A comparative study of the system of five schooldays in Japan and at small schools in the city of Calgary, Canada

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(1)Title. A comparative study of the system of five schooldays in Japan an d at small schools in the city of Calgary, Canada. Author(s). KAMEHATA, Yoshihiko; YOKOYAMA, Hiroki. Citation. 僻地教育研究, 47: 1-5. Issue Date. 1993-03. URL. http://s-ir.sap.hokkyodai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/1447. Rights. 本文ファイルはNIIから提供されたものである. Hokkaido University of Education.

(2) 1993.3. No.47.. AcomparativestudyofthesystemoffiveschooldaysinJapan andatsmallschooIsinthecityofCalgary,Canada. YoshihikoKamehata・HirokiYokoyama. Prologue The Ministry of Education changed a part of The Law of SchooIEducation and set up a StStemOffiveschooldaystomakethesecondSaturdayaholiday.Followingthehighlyindustri−. alnations,JapanhasJuStStartedthissystemwithinthelimitsofthesecondSaturdayamonth There have been some controversies among schoolteachers,Children,and their parents,then. what does this system mean to childrenin other countries that have enforced this system for manyyears? Fortunately,I(Yokoyama)hadanopportunityin1992,tOparticipateintheexchangepro− gram at faculty of education,The University of Calgary,Ca二nada for five weeks.Iattended. SOmeClassesoneducationlsysteminCanadaforthefirsttwoweeksandafterthstIdidstudent. teachingatsomeschooIsforthreeweeks.BeforeParticipatinglntheprogram,Ihaddecidedto. research onhowchildrenin Canads spend time on holidays and onwhat this system means to grOWnupS.. Chapter l. TheContentsofthequestionnair Canadahastwodifferenttyperofgovernment,prOVincialandfederalgovernment.Espetial−. 1yprovincialgovernmenthasagreaterpowerandCanadadoesnothavecentralboardofeduca− ‘ tionnorcurriculumasJapaneseMinistryofEducationhasitsowncentralcurrculumandgreat influence,however,alltheschooIsinCanadaareentirelycontroledbyprovincialgovernment. ThecityofCalgaryhas twodifferentkindofschoolboards,thatare devidedintotwoscc− tions,PublicandSeparate.PublicboardofeducationgovernsordinarypublicschooIs (non−religeous)1ikethoseinJapan.Ontheotherhand,Scparateboard ofeducation governs. CatholicschooIswhichhave religiousprogrambasedonRomanCatholic,buttheyarenotpri− vateschooIs.InCanada,therearefewprlVateSChooIs. The schooIson whichIdid research are asfollow:. ClarenceSansomJuniorHighschool(Public) St.PatrickElementaryschool(Separate). ChiefJusticeMilvainElemenataryschool(Public) The questionnairconsists of 22 questions,and through these questions pupils can check theiractivitiestheyusuallydoonholidayswiththeseterms,“neVer”,“Seldom”,‘‘sometimes”, and“always’’.Thesequestionsareasfollow:. −一1一一.

(3) Yoshihiko Kamehata and Hiroki yokoyama. 1.shopplngdowntown. 11.volunteer work. 2.gotochurch. 12.attendyouth group 13.arts and crafts 14.bake orcook 15.Listen to music. 3.goonahike 4,WatCh TV or videos. 5.readbooksormagazines 6.playvideogames. 16.clean room. 9.do homework. 17.spendtimewithyourfriends 18.gotoaparty 19.gotodance. lO.write aletter. 20.gotoaconcert. 7.gotoaprlVateSChooltostudy. 8.playsports. e.g.PlaylnSChoolyard Seldom. neVer. sometimes. always. Otherquestionsarefollows: 21.Doyoulikeschool?Yes/No 22.Wouldyoulikelongerweekends?Yes/No. Chapter 2.TheResultoftheQuestionnair (1)ClarenceSansomJuniorHighschool(n=19)ESLclass,grade2 2 3 4 5 6 always. 3 3. sometimes seldom. 13 2. 8 9 10 8. 6. 2. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. 2. 4 14 3 12 4 4. 6 2 4. 8. 4 4 5 0 8 8 0 2 10 4 0. neVer. 2. 6. 6. 0 2 6. 6 6. 7 0 6 4 8 6 0 3. 0 5 3. ESLclass(Englishasasecondlanguag・e)isforstudentswhoarenotproficientin Eng・1ish. It consists ofstudents from other nations.. (2)St.PatrickElementarySchool,grade5students(n=25) 2 3 4 5 6 always somet,imes seldom. 0 2 3. 8 9 10. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. 6 10 0. 0 0 0. 14 6 8 3 14 8 0 10 12 6 2 6 9 2 4 2 4 0. neVer. 8. 0 3 12 2. 5 14. 18. 3 2. 2 14 4 13 6. 6 3. 6 2 5 4. 24 0 2 6 16 18 5. 3. 3 12. (3)ChiefJusticeMiLvainElementaryschool.grade6(n=26) 2 3 4 5 6. always sometimes. 8 5 14 5. 15 9 10 9 12 0 6. 8 9 10 8 8. 13 14 15 16 4 4 3 14 10. 10 15 6 5 2. seldom. 4. neVer. 0 13 2 0 2 0 23. 0 6 3. 9 0 8. 20 4 4. 10 8 9 16 10 6 4 5 9. 3. 5. 8 6 12 4. 2. 8. Asyoucanunderstandinthesecharts,pupilsinCanadadon’tdoanyparticularactivitiesin. thewayofspendingtheir spare time.Itisobviousthattheyspendtime,inplaylngVideo ィ 2 ィ.

(4) NoA7.. Acomparativestudyofthe systemo‖iveschooldaysinJapanandatsmallschooIsinthecltyOfCalgary 1993.3. 0rWatChingTVjustthewaythelargenumberofJapanesechildrendoso. In question No.7,SOme pupils answer“sometimes’’in their activities・In this case,this. means that parents from differnet countries asimmlgrantS Often get their children to school. OnCeaWeektooffersomeunlqueprOgramS,SuCh astheirnativelanguageorculturalheritage・. InCanadatherearenotanycramschooIstoofferspecialeducationforanentranceexamination like“JUKU”inJapan.InCanadaianhighschooIs,ifstudents getBorA marksintheircourse. Of study andwish to attend universlty,they can be accepted by any colleges or universitiesin anyprovince. InquestionNo.21and22,theyanswerinthisway:. 21.Doyoulikeschool?. Yes 37 (elementary) 9 (juniorhighschool). No 8 (elementary) 10 (juniorhighschool) 22.Wouldyoulikelongerweekends?. Yes 42 (elementary) 18 (juniorhighschool). No 6 (elementary) 1(juniorhighschool). InquestionNo.21,mOStOfgirls,COmParedwithboys,anSWerthattheyliketogotoschoo. AccordingtovicepreidentofSt.Patrick,thisimpliesthatboystendtobefondofphysicalactiv−. ities outside a classroom and on the other hand,girls prefer to talking with their friendsin classroom. InCanadianschooIs,manyOfthem,unlikeJapaneseones,don’thavetospendmuchtimein. theirschoolactivitiesafterschooland manyteacherscangohomeby40r50’clockeveryday・ Accordingtoacertainresearch,fewerparentssetahighvalueongettingintounivrsityandthey regardthesecondaryeducationasthemostimportantinCanadiansociety,(90%ofthem)because mostoftheparentsandteachersbelievethat,OnprlmaryOrSeCOndaryeducationlevel,develop−. ingchildren’sownidentityandpersonalityisthemostimportantandtheyalsobelieveeducation isapersonalmatterandapersonwhoknowswhattodoforhimselfhasagreatpowerforhis/her future.Andtheythinkignorancetoeverythingcausesmuchproblemaswell.Thenwhatisthe. currenteducationlikeinJapan?Mostofthepupils seemtobepushed toanswerallalikein a certain examination or classroom activities while on prlmary Or SeCOndarylevel,they are re− quiredtobuildtheirownidentity.. InJapaneseclassrooms,maybeyouwouldfindthatmanypupilsareabsorbedinwriting down what their teacher writes on a black board and you would probably know there are not discussionorfewofthemraisetheirhandseveniftheywishtoasksomethingfortheirteacher. aswell,butin socialstudiesclassatjuniorhighschool,「WhichIattended」itstoplCWaS“inT dustrialrevolution”,and pupils were devidedinto two groups and they discussedit・In that. class,theyopenedahotdebateandemphasiswasputontrainingthemselvesforhavingtheir − 3 −.

(5) Yoshihiko Kamehata and Hirokiyokoyama. OWn OPlnion andthinking by themselves.Besides,in math class,itslevelwas not so high as. math educationinJapan and moreover they have specialmath or science class,thatis called. “remedialclass”forsomepupilswhodon’thaveagoodlisteningskillorwhocan’tkeepupwith the class Manyofthem goto Publicfacilities,aS art muSeumS that are much cheaperthan thosein. Japan,andgotoa movieorgocamplngWith theirfamiliyonweekends,Onholidays.Thisi think,duetotheperfectionoffive−SChoolday−SySteminCanadiansociety.. Chapter 3・MeaningofthisSysteminCanada Ihave remaked thelife style of Canadian students and educatinalsystems roughly.Com−. paredwiththem whotake the systemforgranted,Iwonderwhattheirparentsthinkofit.. youknow,CanadaisacountrymadeofimmlgrantSfromdifferentcountries.Duringshortst. as a student teacher atJunior highschool,Ifortunately had achance to see manyparents who. WOrk as schooIvolunteers.It’s very commonin Canadathat they share time with teachers an. Studentsin doing volunteer worktoknow schoolactivities better.And some of them were edu−. CatedindifferentcountriesbeforecomingtoCanada.Iwillintroduce somespeeificoplnionsof them. (1)AMotherfromNicaragua. ShesaidshewasChristianandSaturdayseemtomeansomuchforher・“SatudaylSad for Christian to have a rest without working・Iusually g・et my sOn tO Church・Iwould protest. agalnStitifmysonshouldgotoschoolonSaturdays・’’ She seemed to be very surprised toknow thatinJapan this system hasJuSt begun since Septemberin1992.. (2)AFatherfromBangradesh He has had an opportunlty tO Study at acollegein SovietUnion before.He alsoremarked. thatinSovietUnion6−SChoolday−SyStemhasbeenenforcedsaylnglnthisway: “Studentsin Canada go to schoolfor183daysin a year,On the other hand,Studentsin Japan goto schoolfor243daysin ayear.Iam sure thatJapan hasbecomeoneofthe richest. nationsintheworldduetoitseducatinalsystems.Ithinkeducationalsystemsshouldbereflecト eduponchanglngneedofsociety.Ipersonallypreferto6−SChoolday−SyStem”. (3)SchoolteacherMs.KarenNohara Istayed with herfamilyduringmystayin Calgary.SheisaCanadianandhasJapanese. husband・SheoncelivedinTokyoandNagoyaforaboutsixyears.SheknowsmuchaboutJapan.. “Ibelievefamilyneedstohave muchtimetotalkwitheachother・WhilewewereinJapan. unfotunatelywe didn,thaveenoughtime tosharewith myhusband and mylittle kids・That,. WhatwemovedfromJapantoCanadafor・MyhusbandreallyenJOySOurlifeinCalgary・” Theconceptofholidayseemstolookalikeintermsofsharingtimewithfamily.AIsoIdo. thinkhowtotallydifferentafatheranddaughterrelationshipisfromthatoftheJapanese.That. is,they share much time totalkwith each otherfor manyhours.They areon good termsi. anytlmeaSiftheyhadanintimaterelationship.Theyalwaysgettogetheratsuppertimeatthe Same time and after praylngfor god,mOther asks each of them what they did on that day, 4 Ⅷ−.

(6) Nn47.. Acomparativestudyofthesystemo‖iveschooldaysinJapanandatsmauschooIsinthecityorCalgary1993.3. Whiletheywereeatingsupper・.Thisisthebesttimeforthemtogettog・etherandfamilytiesare. moreimportantthananythingelse. In Canadatheconceptof5−ツSChoolday山−SyStemisthathowpeople and eachofthem spend timetogetherandenJOyholidayforthemselves,AIsowecansaythatthesystemwassetupdue toreligeous matterinNorthAmericanottoapoliticalissues.Itisentirelyuptotheindividual howhegetsadayoffandnaturallyeachpersonmusttakeresponsibilitytoit. InJapan,however,“effective and competitiveindustrialsocicty”makes family fallapart, andmakesusforgetourfriendship,anditrobbedusofmuchtimetoconsiderthefuturelifewe Should share with,and of time consider our way oflifeliving with our environment.Ant no. need to say,there was some controversies amongJapan and other nations that theJapanese WOrkstoomuch,SOtheyshouldhaveadrasticreformtoreduceworkday.Inthisreason,. Japan,beingcriticizedbyotherindustrialnations,COuldnothelpsettingupthissystem.Natu−. rally,therehasbeen muchfearamongteachers,Children,and theirparents,becauscthe Min−. istry of Education suddenlyinformed superintendents at regionalboard of education about the SyStemalmostsix monthsbeforeitsenforcement. Epilongue Bythereformationofacourseofstudyln1989,theamountofcurriculumthatstudentsmust take g・reW bigger then the waylt uSed to be.Many newspapers have been revcaling・the g・reat. agony of teachers and students that teachers have to push students to underatand too much of Curriculum within thelimit of schooltime.Evenif this5・¶SChoolday一SyStemis being cnfoced. acutua11y the course of study remaked aboveis formed under the6MSChooldaySyStem,therefore many tcachcrs have to make the schooltime muchlonger or some schoolactivities,1ike school. excursionmightbereducedintheyearstocome Inpresentconditions,therehasbeenthemovementprotestingagalnStaneWCOurSeOfstudy COnteXt,and also asking some public facilitiesforits reform ofservice,SO this shows thatthe SyStem WOuldevidentlynotbeacompleteoneaslongasthere stillremains thecentralcurricu, 1umbeing・Criticizedforitscontents. WhatshouldwelearnfromtheCanadianswhoputahighvalueonfamily?In theirpolntOf. View,What we should dois not to get children to do something particular.As the questionnair. Shows,Studentsdon’tseemtodoanyparticularthingsonSaturdaysandaccordingtosomepar− ents’oplnion,many Of themJuSt have much time to be with r左mily,COmPared withJapanese Students.So,itisclearthatwe mustsetupafullfivevworkdaysystemineverycompanylnthe. yearstocome,because the system would be meainglessifparents were nothome.Therefore all Ofusmustberequiredtokeepondiscussingthemeaningoflaborand muchprpblomofcompa− ny−CenteredsocietyinJapanbeforweconsiderhowtospendtimeonholidays.. YoshihikoKamehata(Ph.Dineconomics,Asahikawacampus) HirokiYokoyama(Undergraduate student,Dept.of secondary education,Asahikawa. CamPuS). 5.

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