney towo r1<: pat t er ns

7) Ogi l vy A .A‘ ( 968) :T h e sel f - cont ai ned n e w t own el 1lpl oy ment a n d popul at i on. la wη Pl a mung Revi ew. 39 , SXセU S@

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