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Land use in the Tallo River area is divided into several zones, namely: (i) Kelurahan Tallo, (ii) south of the river, (iii) north of the river, (iv) Lakkang Island,

(v) the Tallo River, and (vi) the area around the university campus. Kelurahan Tallo is the site of the ancient kingdom of Tallo. The area south of the river is bounded by Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan and to the north by Pampang River and Lakkang Island. Land uses along Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan are medium density, behind which are fishponds bounded by cultivated nipah palm. The area to the north is the catchment of a number of small rivers flowing into Tallo River, between the toll road and the university campus. The river bank is planted with nipah palm on the earth walls of fish ponds. Between the fishponds and the urban development are some rice fields. To the west, both sides of the toll road are low density industry and warehousing mixed with residential.

The land on Lakkang Island is mainly fishponds. The river bank is planted with mangrove and nipah palm, with some village housing concentrated between two small piers. Close to the housing are some rice fields and fruit trees. Tallo River is still used for transporting goods (timber) and people, especially those living on Lakkang which does not have a bridge to the city. The river gives the feeling of natural freshness as mangroves and nipah palm grow along its banks, though at some places, especially near the toll road bridge, there is fishermen housing. The river is still used for fishing, using lines, nets and fishing rigs. The photos of existing situation can be seen in theFigure 5.2.

There are only two main-road bridges crossing Tallo River, Tello Bridge on Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan to the east and the toll road bridge to the west, providing little alternative access in cases of emergency. Both bridges have capacity less than the roads that lead to them. The Tallo area has little road access from east or west. The state of the infrastructure is typical of most other cities.

There is little consideration for pedestrians. Garbage collection service is inadequate and garbage floats down the river from city drains. Poor drainage and inadequate maintenance programs lead to a high level of damaged roads.

Sanitation is inadequate, resulting in putrid water coming from city drains into the river.

Kelurahan Tallo is the location of the centre of the original kingdom of Tallo.

Access to Kelurahan Tallo is in a dismal state of disrepair, and the location where there used to be the entrance gate is now a temporary garbage disposal site. The population of Kelurahan Tallo is about 3.5% of the total of the population of Makassar. The population is increasing at 2.08% per year. Kelurahan Tallo is the location of historic sites, including the graveyard of the ancient kings of Tallo and several other archaeological remains. Housing areas within Kelurahan Tallo are relatively dense, mostly single story timber dwellings, close together, many over the water, crossing the river-line.

River dock Boat

Transportation Fisherman village

Fisherman Lakkang Island

TalloKing€s grave yard Japanese bunker in Lakkang Island Fig. 5.2Photos of the existing situation in the Tallo River Area

Tallo River has a catchment area of 407 km2starting at Mount Kallapolompo (elevation 725 m), and the main river is 72 km long. The lowland of the river extends from beyond the city limits, with a slope of less that 5%. The riverbank is in its natural state or made of earthen walls to fishponds, without flood-control works. Because of this condition, the area around the river often floods. Most of the length of Tallo River in the study area appears in natural condition, with most of the river flanked by mangrove and nipah palm. In fact humans have planted the trees along embankments built for fish and prawn ponds. Most of the river is shallow, and will require dredging to increase its capacity to handle flooding.

There has been a significant loss of fish population in recent decades, and most fishing is now in the open sea. The vegetation along the river, mainly nipah palm and mangrove, is mostly in healthy condition. This vegetation serves to protect the riverbank so that the meandering of the river does not vary from year to year. It also serves to protect wildlife including the fish population. Upstream of Tallo area are several retention reservoirs. Also in this upstream area is a swamp by nipah palm. These swamps and lakes help retain water at flood time, which mitigates flooding downstream. River Tallo passes Makassar City, and collects waste water from the city, including plastic, paper, domestic sewage and factory waste. As a result the quality of water in the lower area of the river is getting worse.

A narrow bifurcation of the river linking to Pampang River creates Lakkang Island. The plan for retaining Lakkang Island as a conservation area is well-supported by the peoples. Land is used for ponds, rice-fields, and a small amount of plantation. This area is can serve an environmental buffer zone for flooding, and it green area can absorb air pollution. Its natural resources can serve as a tourist attraction, and for nature research. In the city plan, Lakkang Island is a strategic protection area, directed to conservation of water and land and allocated as a zone for environmental benefit, preservation and conservation.