楕円と慣性 : (1) ガリレオとケプラーの交流と断絶

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ΨϦϨΦͱέϓϥʔͷަྲྀͱஅઈ

1 େҪສلਓ ઐमେֶࣗવՊֶݚڀॴ2 ཁɹࢫɹέϓϥʔͷ๏ଇ͸χϡʔτϯʹΑͬͯઆ໌͞Ε͕ͨ,ॏྗͷ๏ଇ͚ͩͰ͸έϓϥʔ ͷ๏ଇΛઆ໌͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍ɻ׳ੑͷ๏ଇ,͓ΑͼӡಈΛ̎ͭͷࣗ༝౓ʹ෼ղ͢Δͱ͍͏ ߟ͑ํ΋ඞཁͰ,͜ΕΒ͸ΨϦϨΦ͕ղ໌ͨ͠ࣄฑͰ͋ΔɻΨϦϨΦͱέϓϥʔ͸,ϧωαϯ εظΛੜ͖ͨಉ࣌୅ͷݚڀऀͰ͋Δ͔Β,΋͠ೋਓ͕ڞಉͰݚڀΛߦͳ͍ͬͯͨΒૉ੖Β͍͠ ൃల͕ಘΒΕͨͷͰ͸ͳ͍͔ͱ૝૾͢Δਓ͸ଟ͍͸ͣͰ͋Δɻ࣮ࡍ,έϓϥʔͱΨϦϨΦͷؒ ʹ͸खࢴͷ΍ΓऔΓʹΑΔަྲྀ͕͋ͬͨɻ͔͠͠,Պֶతͳ৘ใަ׵͸ߦΘΕͣ,ڞಉݚڀʹ ൃల͢Δ͜ͱ͸ͳ͔ͬͨɻΨϦϨΦͱέϓϥʔͷؒͷՊֶతͳҙࢥૄ௨͕Ͳ͏ͯ͠͏·͍͔͘ ͳ͔ͬͨͷΛՊֶ࢙ͷ؍఺͔Βղ͖໌͔͢͜ͱΛ࠷ऴతͳ໨ඪͱͯ͠,͜ͷ࿦จΛى఺ʹೋਓ ʹؔΘΔՊֶ࢙Λෳ਺ճʹ෼͚ͯߟ࡯͍͖͍ͯͨ͠ɻ·ͣ,ࠓճ͸ΨϦϨΦͱέϓϥʔͷݚڀ ελΠϧͱͷ૬ҧ఺ʹ͍ͭͯ֓؍͠,ൺֱ͢Δɻ 1. ॹݴ ΨϦϨΦ͸1564 ೥ 2 ݄ 15 ೔ʹࣼౝͰ༗໊ͳΠλϦΞͷϐαͰੜ·Εͨɻͦͷ 8 ೥ޙͷ 1571 ೥ 12 ݄ 27 ೔ʹέϓϥʔ͸υΠπͷγϡποτΨϧτۙ߫ͷϰΝΠϧͱ͍͏খ͞ͳொͰੜ·Εͨɻ͜ ͷೋਓ͸ϧωαϯεͱ͍͏ಉ࣌୅ʹ, ఱจֶऀ, ෺ཧֶऀͦͯ͠਺ֶऀͱͯ͠׆༂ͨ͠Պֶऀͩͬ ͕ͨ, ݚڀʹର͢Δ࢟੎͸ରরతͰ͋ͬͨɻ ೋਓͷݚڀελΠϧͷ૬ҧ఺Λࣔࠦ͢Δ΋ͷͱͯ͠, ·ͣ͸ͦͷੜ·Ε΍ҭͪͱ͍ͬͨഎܠʹͭ ͍ͯ؆୯ʹΈͯΈ͍ͨɻΨϦϨΦ͸ԻָՈͷ෕Λ࣋ͪൺֱత༟෱ͳ໊໳ՈఉͰҭͬͨ1ɻ෕͸Α͘ ஌ΒΕͨݭָثʢϦϡʔτʣͷ૗ऀͰ͋Γ, ԻָڭࢣͰ΋͋ͬͨɻ͜ͷՈܥ͸୅ʑϑΟϨϯπΣΛ ڌ఺ʹੜ׆͍͕ͯͨ͠, 14 ੈلޙ൒ࠒͷܥේʹϑΟϨϯπΣେֶͰҩֶΛڭ͑ͨҩऀ͕͍ͨ [2]ɻ͜ ͷਓ෺͸, ޙʹϑΟϨϯπΣͷཱ๏΍ߦ੓ʹ΋ؔΘΔ΄Ͳͷ༗ྗऀͱͳΓ, Ұ଒ͷൟӫͷૅͱͳͬ ͨɻ͜ͷਓ෺ʹ͍ͭͯ͸ޙͰ·ͨߟ࡯͢Δɻ έϓϥʔͷՈܥ΋ʮ໊໳ʯͰ͸͕͋ͬͨ, ශࠔʹ଍Λ౿ΈೖΕͨʮ຅མ͔ͨͭͯ͠ͷ໊໳ʯͷग़ ਎Ͱ͋ͬͨɻέϓϥʔͷ૆෕͸ࢢ௕·Ͱ຿Ίͨ༟෱ͳ঎ਓͰ͕͋ͬͨ, ͦͷଉࢠͰ͋Δ, έϓϥʔ ͷ෕͸ͦͷશͯΛ৯͍௵ͨ͠ʮ൜ࡑऀ΋Ͳ͖ʯͷਓ෺Ͱ͋ͬͨɻੜ׆ͷڌ఺Λม͑ͳ͕ΒͳΜͱ͔ ΍Γ͘Γ͍ͯͨ͠Α͏͕ͩ, ࠷ޙ͸༭ฌͱͯ͠ಇ͖ग़ͨ͠΋ͷͷέϓϥʔ͕ 17 ࠽ͷࠒ࢟Λফͨ͠ɻ ઓࢮͨ͠ͱݴΘΕ͍ͯΔ͕ਖ਼֬ͳ͜ͱ͸Θ͔Βͳ͍Β͍͠ɻέϓϥʔͷ฼͸ຐঁࡋ൑ʹ͔͚ΒΕͦ

1“Ellipse and Inertia: Communications and neglects between Galileo and Kepler” 2Makito Oi, Institute of Natural Sciences, Senshu University

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ͨϦονͱ͍͏਺ֶऀ͕, ΨϦϨΦͷ෕Λઆಘ͠Α͏ͱͨ͜͠ͱ΋͋ͬͨΑ͏Ͱ͋Δɻ͔͠͠, Ψ ϦϨΦͷ෕͸ΨϦϨΦ͕ҩֶͷಓ͔ΒҳΕΔ͜ͱΛͲ͏ͯ͠΋ڐͤͳ͔ͬͨɻ࿩͠߹͍ͷ݁Ռ, ̍ ೥ؒͷ༛༧ظؒΛઃ͚, ͦͷؒʹࣗ׆ͷಓΛݟ͚ͭΔͳͲকདྷͷํ޲ੑΛܾΊΔ͜ͱʹͳͬͨɻ͠ ͔͠, ҩֶͷษڧΛ࠶։͠୯Ґ͚ͩͰ΋औಘ͢Δͱ͍͏۩߹ʹ͸ࣄ͸ӡ͹ͳ͔ͬͨɻ ͜ͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠ɺߴ໊ͳҩֶऀͱͳΔ͜ͱΛظ଴͞ΕͯʮΨϦϨΦɾΨϦϨΠʯͱ໊෇͚ΒΕͨ ͜ͷֶੜ͸, ೖֶ͔Β 4 ೥ޙʹҩֶ෦Λதୀ͢Δ͜ͱʹͳͬͯ͠·ͬͨͷͰ͋Δɻ 5. ʮέϓϥʔʯͱ͍͏໊લͷ௲Γ A. έετϥʔͷஶॻ [1] ͷॻ͖ग़͠ʹ, έϓϥʔͷੑ֨ʹ͍ͭͯهͨ͠༗໊ͳՕॴ͕͋Δɻ έϓϥʔ͸ࣗ෼͕ੜ·Εͨʮ࣌ʯΛ̏ͭͷ࣌ؒΛ࢖ͬͯه࿥͍ͯ͠Δɻ·ͣ, ฼਌͕έϓϥʔΛ ਎͝΋ͬͨͷ͸”1571 ೥ 5 ݄ 16 ೔ޕલ 4 ࣌ 37 ෼” ͩͬͨͱ͍͏ɻͦͯ͠, ଻಺ʹ”224 ೔ͱ 9 ࣌ؒ 53 ෼” ଘࡏ͠, “1571 ೥ 12 ݄ 27 ೔ޕޙ 2 ࣌ 30 ෼” ʹ஀ੜͨ͠ͷͩͱ͍͏15ɻ Ұํ, ࣗ෼ͷ໊લʢබࣈʣͷ௲Γʹ͸·ͬͨ͘ແ಴ணͰ͋ͬͨɻKepler ͱॻ͘͜ͱ͕ଟ͔ͬͨΑ ͏͕ͩ, Keppler ͱॻ͍ͯΈͨΓ, Khepler ͋Δ͍͸ Kheppler ͱͨ͠ͱ͖΋͋ΔΑ͏ͩɻ·ͨ, ϥ

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Ұํ, έϓϥʔ΋੕ͷӡ໋ʢͩ͞Ίʣʹ͕ͨͬͯ͠ੜ͖͍ͯΔ͜ͱΛڧ͘ҙ͍͕ࣝͯͨ͠, ΨϦ ϨΦͱ͸ਵ෼ҧ͏ଆ໘͔ΒͰ͋ͬͨɻ஍Ґ΍໊༪΍ࡒ࢈ʹର͢ΔཉٻΑΓ΋, ৺͕ཉ͢Δʮௐ࿨ʯ ΁ͷׇ๬ͷํ্͕ճ͍ͬͯͨɻୋ༲͞ͱਆܦ࣭ͱ͍͏௨ৗ͸૬༰Εͳ͍͸ͣͷ̎ͭͷਫ਼ਆ͕पظత ʹݱΕͯ, ਆ͕͔Γͳܭࢉͱେ୾ͳ࿦ཧͷڞଘΛՄೳʹͨ͠ɻ ಉ࣌୅Λੜ͖ͨ, ҟͳΔݚڀελΠϧΛ΋ͭೋਓͷରൺ͸, ͦͷ૬ҧͷͨΊʹ༥߹͢Δ͜ͱΛ࣮ݱ ͠ͳ͔͕ͬͨ, ͦ͜ʹ͸ͦͷ࣌୅ಛ༗ͷࣾձഎܠ΍ྺ࢙తͳཧ༝͕ଘࡏ͍ͯ͠ΔɻΨϦϨΦͷ৔߹ ͸ϧωαϯεͷΠλϦΞͷத৺ϑΟϨϯπΣͦͯ͠ϰΣωνΞʹ͍ͨͱ͍͏͜ͱͰ͋Γ, έϓϥʔ ͷ৔߹͸ຐज़΍઎͍ͱ, Պֶతͳํ๏࿦ͱͷڱؒʹஔ͔Εͨ਎ͷ্Ͱ͋ͬͨɻ͜ΕΒΛՃຯ্ͨ͠ Ͱ൴Βͷۀ੷΍ݚڀख๏ΛৼΓฦΔ͜ͱʹΑΓ, ۙ୅Պֶͷ஀ੜ΁ͷϨʔϧ͕ͲͷΑ͏ʹෑ͔Εͯ ͍ͬͨͷ͔Λ஌Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ ࣍ͷ࿦จͰ͸, ࠓճͷߟ࡯Λൃలͤ͞, έϓϥʔ͕χϡʔτϯʹͳΕͳ͔ͬͨ࠷େͷཧ༝Ͱ͋Δ ʮ׳ੑͷ๏ଇʯʹ͍ͭͯ, ΨϦϨΦ͸ͲͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠ݟग़͠ཧղͨ͠ͷ͔ʹ͍ͭͯߟ͑ͯΈ͍ͨɻ· ͨ, ϐαͷࣼౝͰ஌ΒΕΔམମͷ࣮ݧʹ͍ͭͯͷߟ࡯΋ߦ͏༧ఆͰ͋Δɻ ࢀߟจݙ [1] Ξʔαʔɾέετϥʔ, ʮϤϋωεɾέϓϥʔɿۙ୅Ӊ஦؍ͷ໷໌͚ʯʢখඌ৴ከʗ໦ଜത༁, ͪ ͘·ֶܳจݿ, 2008); the original publication by Aruthur Köstler, “The watershed” (1960). [2] S. υϨΠΫ, ʮΨϦϨΦͷੜ֔ - ୈ̍רʢશ̏ר)ʯʢాதҰ࿠༁, ڞཱग़൛, 1984); the original publication by Stillman Drake, “Galileo at work: the scientific biography”(University of Chicago Press, 1978).

[3] J. Kepler, “Mysterium Cosmographicum” (1596).

[4] େҪສلਓ, ʮϨϯτήϯʹΑΔ X ઢͷൃݟͱͦͷՊֶ࢙తഎܠʯ, ઐमࣗવՊֶلཁୈ 51 ߸ (ྩ࿨ 2 ೥, 2020).

[5] H. Hayakawa, et al., "Sunspot observations by Hisako Koyama: 1945-1996", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 492, 4513-4527 (2020,Oxford University Press).

[6] R. Feynman, et al., “The Feynman Lectures on Physics,Vol. I” (1964).

[7] G. Galilei, “Sidereus Nuncius” (1610); ΨϦϨΦɾΨϦϨΠ, ʮ੕քͷใࠂʯʢࢁాܚࣇ, ୩ହ ༁, ؠ೾จݿ, 1976).

[8] J. Kepler, “Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo” (1610); English translation by E.Rosen (Jonson reprint co., 1965); Internet archive in Carnegie Mellon University (digialcollec-tions.library.cmu.edu/awweb/awarchive?type=file&item=393654).

[9] M Stokes, “Galileo” (Thomas Nelson, 2011).

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